Gaels of Scotland
The Gaels of Scotland or Gaels, are an ethnolinguistic group found in Scotland – including the land of their origins, the Scottish Highlands – and in the diaspora of Scotland within the United States, Canada and New Zealand. The Gaels as an ethno-linguistic group can be found in Ireland and the Isle of Mann. Within Scotland the term Gaelic most refers to the Scots Gaelic language. In Ireland the term is pronounced differently; the Scots Gaels derive from the overkingdom of Dál Riata, which generated various explanations of its origins, including a foundation myth of an invasion from Ireland and a more recent archaeological and linguistic analysis that points to a pre-existing maritime province united by the sea and isolated from the rest of Scotland by the mountainous ridge called the Druim Alban. The archaeological evidence relates to Ireland while the linguistic evidence relates to Scotland, absent any evidence of conflict either in that exchange or in the erasing of pre-existing culture within that exchange.
The cultural exchange includes passage of the M222 genotype within Scotland. The ethnolinguistic group expanded with the creation of the Kingdom of Alba, subsuming within it the Brittonic-speaking Picts. A similar pattern of expansion into the Brittonic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Kingdom of Galloway occurred - although the latter had been subsumed into the Norse-Gael Irish Sea and Scottish Sea regions created at the same time the Vikings cut off the islands of Argyll and the Hebrides from the Kingdom of Alba. Galwegian Gaelic survived until 1760, whilst Strathclyde's transition is less well documented despite linguistic certainty that it became a Gaelic language region; the assimilation of Strathclyde into what become known as the Kingdom of Scotland - Scots becoming a demonym for Dál Riata - marks the highpoint of the Scots Gaels in Scotland, as the adjacent Anglo-Saxon dominated region of the Brittonic Lothian exported an Anglo-Saxon language that became known as the Scots language into Scotland when it too accepted the superiority of the Scots Gael Kingship.
The expansion of the Scots Gael Kingship ended as such with the beginnings of the Scoto-Norman Royal House period that - and with no deep personal connection to the origins of the Kingship in Dál Riata or the Kingdom of Alba - lost Scots Gaelic as its tongue. However, the Kingship united the Kingdom of Scotland with the Kingdom of England; the Highland - Lowland divide that henceforth took root meant survival of the Scots Gaelic language and a reemergence of Gaelic identity - where it was broadly Scottish - as Scotland's Kingship took the Anglo-Saxon derived Scots language as its tongue. Mary Queen of Scots was the last monarch who ruled with the given title of Scots that linked the monarchy with the ethnolinguistic group, while her grandfather James IV was the last known Gaelic language monarch. With the culturally devastating Highland Clearances, the spread of the Scots Gael diaspora into the region of the former British Empire has meant that Scots Gaelic is a transatlantic language while the diaspora covered a much wider area.
In the early 21st century, the descendants of the Highland diaspora far outnumber the population in Scotland
Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in Roman Catholic Western Europe during the Middle Ages. In this region it served as the primary written language, though local languages were written to varying degrees. Latin functioned as the main medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of the Church, as the working language of science, literature and administration. Medieval Latin represented, in essence, a continuation of Classical Latin and Late Latin, with enhancements for new concepts as well as for the increasing integration of Christianity. Despite some meaningful differences from Classical Latin, Medieval writers did not regard it as a fundamentally different language. There is no real consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin Medieval Latin begins; some scholarly surveys begin with the rise of early Ecclesiastical Latin in the middle of the 4th century, others around 500, still others with the replacement of written Late Latin by written Romance languages starting around the year 900.
The terms Medieval Latin and Ecclesiastical Latin are used synonymously, though some scholars draw distinctions. Ecclesiastical Latin refers to the form, used by the Roman Catholic Church, whereas Medieval Latin refers more broadly to all of the forms of Latin used in the Middle Ages; the Romance languages spoken in the Middle Ages were referred to as Latin, since the Romance languages were all descended from Classical, or Roman, Latin itself. Medieval Latin had an enlarged vocabulary, which borrowed from other sources, it was influenced by the language of the Vulgate, which contained many peculiarities alien to Classical Latin that resulted from a more or less direct translation from Greek and Hebrew. Greek provided much of the technical vocabulary of Christianity; the various Germanic languages spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded southern Europe, were major sources of new words. Germanic leaders became the rulers of parts of the Roman Empire that they conquered, words from their languages were imported into the vocabulary of law.
Other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from Vulgar Latin or Germanic sources because the classical words had fallen into disuse. Latin was spread to areas such as Ireland and Germany, where Romance languages were not spoken, which had never known Roman rule. Works written in those lands where Latin was a learned language, having no relation to the local vernacular influenced the vocabulary and syntax of medieval Latin. Since subjects like science and philosophy, including Argumentation theory and Ethics, were communicated in Latin, the Latin vocabulary that developed for them became the source of a great many technical words in modern languages. English words like abstract, communicate, matter and their cognates in other European languages have the meanings given to them in medieval Latin; the influence of Vulgar Latin was apparent in the syntax of some medieval Latin writers, although Classical Latin continued to be held in high esteem and studied as models for literary compositions.
The high point of the development of medieval Latin as a literary language came with the Carolingian renaissance, a rebirth of learning kindled under the patronage of Charlemagne, king of the Franks. Alcuin was an important writer in his own right. Although it was developing into the Romance languages, Latin itself remained conservative, as it was no longer a native language and there were many ancient and medieval grammar books to give one standard form. On the other hand speaking there was no single form of "medieval Latin"; every Latin author in the medieval period spoke Latin as a second language, with varying degrees of fluency and syntax. Grammar and vocabulary, were influenced by an author's native language; this was true beginning around the 12th century, after which the language became adulterated: late medieval Latin documents written by French speakers tend to show similarities to medieval French grammar and vocabulary. For instance, rather than following the classical Latin practice of placing the verb at the end, medieval writers would follow the conventions of their own native language instead.
Whereas Latin had no definite or indefinite articles, medieval writers sometimes used forms of unus as an indefinite article, forms of ille as a definite article or quidam as something like an article. Unlike classical Latin, where esse was the only auxiliary verb, medieval Latin writers might use habere as an auxiliary, similar to constructions in Germanic and Romance languages; the accusative and infinitive construction in classical Latin was replaced by a subordinate clause introduced by quod or quia. This is identical, for example, to the use of que in similar constructions in French. In every age from the late 8th century onwards, there were learned writers who were familiar enough with classical syntax to be aware that these forms and usages were "wrong" and resisted their use, thus the Latin of a theologian like St Thomas Aquinas or of an erudite clerical historian such as William of Tyre tends to avoid most of the characteristics described above, showing its p
Monumenta Germaniae Historica
The Monumenta Germaniae Historica is a comprehensive series of edited and published primary sources, both chronicle and archival, for the study of Northwestern and Central European history from the end of the Roman Empire to 1500. Despite the name, the series covers important sources for the history of many countries besides Germany, since the Society for the Publication of Sources on Germanic Affairs of the Middle Ages has included documents from many other areas subjected to the influence of Germanic tribes or rulers; the editor from 1826 until 1874 was Georg Heinrich Pertz. The MGH was founded in Hanover as a private text publication society by the Prussian reformer Heinrich Friedrich Karl Freiherr vom Stein in 1819; the first volume appeared in 1826. The editor from 1826 until 1874 was Georg Heinrich Pertz, succeeded by Georg Waitz. Many eminent medievalists from Germany and other countries, joined in the project of searching out and comparing manuscripts and producing scholarly editions.
The motto chosen, Sanctus amor patriae dat animum is explained as linking Romantic nationalism with professional scholarship. In 1875, the MGH was established as a more formal institution with headquarters in Berlin. In 1935, the organization was taken over by the state and renamed the Reichsinstitut für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde; this was abolished in 1945, at the end of World War II. However, the institute was subsequently revived under its original name with the support of German institutions and the Austrian Academy of Sciences; the Monumenta Germaniae Historica Institute has been located in Munich since 1949 and possesses a large specialized library on the medieval history of Germany and Europe, including Church history, along with 130,000 monographs and 150,000 dependent writings. It moved into its current premises in the building of the Bavarian State Library in 1967; the project, a major effort of historical scholarship, continues in the 21st century. In 2004 the MGH, with the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, made all of its publications in print for more than five years available online, in photo-digital reproduction, via a link on the MGH homepage.
The series falls into five main divisions, Diplomata, Epistolae and Scriptores, with an additional smaller division of Necrologia. Many subsidiary series have been established, including a series of more compact volumes for school use and special studies. Historiography of Germany Wilhelm Levison Knowles, M. D.. "Presidential Address: Great Historical Enterprises III. The Monumenta Germaniae Historica". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 5th ser. 10: 129–150. Doi:10.2307/3678777. JSTOR 3678777. Reprinted in Knowles, David. Great Historical Enterprises: problems in monastic history. London: Nelson. Pp. 63–97. 2015 list of publications The MGH homepage Digital MGH homepage Monumenta Germaniae Historica on Archive.org
Brigid of Kildare
Saint Brigid of Kildare or Brigid of Ireland is one of Ireland's patron saints, along with Patrick and Columba. Irish hagiography makes her an early Irish Christian nun and foundress of several monasteries of nuns, including that of Kildare in Ireland, famous and was revered, her feast day is 1 February, a pagan festival called Imbolc, marking the beginning of spring. Her feast day is shared by Dar Lugdach, who tradition says was her student, close companion, the woman who succeeded her; the saint shares her name with an important Celtic goddess and there are many legends and folk customs associated with her. The saint has the same name as the goddess Brigid, derived from the Proto-Celtic *Brigantī "high, exalted" and originating with Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ-. In Old Irish her name was pronounced. In Modern Irish she is called Bríd. In Welsh she is called Ffraid, as in several places called Llansanffraid, "St Brigit's church"), she is sometimes referred to as "the Mary of the Gael". There is some debate over.
She has the same name and feast day as the Celtic goddess Brigid, there are many supernatural events and folk customs associated with her. Some scholars suggest that the saint is a Christianization of the goddess, others that she was a real person whose mythos took on the goddess's attributes. Medieval art historian Pamela Berger argues that Christian monks "took the ancient figure of the mother goddess and grafted her name and functions onto her Christian counterpart". Professor Dáithí Ó hÓgáin and others suggest that the saint had been chief druid at the temple of the goddess Brigid, was responsible for converting it into a Christian monastery. After her death, the name and characteristics of the goddess became attached to the saint; the earliest biography, The Life of St Brigid, was written by Cogitosus, a monk of Kildare in the eighth century, is a fine example of Irish scholarship in the mid-eighth century. A second First Life or Vita Prima of St Brigid is by an unknown author, although it is attributed to St Broccán Clóen.
This book is argued to be the first written Life of St. Brigit, although most scholars reject this claim; the Life attributed to Coelan dating ca. 625, derives further significance from the fact that a foreword was added to it by St Donatus an Irish monk, who became Bishop of Fiesole in 824. Donatus refers to earlier biographies by St Aileran; these differing biographies, giving conflicting accounts of her life, have much literary merit in themselves. In the controversy about the historical existence of Brigid that erupted in the last third of the 20th century, researchers noted that eleven people with whom Brigid is associated in her Lives are independently attested in annalistic sources which place her death at AD 523 and her birth at 451. According to tradition, Brigid was born in the year 451 AD in Faughart, just north of Dundalk in County Louth, Ireland; because of the legendary quality of the earliest accounts of her life, there is debate among many secular scholars and Christians as to the authenticity of her biographies.
Three biographies agree that her mother was Brocca, a Christian Pict slave, baptized by Saint Patrick. They name her father as a chieftain of Leinster; the vitae say that Dubthach's wife forced him to sell Brigid's mother to a druid when she became pregnant. Brigid herself was born into slavery. Legends of her early holiness include her vomiting when the druid tried to feed her, due to his impurity; as she grew older, Brigid performed miracles, including feeding the poor. According to one tale, as a child, she once gave away her mother's entire store of butter; the butter was replenished in answer to Brigid's prayers. Around the age of ten, she was returned as a household servant to her father, where her habit of charity led her to donate his belongings to anyone who asked. In two Lives, Dubthach was so annoyed with her that he took her in a chariot to the King of Leinster to sell her. While Dubthach was talking to the king, Brigid gave away his jewelled sword to a beggar to barter it for food to feed his family.
The king recognized her convinced Dubthach to grant his daughter her freedom. It is said that Brigid was "veiled" or received either by St Mac Caill at Croghan, or by St Mél of Ardagh at Mág Tulach, who granted her abbatial powers, it is said that in about 468, she and St Maughold followed St Mél into the Kingdom of Tethbae, made up of parts of the modern counties Meath and Longford. According to tradition, around 480 Brigid founded a monastery at Kildare, on the site of a pagan shrine to the Celtic goddess Brigid, served by a group of young women who tended an eternal flame; the site was under a large oak tree on the ridge of Drum Criadh. Brigid, with an initial group of seven companions, is credited with organizing communal consecrated religious life for women in Ireland, she founded two monastic institutions, one for men, the other for women, invited Conleth, a hermit from Old Connell near Newbridge, to help her in Kildare as pastor of them. It has been said that she gave canonical jurisdiction to Conleth, Bishop of Kildare, but Archbishop Healy says that she "selected the person to whom the Church gave this jurisdiction", her biographer tells us that she chose Saint Conleth
Georg Waitz was a German historian and politician. Waitz is spoken of as the chief disciple of Leopold von Ranke, though in general characteristics and mental attitude he has more affinity with Georg Heinrich Pertz or Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann, his special domain was medieval German history, he travelled beyond it. He was born at Flensburg, in the duchy of Schleswig, educated at the Flensburg gymnasium and the universities of Kiel and Berlin; the influence of Ranke early diverted him from his original purpose of studying law, while still a student he began that series of researches in German medieval history, to be his life's work. On graduating at Berlin in August 1836, Waitz went to Hanover to assist Pertz in the great national work of publishing the Monumenta Germaniae historica; the young professor soon began to take an interest in politics, in 1846 entered the provincial diet as representative of his university. His leanings were German, so that he became somewhat obnoxious to the Danish government, a fact which made an invitation in 1847 to become professor of history at Göttingen peculiarly acceptable.
The political events of 1848-1849, delayed his appearance in his new chair. When the German party in Schleswig and the duchy of Holstein rose against the Danish government during the First Schleswig War, Waitz hastened to place himself at the service of the provisional government, he was sent to Berlin to represent the interests of the duchies there, during his absence he was elected by Kiel as a delegate to the Frankfurt Parliament. Waitz was an adherent of the party who were eager to bring about a union of the German states under a German emperor. In the autumn of 1849 Waitz began his lectures at Göttingen, his style of speaking was uninteresting. At the same time Waitz's pen was not idle, his industry is to be traced in the list of his works and in the Proceedings of the different historical societies to which he belonged. In 1875 Waitz moved to Berlin to succeed Pertz as principal editor of the Monumenta Germaniae historica. In spite of advancing years the new editor threw himself into the work with all his former vigour, took journeys to England and Italy to collate works preserved in these countries.
He died at Berlin on 24 May 1886. He was twice married—in 1842 to a daughter of Schelling the philosopher, in 1858 to a daughter of General von Hartmann; the violinist Joseph Joachim attended Waitz's lectures in 1853. Waitz's chief works, apart from his contributions to the Monumenta, are: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte Schleswig-Holsteins Geschichte Lübeck unter Jürgen Wullenwever und die europäische Politik Grundzüge der Politik Among his smaller works, however, indicate the line of his researches, are the following: Jahrbücher des deutschen Reichs unter Heinrich I. Über das Leben und die Lehre des Ulfila Das alte Recht der salischen Franken Deutsche Kaiser von Karl dem Grossen bis Maximilian In conjunction with other scholars Waitz took a leading part in the publication of the Forschungen zur deutschen Geschichte, in the Nordalbingische Studien, published in the Proceedings of the Schleswig-Holstein Historical Society. A Bibliographische Übersicht über Waitz's Werke was published by Ernst Steindorff at Göttingen in 1886.
Obituary notices of Waitz are to be found in the Historische Zeitschrift, new series, vol. xx.. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Waitz, Georg". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. "Waitz, Georg". The American Cyclopædia. 1879
Mainz Cathedral or St. Martin's Cathedral is located near the historical center and pedestrianized market square of the city of Mainz, Germany; this 1000-year-old Roman Catholic cathedral is the site of the episcopal. Mainz Cathedral is predominantly Romanesque in style, but exterior additions over many centuries have resulted in the appearance of various architectural influences seen today, it stands under the patronage of Saint Martin of Tours. The eastern quire is dedicated to Saint Stephen; the interior of the cathedral houses tombs and funerary monuments of former powerful Electoral-prince-archbishops, or Kurfürst-Erzbischöfe, of the diocese and contains religious works of art spanning a millennium. The cathedral has a central courtyard and statues of Saint Boniface and The Madonna on its grounds. During the time of Mainz Archbishop Willigis, the city of Mainz flourished economically, Willigis became one of the most influential politicians of that time, ascending to regent of the empire between 991 and 994.
In 975-976 shortly after his installation he ordered the construction of a new cathedral in the pre-Romanesque Ottonian architecture style. This new and impressive building was part of his vision of Mainz as the "second Rome"; this new cathedral was to take over the functions of two churches: the old cathedral and St. Alban's, the largest church in the area, belonging to a Benedictine abbey and serving as the burial ground for the bishops and other nobles, including Fastrada, a spouse of Charlemagne. Most of the synods and other important meetings were held at St. Alban's Abbey; the new cathedral consisted of a double chancel with two transepts. The main hall was built in the typical triple-nave "cross" pattern; as was usual at that time no vault was included because of structural difficulties relating to the size of the building. Six towers rose from the church. A cloister was enclosed in the structure and a small freestanding church, St. Mary's Church, connected by a colonnade; this small church developed into the collegiate church of St. Maria ad Gradus.
Sandstone was used as the primary building material for the cathedral. The inside was plastered white under the Archbishop Bardo in the middle of the 10th century. During renovations ordered by Henry IV in the late 11th century, much of the outside was plastered, but the cornices were left exposed in their original red and yellow, it is believed that the coloring of the cathedral was changed more times, but no further documentation of the coloring is available until record of the Baroque works. The cathedral suffered extensive damage from a fire on the day of its inauguration in 1009. Archbishop Bardo presided over the completion of the cathedral begun under Willigis. By 1037 the main portions of the body of Mainz Cathedral were complete. Willigis was buried in the second church he had initiated, St. Stephan's, in 1011; the reason for building two chancels is not clear. Many scholars suggest that there is some symbolic significance, such as empire and church, or body and spirit, but no irrefutable evidence for these theories exists.
Others claim. Whatever the original intent of the double chancel, the eastern chancel came to serve as the location for the mass and the western chancel was reserved for the bishop and pontiffs. In most cathedrals at the time, the main chancel lay on the east side. Willigis, designed his cathedral with the main chancel on the west modeled after the great basilicas in Rome, which were constructed this way; the chancel was badly damaged in the fire of 1009, remained that way under Archbishops Erkanbald and Aribo. The chancel was reconstructed under Bardo, he buried his predecessor Aribo there, before the rest of the cathedral was finished.. In 1081, fire once again struck the cathedral, the appearance of the Salian western end is not known. In 1100, Henry IV ordered reconstruction in the old Lombardic style; the old flat chancel end on the east side was replaced with a large apse, which external gallery with a narrow arcade supported by short columns crowned the semicircular wall with a wide pseudo arcade and tall pillasters on both sides.
The new chancel had a triple-nave crypt. The damaged square tower had been replaced with an octagonal dome, above which an octagonal tower was added later. Flanking stair turrets remained from the first cathedral; these changes resembled the renovations Henry had overseen on Speyer Cathedral a few years earlier. Henry undertook a few other minor changes, such as raising the transept on the east side and adding openings at the column level; these column-level portals were among the first such constructed. Henry died in 1106. With his death, the funding for the renovation of the cathedral dried up and so the remaining construction was abandoned. Mainz Cathedral is considered one of the three Kaiserdome of the Holy Roman Empire, along with Worms Cathedral and Speyer Cathedral. Archbishop Adalbert I of Saarbrücken had a two-story chapel, called the Gotthard Chapel, built as the official palace chapel next to the cathedral, it is believed that he ordered the renovation of the main body of the cathedral due to similarities between the main hall and the vault of the new chapel.
Conception for the renovations was agai
John of Worcester
John of Worcester was an English monk and chronicler who worked at Worcester Priory. He is held to be the author of the Chronicon ex chronicis; the Chronicon ex chronicis is a world wide history which begins with the creation and ends in 1140. The chronological framework of the Chronicon was presented by the chronicle of Marianus Scotus. A great deal of additional material relating to English history, was grafted onto it; the greater part of the work, up to 1117 or 1118, was attributed to the man Florence of Worcester on the basis of the entry for his death under the annal of 1118, which credits his skill and industry for making the chronicle such a prominent work. In this view, the other Worcester monk, John wrote the final part of the work. However, there are two main objections against the ascription to Florence. First, there is no change of style in the Chronicon after Florence's death, second, certain sections before 1118 rely to some extent on the Historia novorum of Eadmer of Canterbury, completed sometime in 1121 – 1124.
The prevalent view today is that John of Worcester was compiler. He is explicitly named as the author of two entries for 1128 and 1138, two manuscripts were written in his hand, he was seen working on it at the behest of Wulfstan, bishop of Worcester, when the Anglo-Norman chronicler Orderic Vitalis visited Worcester: The Chronicon survives in five manuscripts: MS 157. The principal manuscript, working copy used by John. MS 502. MS 42. MS Bodley 297. MS 92. In addition, there is the chronicula, a minor chronicle based on the Chronicon proper: MS 503, written by John up to 1123. For the body of material dealing with early English history, John is believed to have used a number of sources, some of which are now lost: unknown version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Latin translation. John may have shared a lost source with William of Malmesbury, whose Gesta regum anglorum includes similar material not found in other works. Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Asser, Vita Ælfredi Hagiographical works on tenth/eleventh-century saints Lives of St Dunstan by author'B', Adelard and Osbern Byrhtferth, Life of St. Oswald Osbern of Canterbury, Life of St Ælfheah Eadmer of Canterbury, Historia novorum accounts by contemporaries and local knowledge.
Darlington, Reginald R. and P. McGurk, P. McGurk and Jennifer Bray; the Chronicle of John of Worcester: The Annals from 450–1066. Vol 2. Oxford Medieval Texts. Oxford: 1995. McGurk, P.. The Chronicle of John of Worcester: The Annals from 1067 to 1140 with The Gloucester Interpolations and The Continuation to 1141. Vol 3. OMT. Oxford, 1998. Thorpe, Benjamin. Florentii Wigorniensis monachi chronicon ex chronicis. 2 vols. London, 1848-9. Download available from Google Books Stevenson, J.. Church Historians of England. 8 vols: vol. 2.1. London, 1855. 171–372. Forester, Thomas; the Chronicle of Florence of Worcester. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1854. Available from Google Books. Weaver, J. R. H. ed. The Chronicle of John of Worcester, 1118–1140: being the continuation of the'Chronicon ex chronicis' of Florence of Worcester. Oxford: Clarendon Press Brett, Martin. "John of Worcester and his contemporaries." In The Writing of History in the Middle Ages: Essays Presented to R. W. Southern, ed. by R. H. C. Davis and J. M. Wallace Hadrill.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1981. 101-26. Brett, Martin, "John, monk of Worcester." In The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. Michael Lapidge, et al. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. ISBN 0-631-22492-0 Gransden, Antonia. Historical writing in England c. 550 to 1307. Vol 1. London, 1974. 143–8. Orderic Vitalis, Historia Ecclesiastica, ed. and tr. Marjorie Chibnall, The Ecclesiastical History of Orderic Vitalis. 6 volumes. Oxford Medieval Texts. Oxford, 1968–1980. ISBN 0-19-820220-2