Padma is an aquatic plant that plays a central role in Indian religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. The lotus flower has many different names such as the "Indian Lotus", the "Sacred Lotus", the "Bean of India"; the lotus is an polyvalent symbol in Asian culture. Hindus revere it with the gods Vishnu, Brahma and to a lesser degree Kubera, the goddesses Lakshmi and Saraswati. Used as an example of divine beauty and purity, Vishnu is described as the "Lotus-Eyed One"; the lotus springs from the navel of Vishnu. The lotus blooms uncovering the creator god Brahma in lotus position, its unfolding petals suggest the expansion of the soul. The growth of its pure beauty from the mud of its origin holds a benign spiritual promise. Brahma and Lakshmi, the divinities of potency and wealth, have the lotus symbol associated with them; the lotus flower is one of the Ashtamangala of Buddhism, representative of creation and cosmic renewal and "primordial purity" and shares in the chakra and mandala symbolism of the Dharmacakra.
This has taken root in Chinese cultures with a famous statement made by the 11th century Confucian scholar Zhou Dunyi: "I love the lotus because while growing from mud, it is unstained." The padma is held to be a flower with a thousand petals and is therefore associated with the Sahasrara and indeed all the chakra. The padma appears as an endemic dais upon which deities rest and indeed upon which Hindu iconography is founded. In Buddhist symbolism the lotus is symbolic of purity of the body and mind as while rooted in the mud, its flowers blossom on long stalks as if floating above the muddy waters of attachment and desire, it is symbolic of detachment as drops of water slide off its petals. It is to be noted that many Asian deities are depicted seated on a lotus flower. According to legend, Gautama Buddha was born with the ability to walk and everywhere he stepped, lotus flowers bloomed; the founders of Jainism are potrayed standing on lotus blossoms. The Jain tirthankara Padmaprabha is represented by a lotus.
Padmaprabha means "bright as a red lotus" in Sanskrit. It is said in Śvetāmbara sources that his mother had a fancy for a couch of red lotuses – padma – while he was in her womb. Nelumbo nucifera Lotus Lotus position Ashtamangala Dallapiccola, Anna L.. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-51088-1. Lawlor, Robert. Voices Of The First Day: Awakening in the Aboriginal Dreamtime. Rochester, Vermont: Inner Traditions International, Ltd. ISBN 0-89281-355-5 Shakti M. Gupta. Plant Myths and Traditions in India. Netherlands: Brill Publishers. Pp. 65–67. Retrieved 25 June 2015. Media related to Padma at Wikimedia Commons Lotus Flower Symbolisms and Percussion Instrument
Taoism, or Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. The Tao is a fundamental idea in most Chinese philosophical schools. Taoism differs from Confucianism by not emphasizing rigid rituals and social order, but is similar in the sense that it is a teaching about the various disciplines for achieving "perfection" by becoming one with the unplanned rhythms of the universe called "the way" or "dao". Taoist ethics vary depending on the particular school, but in general tend to emphasize wu wei, "naturalness", simplicity and the Three Treasures: 慈 "compassion", 儉 "frugality", 不敢為天下先 "humility"; the roots of Taoism go back at least to the 4th century BCE. Early Taoism drew its cosmological notions from the School of Yinyang, was influenced by one of the oldest texts of Chinese culture, the I Ching, which expounds a philosophical system about how to keep human behavior in accordance with the alternating cycles of nature; the "Legalist" Shen Buhai may have been a major influence, expounding a realpolitik of wu wei.
The Tao Te Ching, a compact book containing teachings attributed to Laozi, is considered the keystone work of the Taoist tradition, together with the writings of Zhuangzi. By the Han dynasty, the various sources of Taoism had coalesced into a coherent tradition of religious organizations and orders of ritualists in the state of Shu. In earlier ancient China, Taoists were thought of as hermits or recluses who did not participate in political life. Zhuangzi was the best known of these, it is significant that he lived in the south, where he was part of local Chinese shamanic traditions. Female shamans played an important role in this tradition, strong in the southern state of Chu. Early Taoist movements developed their own institution in contrast to shamanism, but absorbed basic shamanic elements. Shamans revealed basic texts of Taoism from early times down to at least the 20th century. Institutional orders of Taoism evolved in various strains that in more recent times are conventionally grouped into two main branches: Quanzhen Taoism and Zhengyi Taoism.
After Laozi and Zhuangzi, the literature of Taoism grew and was compiled in form of a canon—the Daozang—which was published at the behest of the emperor. Throughout Chinese history, Taoism was nominated several times as a state religion. After the 17th century, however, it fell from favor. Taoism has had a profound influence on Chinese culture in the course of the centuries, Taoists, a title traditionally attributed only to the clergy and not to their lay followers take care to note distinction between their ritual tradition and the practices of Chinese folk religion and non-Taoist vernacular ritual orders, which are mistakenly identified as pertaining to Taoism. Chinese alchemy, Chinese astrology, Chan Buddhism, several martial arts, traditional Chinese medicine, feng shui, many styles of qigong have been intertwined with Taoism throughout history. Beyond China, Taoism had influence on surrounding societies in Asia. Today, the Taoist tradition is one of the five religious doctrines recognized in the People's Republic of China as well as the Republic of China, although it does not travel from its East Asian roots, it claims adherents in a number of societies, in particular in Hong Kong, in Southeast Asia.
Since the introduction of the Pinyin system for romanizing Mandarin Chinese, there have been those who have felt that "Taoism" would be more appropriately spelled as "Daoism". The Mandarin Chinese pronunciation for the word 道 is spelled as tao4 in the older Wade–Giles romanization system while it is spelled as dào in the newer Pinyin romanization system. Both the Wade–Giles tao4 and the Pinyin dào are intended to be pronounced identically in Mandarin Chinese, but despite this fact, "Taoism" and "Daoism" can be pronounced differently in English vernacular; the word "Taoism" is used to translate different Chinese terms which refer to different aspects of the same tradition and semantic field: "Taoist religion", or the "liturgical" aspect – A family of organized religious movements sharing concepts or terminology from "Taoist philosophy". "Taoist philosophy" or "Taology", or the "mystical" aspect – The philosophical doctrines based on the texts of the I Ching, the Tao Te Ching and the Zhuangzi.
These texts were linked together as "Taoist philosophy" during the early Han Dynasty, but notably not before. It is unlikely that Zhuangzi was familiar with the text of the Daodejing, Zhuangzi would not have identified himself as a Taoist as this classification did not arise until well after his death. However, the discussed distinction is rejected by the majority of Japanese scholars, it is contested by hermeneutic difficulties in the categorization of the different Taoist schools and movements. Taoism does not f
Nine Emperor Gods Festival
The Nine Emperor Gods Festival is a nine-day Taoist celebration beginning on the eve of 9th lunar month of the Chinese calendar, nine-emperor-gods-festival-celebrated-with-primarily in Southeast Asian countries such as, Malaysia and Indonesia by the Peranakans. The Nine Emperor Gods Jiǔ Huáng Xīng Jūn / Jiǔ Huáng Da Di are the nine sons manifested by Father Emperor Zhou Yu Dou Fu Yuan Jun and Mother of the Big Dipper Dou Mu Yuan Jun who holds the Registrar of Life and Death; the worship of Dou Fu Yuan Jun has declined as proper teachings of Taoism degenerate since being exported out of China. Today, most Nine Emperor God temples do not acknowledge the existence of Dou Fu Yuan Jun. However, Dou Fu Yuan Jun is invoked alongside Dou Mu Yuan Jun in Great Dipper Honouring known as Li Dou ceremonies. According To Priest Long Hua, the 35th Generation Leader of Long Shan Men Taoist Sect, honouring the Northern Dipper stars prolongs one's life, eliminate calamities, absolves sins and past debts of oneself and his family.
Wu, The term Ye as in Jiu Huang Ye ( loosely translates as "Grandfather", a title worshipers use to bring a more intimate relationship between themselves and the Nine Emperors. The Nine Emperor Gods should not be mixed up with the Wang Ye or Princes of the Ming rebels. Popular folk culture has it that the Nine Emperor Gods are sea pirates of the Ming dynasty that plotted to overthrow the Qing dynasty. According to Priest Long Hua, this information is inaccurate and considered derogatory to the actual teachings of Taoism as the Nine Emperor Gods are high-ranking Star Lords who preside over the movement of planets and coordinate mortal Life and Death issues. Wu, Celebration The Nine Emperors is formed by the seven stars of the Big Dipper of the North Ursa Major and two assistant stars; the Nine Emperor Stars are: Tan Lang Tai Xing Jun 1st Star Bayer Ju Men Yuan Xing Jun2nd Star Bayer Lu Cun Zhen Xing Jun 3rd Star Bayer Wen Qu Niu Xing Jun 4th Star Bayer Lian Zhen Gang Xing Jun 5th Setar Bayer Wu Qu Ji Xing Jun 6th Star Bayer Po Jun Guan Xing Jun 7th Star Bayer Zuo Fu Da Dao Xing Jun 8th Star You Bi Da Dao Xing Jun 9th Star On the eve of the ninth moon, temples of the deities hold a ceremony to invoke and welcome the nine emperors.
Since the arrival of the gods is believed to be through the waterways, processions are held from temples to the sea shore or river to symbolize this belief. Devotees dressed in traditional white, carrying incense and candles, await the arrival of their excellencies. A carnival-like atmosphere pervades the temple throughout the nine-day festival. During this period of time, the constant tinkling of a prayer bell and chants from the temple priests are heard. Most devotees eat vegetarian meals and recite continuous chanting of prayer, it is believed. The ninth day of the festival is its climax. A procession which draws scores of devotees sends the deities back home. In Thailand, this festival is called the Vegetarian Festival, it is celebrated throughout the entire country, but the festivities are at their height in Phuket, where over the half of the population is Peranakans. It attracts crowds of spectators because of many of the unusual religious rituals that are performed. In accordance with the traditions, many religious devotees will perform ritualized mutilation upon themselves and one another while under a trance-like state, including but not limited to: impaling through cheeks, face, back etc. with everything from as small as syringes to as large as is agreed upon between all members.
This is done without anesthetic, always inside or near the temples surrounded by other devotees with only iodine, petroleum jelly and surgical gloves as precautionary measures. Despite this scenario, many of the people performing the rituals are the people who will care for many of the people in their recovery. To this effect few people need to have prolonged medical treatment, although in the weeks after the festival many people will be seen covered in bandages, scarring is uncommon, stitching on individual devotees who impale their cheeks, is rare, return to daily activity for the devotees occurs shortly after the completion of the ritual before the festival ends unless performed on the last days, much sooner than before the bandages themselves are removed; the purpose of this practice is a mixture of veneration for their gods and ancestors, to display their devotion to their beliefs and the trance itself, which has a profound impact upon demeanour for days or weeks after with devotees appearing exceptionally calm and focused in their day-to-day activities after the festival is completed.
During a period of nine days, those who are participating in the festival dress all in white and ghin jeh กินเจ, which has come to be translated as abstinence from eating meat, poultry and dairy products. Vendors and proprietors of restaurants indicate that jeh food is for sale at their establishments by putting a yellow flag out with the word เจ written on it in red. However, only food prepared in the sacred kitchen of the Chinese temple is jeh, as it must undergo a series of rituals before it
Cundī is a bodhisattva and an incarnation of Avalokiteśvara. Cundī appears with eighteen arms on a lotus and is sometimes referred to as the "Goddess of the Seventy Million ". While Cundī is less well known in Tibetan Buddhism, she is revered in Tángmì or East Asian esoteric Buddhism. In China, she is known as Zhǔntí Púsà or Zhǔntí Fómǔ, "Junje" in Korean, while in Japan she is known as Jundei Kannon. In late imperial China, early traditions of Tangmi were still thriving in Buddhist communities. Robert Gimello has observed that in these communities, the esoteric practices of Cundī were popular among both the populace and the elite; the first textual source of Cundī and the Cundī Dhāraṇī is the Kāraṇḍavyūhasūtra, a sūtra centered around the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara that introduced the popular mantra oṃ maṇipadme hūṃ. This text is first dated to around the late 4th century CE to the early 5th century CE. Cundī and the Cundī Dhāraṇī are featured in the Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra, translated three times from Sanskrit into Chinese in the late 7th century and early 8th century by the Indian esoteric masters Divākara and Amoghavajra.
According to the Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra, the dhāraṇī associated with Cundī is the following: namaḥ saptānāṃ samyaksaṃbuddha koṭīnāṃ tadyathā oṃ cale cule cundī svāhāIn the sūtra, the Buddha speaks extensively about the various effects and benefits of reciting the Cundī dhāraṇī. Many of the effects are uplifting in nature. For example, after pronouncing the dhāraṇī, the Buddha says: If there are bhikṣus, bhikṣuṇīs, upāsakas, or upāsikās who memorize and recite this dhāraṇī 800,000 times, their deadly karma in every place, created over innumerable eons, will be annihilated. In every place where they are born or reside, they will always meet bodhisattvas, they will always have adequate abilities to do as they wish. In any birth, they will always be able to leave the home life, will have the ability to maintain the pure precepts of a bodhisattva, they will be born in human or heavenly realms, they will not fall into evil destinies, they will always be protected by all the heavenly guardians. The dhāraṇī is closely associated with buddhahood and complete enlightenment.
At the end of the sūtra, the Buddha closes the teaching by saying: This great dhāraṇī of Cundī is a great brilliant mantra teaching, spoken by all Buddhas of the past, all Buddhas of the future, all Buddhas of the present time. I now speak it thusly to benefit all sentient beings, causing them to attain Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi. If there are sentient beings with little merit, who lack the roots of goodness, natural ability, the Factors of Bodhi, if they obtain hearing of this dhāraṇī method, they will realize the attainment of Anuttarā Samyaksaṃbodhi. If there are people who are always able to remember and maintain this dhāraṇī, they will all obtain immeasurable roots of goodness. Cundī is depicted with eighteen arms, each wielding implements that symbolize upaya, her eighteen arms represent the eighteen merits of attaining Buddhahood as described in an appendix to the Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra. Pure Land Buddhism Chandi English translation of the Cundī Dhāraṇī Sūtra
White Cloud Temple
The White Cloud Temple known as Baiyun Temple or the Abbey or Monastery of the White Clouds, is a Taoist temple and monastery located in Beijing, China. It is one of "The Three Great Ancestral Courts" of the Quanzhen School of Taoism and is titled "The First Temple under Heaven"; the White Cloud Temple was first founded in the mid-8th century during the Tang dynasty and was called the Temple of Heavenly Perpetuity. During this period, the abbey was staffed by an elite clergy. From 1125 to 1215 when what is now Beijing was controlled by the Jin dynasty, the abbey served as the Taoist administrative headquarters and played an important role in state ceremonies. After Beijing was taken by the Mongols in 1215, the abbey was taken over by the Quanzhen patriarch Qiu Chuji and became the headquarters of the Quanzhen movement until the establishment of the Ming dynasty. Qiu—who himself was known by the name Master of Eternal Spring—renamed the abbey the Palace of Eternal Spring. Upon being summoned by Genghis Khan, Qiu undertook a three-year trek from Shandong to give the great khan an exposition on Taoism, which he completed in October 1222.
Qiu's successor, Yin Zhiping built a memorial shrine over Qiu's grave. This shrine became known as the White Cloud Temple; the abbey was damaged when the Mongols took over in the late 13th century and, during the Ming dynasty, the Palace of Eternal Spring was destroyed. However, the White Cloud Temple took over the functions of its former parent. Under the Ming, monks from the Zhengyi school took over operations of the abbey but continued Quanzhen traditions and ordination ceremonies. Zhengyi control over the temple continued until the 17th century, when their monopoly ended and the Quanzhen master Wang Changyue took over. To this day, the White Cloud Temple remains controlled by the Quanzhen school; the abbey was without an abbot for the 1940s and was closed when the Communists came to power in 1949. Unlike many other historical sites which were damaged during the Cultural Revolution, the White Cloud Temple was well-protected and remained safe. Today, it is again a functioning temple and is the seat of the Chinese Taoist Association.
Like most other Chinese temples, the White Cloud Temple is laid out on a north-south axis, with the entrance at the south end. There are five main halls built upon the main axis, beginning with the Main Gate, Yuhuang Hall, Laolü Hall, Qiuzu Hall, the Sanqing Hall. On either side of the main axis are two smaller axes, each containing halls dedicated to a variety of deities. In the rear of the complex is a garden which hosts the abbey’s ordination platform; this hall was first built in 1661 and was rebuilt in 1788. It is dedicated to the Jade Emperor, it is three bays long with a gabled roof, is flanked by drum and bell towers. This hall has the same design as the Yuhuang Hall and was first built in 1456; the monastic community holds a twice-daily office in the Laolü Hall, it is where ordination certificates are issued. Built to enshrine Qiu Chuji, this hall was first built in 1228, it is three bays long with a front gallery. In 1428, the Sanqing hall was built, it is a two-story, five bay structure with a gabled roof that contains statues of the Three Pure Ones on the top floor and the Four Celestial Aides on the bottom floor.
Out of 20 Quanzhen ordination centers in the Qing dynasty, the White Cloud Temple was the most important. In order to become a Taoist priest, novices first had to spend three years living in a temple. After accomplishing this, they were eligible to be ordained; the ordination was harsh. Each novice had to undergo 100 days of brutal training. In modern times, this is no longer as dangerous. After this training period, novices had exams on Taoist classics and precepts. Afterwards, successful novices were ordained as full Taoist priests. During the Qing dynasty, an average of 200 novices were ordained every four years. Ordination ceremonies ended after 1927, but were resumed in 1989; every year on the 19th day of the first lunar month a festival is held at the abbey in celebration of Qiu Chuji's birthday. It has been thought; the festival was first held during the Yuan dynasty, but was suspended after the People's Republic of China was established in 1949. The festival continues to be held to this day.
History of Beijing Goossaert, Vincent. "Baiyun Guan." in Fabrizio Pregadio, ed. The Encyclopedia of Taoism, 207-210. Lai-Chi Tim. "Daoism in China Today: 1980-2002." The China Quarterly, 174:413-427. Qian Yun. Taoist Buildings: Ancient Chinese Architecture. Springer, 2000
A deva in Buddhism is one of many different types of non-human beings who share the godlike characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, much happier than humans, although the same level of veneration is not paid to them as to buddhas. The concept of devas was adopted in Japan because of the similarity to the Shinto's concept of kami. Other words used in Buddhist texts to refer to similar supernatural beings are devaputta. While the former is a synonym for deva, the latter refers to one of these beings, young and has newly arisen in its heavenly world. Deva refers to a path of the six paths of the incarnation cycle, it includes some different types of beings which can be ranked hierarchically according to the merits they have accumulated over lifetimes. The lowest classes of these beings are closer in their nature to human beings than to the higher classes of deva. Devas can be degraded to humans or the beings in the three evil paths once they have consumed their merits.
The devas fall into three classes depending upon which of the three dhātus, or "realms" of the universe they are born in. The devas of the Ārūpyadhātu have no physical form or location, they dwell in meditation on formless subjects, they achieve this by attaining advanced meditational levels in another life. They do not interact with the rest of the universe; the devas of the Rūpadhātu are sexless and passionless. They deva-worlds that rise, layer on layer, above the earth; these can be divided into five main groups: The Śuddhāvāsa devas are the rebirths of Anāgāmins, Buddhist religious practitioners who died just short of attaining the state of Arhat. They guard and protect Buddhism on earth, will pass into enlightenment as Arhats when they pass away from the Śuddhāvāsa worlds; the highest of these worlds is called Akaniṣṭha. The Bṛhatphala devas remain in the tranquil state attained in the fourth dhyāna; the Śubhakṛtsna devas rest in the bliss of the third dhyāna. The Ābhāsvara devas enjoy the delights of the second dhyāna.
The Brahmā devas participate in the more active joys of the first dhyāna. They are more interested in and involved with the world below than any of the higher devas, sometimes intervene with advice and counsel; each of these groups of deva-worlds contains different grades of devas, but all of those within a single group are able to interact and communicate with each other. On the other hand, the lower groups have no direct knowledge of the existence of the higher types of deva at all. For this reason, some of the Brahmās have become proud, imagining themselves as the creators of their own worlds and of all the worlds below them; the devas of the Kāmadhātu have those of humans. They lead the same sort of lives that humans do, though they are longer-lived and more content; this is the realm. The higher devas of the Kāmadhātu live in four heavens that float in the air, leaving them free from contact with the strife of the lower world, they are: luxurious devas to whom Māra belongs. They are more passionate than the higher devas, do not enjoy themselves but engage in strife and fighting.
They are: The Trāyastriṃśa devas, who live on the peak of Sumeru and are something like the Olympian gods. Their ruler is Śakra. Sakka, as he is called in pali, is a devotee of the Buddha; the Cāturmahārājikakāyika devas, who include the martial kings who guard the four quarters of the Earth. The chief of these kings is Vaiśravaṇa, but all are accountable to Śakra, they include four types of earthly demigod or nature-spirit: Kumbhāṇḍas, Gandharvas, Nāgas and Yakṣas, also the Garuḍas."Furthermore, you should recollect the devas:'There are the devas of the Four Great Kings, the devas of the Thirty-three..." "Feeders of joy we shall be like the radiant gods." Sometimes included among the devas, sometimes placed in a different category, are the Asuras, the opponents of the preceding two groups of devas, whose nature is to be continually engaged in war. Humans are said to have had many of the powers of the devas: not requiring food, the ability to fly through the air, shining by their own light. Over time they began to eat solid foods, their bodies became their powers disappeared.
There is a humanistic definition of'deva' and'devi' ascribed to Gotama Buddha: a god is a moral person. This is comparable to i.e. that ` hell' is a name for painful emotions. Devas are invisible to the human eye; the presence of a deva can be detected by those humans who have opened the "Divine eye", an extrasensory power by which one can see beings from other planes. Their voices can be heard by those who have cultivated divyaśrotra, a similar power of the ear. Most devas are capable of constructing illusory forms by which they can manifest themselves to the beings of
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I