George Edward Cokayne
George Edward Cokayne, was an English genealogist and long-serving herald at the College of Arms in London, who rose to the rank of Clarenceux King of Arms. He wrote the authoritative and standard reference works The Complete Peerage and The Complete Baronetage. Cokayne was born on 29 April 1825, with the surname Adams, being the son of William Adams by his wife the Hon. Mary Anne Cokayne, a daughter of Viscount Cullen, he was baptised "George Edward Adams". On 15 August 1873 he changed his surname by Royal Licence to Cokayne, he matriculated from Exeter College on 6 June 1844, graduated BA in 1848 and MA in 1852. He was admitted a student of Lincoln's Inn on 16 January 1850, was called to the bar on 30 April 1853, he began his heraldic career at the College of Arms in London with an appointment in 1859 to the post of Rouge Dragon Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary, was promoted in 1870 to the office of Lancaster Herald of Arms in Ordinary. In 1882 he was promoted to Norroy King of Arms, which office he held until his appointment as Clarenceux King of Arms in 1894, which he held until his death in 1911.
Cokayne wrote The Complete Peerage, the first edition of, published between 1887 and 1898 On 2 December 1856 he married Mary Dorothea Gibbs, daughter of George Henry Gibbs by his wife Caroline Crawley. The couple had eight children, of whom two daughters survived their father. One of his sons, became Governor of the Bank of England from 1918 to 1920 and was ennobled in 1920 as Baron Cullen of Ashbourne, he died on 6 August 1911 aged 86. The Complete Baronetage on Internet Archive The College of Arms CUHAGS Officer of Arms Index
Princess Amalie Zephyrine of Salm-Kyrburg
Amalie Zephyrine of Salm-Kyrburg was a daughter of Prince Philip Joseph of Salm-Kyrburg and Princess Maria Thérèse de Hornes, eldest daughter and heiress of Maximilian, Prince of Hornes. She married into the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, is considered the "savior" of Hohenzollerns. Amalie was born and raised in Paris, although the family seat of the Salm-Kyrburgs was Kirn, which today is part of the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, she was baptised at the Church of Saint-Sulpice. In 1782, on her parents' request, she married erbprinz Anton Aloys, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, her new home city of Sigmaringen was not to her taste and three weeks after the birth of her son, Karl, in 1785, she returned to her native Paris. There her brother, Prince Frederik III, was busy with the building of the "Hôtel de Salm,", to serve as the Paris residence of the Salm-Kyrburg family and a gathering place for members of the high nobility. During the French Revolution, her brother Frederick and her lover, Alexandre de Beauharnais, were executed by guillotine in 1794 and buried in mass graves.
Amalie survived the Revolution and in 1797, she used her connections to find out the location of the graves, kept hidden from the French public. She secretly purchased the land on rue de Picpus and had it opened up to the rest of the garden, today called the Picpus Cemetery. Despite her nobility, the princess maintained good relations with a number of influential figures of the Revolution, including Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand and Joséphine de Beauharnais, widow of her lover and the wife of Napoleon Bonaparte. A few years Amalie used her contacts at the court of Napoleon to broker the Mediatisation of the houses of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Hechingen, she became guardian to her underage nephew Frederick IV of Salm-Kyrburg, who had become the prince of Salm-Kyrburg in 1794 after his father's execution. In 1808, after 20 years in Paris, the princess returned to Sigmaringen. Although her husband was still alive and they remained married, they lived amicably apart for the remainder of their lives.
She first lived for two years with friends, in 1810 moved into a building of the former Inzigkofen Monastery. She moved into a residence, "Prinzenbau," that her husband had built for her in Sigmaringen. Following her death at age 81, her son had a cliff on the banks of the Danube in Sigmaringen named the "Amalienfels" in her honor, her name and the family coat of arms is carved into the rock. Her great-grandson was Albert I, King of the Belgians from 1909 to 1934. Another great-grandson, Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, was crowned King of Romania in 1866 as Carol I. Bumiller, Casimir: Von Napoleons Gnaden - Die Fürstinnen von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen und von Fürstenberg wollten 1806 die Souveränität ihrer Herrschaften erhalten, in: Momente, Beiträge zur Landeskunde von Baden-Württemberg, 3/2006 ISSN 1619-1609 Gunter Haug: Die Schicksalsfürstin. Amalie Zephyrine, die Retterin von Hohenzollern, 2005 ISBN 3-87181-025-8
Princess Louise of Stolberg-Gedern
Princess Louise Maximilienne Caroline Emmanuele of Stolberg-Gedern was the wife of Charles Edward Stuart, the Jacobite claimant to the English and Scottish thrones. She is called the Countess of Albany. Louise was born in Hainaut, in the Austrian Netherlands, she was the eldest daughter of Prince Gustav Adolf of Stolberg-Gedern and his wife, Princess Elisabeth of Hornes, the younger daughter of Maximilian, Prince of Hornes. When she was only four years old, her father was killed at the Battle of Leuthen; when she was seven, she was sent to be educated at the school attached to the convent of St. Waudru in Mons; the mission of this convent was to provide a home for young ladies of the nobility who had insufficient financial means to live unmarried in the world. In 1766, the Empress Maria Theresa arranged for the convent to give to Louise one of its endowed prebends. Although technically Louise was a canoness, she was not required to stay in the convent cloister and was still allowed to travel in society.
Indeed, for most of the canonesses, the acceptance of a prebend was a temporary stage until they found appropriate noble husbands. In 1771, Louise's younger sister married the Marquess of Jamaica, only son of the 3rd Duke of Berwick; the Duke of Berwick's uncle, the Duke of Fitz-James, began negotiations with Louise's mother for a marriage between Louise and Charles Edward Stuart, the Jacobite claimant to the English and Scottish thrones. Although King Louis XV of France recognised the succession of the House of Hanover, he hoped that the legitimate Stuart line would not die out and would be an ongoing threat to the Hanoverians; the negotiations were delicate, since Louise's family had no money of its own and relied on the goodwill of the Empress Maria Theresa. On 28 March 1772, Louise was married by proxy to Charles Edward in Paris; the couple met for the first time on 14 April 1772, when they renewed their marriage vows in person in the town of Macerata, Italy. Louise was henceforward recognised by Jacobites as Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charles and Louise spent the first two years of their married life in Rome. In spite of the difference in their ages, the couple were at first happy together, but there were several shadows on the relationship. There was no sign of Louise conceiving a child. Charles had been encouraged in the belief that, if he married, the pope would recognise him as King of England and Scotland, France might provide funds for another Jacobite rising. Louise had been promised that she would be treated as a queen. Instead, Charles found his hopes both of a son and of diplomatic recognition disappointed, while Louise found herself married to an old prince with no prospects. In 1774, Charles and Louise moved to Florence, where they began to use the title of "Count and Countess of Albany" to avoid difficulties the Italian nobility had with addressing them as King and Queen of Great Britain, they stayed as guests of Prince Corsini until Charles bought the Palazzo di San Clemente in 1777. Count Vittorio Alfieri was born into a wealthy aristocratic family in Asti, now in Piedmont, in 1749.
After several affairs with married women, he decided to devote himself to the writing of poetry and tragedies for the theatre. In 1776, during a stay in Florence, he was much taken by her, he contented himself with admiring her from a distance. He left furthering his literary ambitions, he returned to Florence in 1777 and this time sought an introduction to Louise. He now determined to split her from Charles, he became a frequent visitor to the Palazzo di San Clemente and was welcomed unsuspectingly by Charles. There is no evidence of when Louise and Alfieri became lovers, but it was in 1778 when Alfieri penned her amorous sonnets, including one inviting her to elope with him. Meanwhile, Louise's husband Charles had become a drunkard again, as he had been a number of years before. In December 1780, Louise took refuge in a convent, she claimed, it is believed to be true, that Charles had become physically abusive to her. Louise received the support of the Grand Duchess of Tuscany, the pope, her brother-in-law the Cardinal Duke of York, all of whom were unaware of Louise's ongoing adulterous relationship with Alfieri.
Within a few weeks, Louise moved back to Rome. She lived at the Ursuline Convent before moving to her brother-in-law's official residence, the Palazzo della Cancelleria. Alfieri followed Louise to Rome. In April 1783, the Cardinal Duke of York discovered the truth. In early May, Alfieri left Rome. In April 1784, Charles was induced by King Gustav III of Sweden to grant Louise a decree of separation; the couple did not divorce. In June 1784, Louise left Rome, purportedly to summer at the baths of Baden. In August, she was reunited with Alfieri at Colmar, they spent the next two months together at the castle of Martinsburg. In order to continue to keep their meeting secret from the Cardinal-Duke of York, they separated again, Louise spent the winter of 1784/1785 in Bologna, she summered in Paris before returning to Martinsburg, where she was joined again by Alfieri in September. After two months, Louise returned to Paris
Thomas Bruce, 2nd Earl of Ailesbury
Thomas Bruce, 2nd Earl of Ailesbury and 3rd Earl of Elgin was an English politician and memoirist. He was the son of Robert Bruce, 2nd Earl of Elgin, Lady Diana Grey, his maternal grandparents were Henry Grey, 1st Earl of Stamford, Lady Anne Cecil, daughter of William Cecil, 2nd Earl of Exeter. His Memoirs, which were not published until long after his death, are a valuable source for English history in the last quarter of the seventeenth century. Lord Bruce, as he was styled from 1663 to 1685, was M. P. for Marlborough between 1679 and 1681 and M. P. for Wiltshire in 1685. He became a Gentleman of the Bedchamber in 1676. From 1685, when he inherited the earldom, to 1688, he was a Lord of the Bedchamber, Lord Lieutenant of Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire and was a Page of Honour, at the coronation of King James II on 23 April 1685, he was devoted to Charles II, who remarked on his deathbed "I see you love me dying as well as living". He admired Charles's brother and successor James II, though he was not blind to his faults as a ruler.
He married, Lady Elizabeth Seymour, daughter of Henry Seymour, Lord Beauchamp and Mary Capell and granddaughter of William Seymour, 2nd Duke of Somerset, on 31 August 1676. She died in 1697 in premature childbirth brought on by a false report that her husband had been executed for treason, they had three children: Robert Bruce, Lord Bruce Charles Bruce, 4th Earl of Elgin Lady Elizabeth Bruce, married George Brudenell, 3rd Earl of Cardigan and had issue. He married, Charlotte d'Argenteau, comtesse d'Esneux, in Brussels on 27 April 1700, they had one daughter: Lady Marie Thérèse Bruce, married Prince Maximilian Emmanuel of Hornes and had issue. He was one of only four peers who continued to support James II after the Prince of Orange embarked for England. On 18 December 1688 he accompanied King James to Rochester. Elgin himself chose to remain in England. In May 1695, Lord Elgin was accused certainly with good reason, of having conspired to plan the restoration of King James II and in February 1696 he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, but admitted to bail a year and allowed to leave England for Brussels.
After more than 40 years in exile, he was buried there. Some historians have accused him of double-dealing in swearing allegiance to William III while plotting the restoration of James. William III did not regard him as a dangerous character, as shown by the fact that he was left in peace once he fled from England, it seems that from about 1710 he was free to return to England, but he was by happily settled in Brussels, where he had made a second marriage for love to Charlotte, comtesse d'Esneux, since he was able to draw at least part of the revenue from his English estates, he had no pressing need and no apparent desire to return home. Ailesbury seems to have been universally liked by his political opponents, having a reputation for honesty and fair dealing. Charles II was fond of him and confided in him to a degree unusual for such a secretive man. Though he changed allegiance himself he had no patience with time-servers: he detested Sunderland and in 1689 told his cousin Danby that for his treachery to James II he deserved to "be knocked on the head".
Ailesbury devoted many years to writing his Memoirs, which were not published until 1890. Historians have praised them particularly for the vivid portraits of the leading figures in British life, including James II, William III, Sunderland and Halifax; the most striking feature of the memoirs is the author's absolute devotion to Charles II: "my good and gracious master, the best that reigned over us"
In law, treason is criminal disloyalty to the state. It is a crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's sovereign; this includes things such as participating in a war against one's native country, attempting to overthrow its government, spying on its military, its diplomats, or its secret services for a hostile and foreign power, or attempting to kill its head of state. A person who commits treason is known in law as a traitor. In common law countries, treason covered the murder of specific social superiors, such as the murder of a husband by his wife or that of a master by his servant. Treason against the king was known as high treason and treason against a lesser superior was petty treason; as jurisdictions around the world abolished petty treason, "treason" came to refer to what was known as high treason. At times, the term traitor has been used as a political epithet, regardless of any verifiable treasonable action. In a civil war or insurrection, the winners may deem the losers to be traitors.
The term traitor is used in heated political discussion – as a slur against political dissidents, or against officials in power who are perceived as failing to act in the best interest of their constituents. In certain cases, as with the Dolchstoßlegende, the accusation of treason towards a large group of people can be a unifying political message. Treason is considered to be different and on many occasions a separate charge from "treasonable felony" in many parts of the world. In English law, high treason was punishable by being hanged and quartered or burnt at the stake, although beheading could be substituted by royal command; those penalties were abolished in 1790 and 1973 respectively. The penalty was used by monarchs against people who could reasonably be called traitors. Many of them would now just be considered dissidents; the words "treason" and "traitor" are derived from the Latin tradere, to hand over. Christian theology and political thinking until after the Enlightenment considered treason and blasphemy as synonymous, as it challenged both the state and the will of God.
Kings were considered chosen by God, to betray one's country was to do the work of Satan. Many nations' laws mention various types of treason. "Crimes Related to Insurrection" is the internal treason, may include a coup d'état. "Crimes Related to Foreign Aggression" is the treason of cooperating with foreign aggression positively regardless of the national inside and outside. "Crimes Related to inducement of Foreign Aggression" is the crime of communicating with aliens secretly to cause foreign aggression or menace. Depending on a country, conspiracy is added to these. In Australia, there are federal and state laws against treason in the states of New South Wales, South Australia and Victoria. To Treason laws in the United States, citizens of Australia owe allegiance to their sovereign, the federal and state level; the federal law defining treason in Australia is provided under section 80.1 of the Criminal Code, contained in the schedule of the Commonwealth Criminal Code Act 1995. It defines treason as follows: A person commits an offence, called treason, if the person: causes the death of the Sovereign, the heir apparent of the Sovereign, the consort of the Sovereign, the Governor-General or the Prime Minister.
A person is not guilty of treason under paragraphs, or if their assistance or intended assistance is purely humanitarian in nature. The maximum penalty for treason is life imprisonment. Section 80.1AC of the Act creates the related offence of treachery. The Treason Act 1351, the Treason Act 1795 and the Treason Act 1817 form part of the law of New South Wales; the Treason Act 1795 and the Treason Act 1817 have been repealed by Section 11 of the Crimes Act 1900, except in so far as they relate to the compassing, inventing, devising, or intending death or destruction, or any bodily harm tending to death or destruction, maim, or wounding, imprisonment, or restraint of the person of the heirs and successors of King George III of the United Kingdom, the expressing, uttering, or declaring of such compassings, inventions, devices, or intentions, or any of them. Section 12 of the Crimes Act 1900 creates an offence, derived from section 3 of the Treason Felony Act 1848: 12 Compassing etc deposition of the Sovereign—overawing Parliament etc Whosoever, within New South Wales or without, imagines, devises, or intends to deprive or depose Our M
The British nobility is the peerage of the United Kingdom. The nobility of its four constituent home nations has played a major role in shaping the history of the country, although in the present day they retain only the rights to stand for election to the House of Lords, dining rights in the House of Lords, position in the formal order of precedence, the right to certain titles, the right to an audience with the monarch. Still, more than a third of British land is in the hands of aristocrats and traditional landed gentry; the British nobility consists of members of the immediate families of peers who bear courtesy titles or honorifics. Members of the peerage carry the titles of duke, earl, viscount or baron. British peers are sometimes referred to generically as lords, although individual dukes are not so styled when addressed or by reference. A Scottish feudal barony is an official title of nobility in the United Kingdom, a feudal baron is addressed as The Baron of X. Scottish lairds' names include a description of their lands in the form of a territorial designation.
In Scotland, a territorial designation implies the rank of "Esquire", thus this is not added after the name. Lairds are part of Scotland's landed gentry and—where armigerous —minor nobility. All modern British honours, including peerage dignities, are created directly by the British monarch and take effect when letters patent are affixed with the Great Seal of the Realm; the Sovereign is considered to be the fount of honour and, as "the fountain and source of all dignities cannot hold a dignity from himself", cannot hold a British peerage. Descendants in the male line of peers and children of women who are peeresses in their own right, as well as baronets, knights and certain other persons who bear no peerage titles, belong to the gentry, deemed members of the non-peerage nobility below whom they rank; the untitled nobility consists of all those who bear formally matriculated, or recorded, armorial bearings. Other than their designation, such as Gentleman or Esquire, they enjoy only the privilege of a position in the formal orders of precedence in the United Kingdom.
The largest portion of the British aristocracy has been the landed gentry, made up of baronets and the non-titled armigerous landowners whose families hailed from the mediaeval feudal class. Before the twentieth century, peerages were hereditary and descended in the male line; the eldest son of a duke, marquess or earl always uses one of his father's subsidiary titles as a courtesy title. The modern peerage system is a vestige of the custom of English kings in the 12th and 13th centuries in summoning wealthy individuals to form a Parliament; the economic system at the time was manorialism, the privilege of being summoned to Parliament was related to the amount of land one controlled. In the late 14th century, this right began to be granted by decree, titles became inherited with the rest of an estate under the system of primogeniture. Non-hereditary positions began to be created again in 1867 for Law Lords, in 1958 generally. In 1958, the Life Peerages Act enabled life peers to sit in the House of Lords, from on the creation of hereditary peerages became obsolete ceasing after 1964.
This, however, is only a convention and was not observed by former prime minister Margaret Thatcher, who asked the Queen to create three hereditary peerages. Until changes in the twentieth century, only a proportion of those holding Scottish and Irish peerages were entitled by that title to sit in the House of Lords; until constitutional reforms in 1999, possession of a title in the peerage entitled its holder to a seat in the House of Lords. Since only 92 hereditary peers are entitled to sit in the House of Lords, of which 90 are elected by the hereditary peers by ballot and replaced on death; the two exceptions are the Earl Marshal, responsible for certain ceremonial functions on state occasions, the Lord Great Chamberlain, who serves as the monarch's representative in Parliament and accompanies them on certain state occasions. Those due to inherit a peerage—or indeed have done so, in recent times—have been educated at one of the major public schools, such as Eton or Winchester. A member of the House of Lords cannot be a member of the House of Commons.
In 1960, Anthony Wedgwood Benn inherited his father's title as Viscount Stansgate. He fought and won the ensuing by-election, but was disqualified from taking his seat until an act was passed enabling hereditary peers to renounce their titles. Titles, while considered central to the upper class, are not always so. Both Captain Mark Phillips and Vice-Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, the respective first and second husbands of Princess Anne, do not hold peerages. Most members of the British upper class are untitled. Dukes in the United Kingdom List of dukes in the peerages of Britain and Ireland List of dukedoms in the peerages of Britain and Ireland Marquesses in the United Kingdom List of marquesses in the peerages of Britain and Ireland List of marquessates in the peerages of Britain and Ireland Royal earldoms in the United Kingdom List
House of Hornes
The House of Hornes was an important European noble family, which became extinct in the male line in 1826. The name refers to a small village in Limburg, located in the Netherlands; the lordship of Hornes was a property of the Counts of Looz. The first mentioned is Willaume, Sire of Hornes around 1100, Arnould, Count of Looz and Lord of Hornes and Corswarem, married to Aleydis van Diest; the Principality of Hornes, an enclave of Liège in the Spanish Netherlands, was created on October 16, 1677, awarded by Charles II of Spain to Eugene Maximilian of Hornes, son of Count Ambrosius of Hornes. In 1736, Emperor Charles VI made Eugene Maximilian's grandson, Maximilian Emanuel, 3rd Prince of Hornes, an Imperial prince. Founded in the 9th century by Count Conrad I, this family's descendants intermarried with ruling dynasties of Europe. In 1514, Jacob III of Hornes had wed Claudina di Savoia and, in 1530, Anne de Bourgogne, who were extramarital descendants of the sovereign Dukes of Savoy and of Burgundy.
These titles and kinships enhanced the prestige of the House of Hornes. The principality was close to the Duchy of Thorn, Netherlands; the Princes of Hornes held territory in what is now Belgium and the Netherlands. In addition, in France they possessed the villages of Auchy-au-Bois and Lestrem from 1722 to 1766, Floringhem from 1774 to 1789. Hornes became allied to France, thus suffered during the French Revolution. A branch of the family became lords and sires of Baucigny, sometimes known since the 12th century as Bassigny, Baucignies or Bussigny. Cadet descendants of the Lords of Bassignies were known as Hornes-Bassignies. Both cadets and Lords of Bassignies married into important noble houses; the influence of the family was guaranteed by a unique familial network. Gaesbeecq was one of the most important dominiums, including the famous Gaasbeek Castle, that the family possessed for several generations. Philippe de Hornes, Baron of Bassignies, sold Gaesbeecq in 1565 to Lamoral d'Egmont, Prince of Gavre.
In 1615, Sabina d'Egmont sold Gaesbeecq to 1st Count of Warfusée. Although the agnatic line of the princes of Hornes is extinct today, amongst their cognatic descendants are the current royal family of Belgium and the Duke of Ursel. Other descendants included King Michael of Romania and Cayetana Fitz-James Stuart, 18th Duchess of Alba. County of Horne Hornes genealogy site Heraldry of the World. By Carl von Volbroth. Lestrem French village Auchy-au-Bois French village