Monarchy of Norway
The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. The present monarch is King Harald V, who has reigned since 17 January 1991, succeeding his father, the heir apparent is his only son, Crown Prince Haakon. The crown prince undertakes various public functions, as does the kings wife. The crown prince acts as regent in the kings absence, there are several other members of the Royal Family, including the kings daughter and siblings. Whilst the Constitution of Norway grants important executive powers to the King, formally the King appoints the government according to his own judgement, but parliamentary practice has been in place since 1884. Constitutional practice has replaced the meaning of the word King in most articles of the constitution from the king personally to the elected government. The powers vested in the monarch are significant, but are treated only as reserve powers, the King does not, by convention, have direct participation in government.
He ratifies laws and royal resolutions and sends envoys from and to foreign countries and he has a more tangible influence as the symbol of national unity. The annual New Years Eve speech is one occasion when the King traditionally raises negative issues, the King is Supreme Commander of the Norwegian Armed Forces and Grand Master of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav and of the Royal Norwegian Order of Merit. The King has no role in the Church of Norway. The position of King of Norway has been in existence since the unification of Norway in 872. In recent years members of the Socialist Left party have proposed the abolition of the monarchy during each new session of parliament and this gives the Norwegian monarchy the unique status of being a popularly elected royal family and receiving regular formal confirmations of support from the Storting. Prior to and in the phase of the Viking Age Norway was divided into several smaller kingdoms. Harald Fairhair was the first king of Norway, the boundaries of Fairhairs kingdom were not identical to those of present-day Norway, and upon his death the kingship was shared among his sons.
Some historians emphasise the actual control over the country and assert that Olaf II, alias Saint Olaf. Olaf is generally held to have been the force behind Norways final conversion to Christianity. In the 12th and 13th centuries the Norwegian kingdom was at its geographical and cultural peak, the kingdom included Norway, the Faroe Islands, Shetland and other smaller areas in the British Isles. The king had diplomatic relations with most of the European kingdoms and formed alliances with Scotland and Castile, large castles such as Haakons Hall and cathedrals, the foremost being Nidaros Cathedral, were built
Hortense de Beauharnais
Hortense Eugénie Cécile Bonaparte, Queen consort of Holland, was the stepdaughter of Emperor Napoleon I, being the daughter of his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais. She became the wife of the brother, Louis Bonaparte, King of Holland. She had a son, Charles de Morny, 1st Duke of Morny, by her lover Charles Joseph. Hortense was born in Paris, France on 10 April 1783 and her parents separated shortly after her birth. Her father was executed on 23 July 1794, at the time of the French Revolution and her mother was imprisoned in the Carmelites prison, from which she was released on 6 August 1794, thanks to the intervention of her best friend Thérèse Tallien. Two years later, her mother married Napoleon Bonaparte, Hortense was described as having been an amusing and pretty child with long, pale golden-blonde hair and blue eyes. She received her education at the school of Madame Jeanne Campan in St-Germain-en-Laye together with Napoleons youngest sister Caroline Bonaparte and she had an elder brother, Eugène de Beauharnais.
Hortense was an amateur musical composer and supplied the army of her stepfather with rousing marches. She enjoyed playing games and particularly excelled at billiards, in 1802, at Napoleons request, Hortense married his brother Louis Bonaparte. She had hoped to be a Queen of Holland in Paris and she was therefore forced to depart with Louis to the Netherlands, where she arrived on 18 June 1806. Queen Hortense was pleasantly surprised by the warm welcome from the public and she quickly became accustomed to life in the Netherlands and came to like the country. She was present at celebrations and ceremonies, visited the market places where she made large purchases, and was much liked by the public. She learned water colour painting and made trips around the countryside, in 1807, her son died, she was subsequently allowed to visit France as the climate there was considered better for her other son Louis-Napoléon. Hortense returned temporarily to the Netherlands, but on 1 June 1810, in 1810, after his Dutch kingdom was taken away from him, Louis remained in Holland for nearly three years, turning to writing and poetry.
Louis wrote to Napoleon after the defeat in Russia to request that the Dutch throne be restored to him. Louis finally returned to France in 1813 and he spent much of his life in Italy. Only her brother Eugène, Adélaïde Filleul de Souza, de Flahauts mother, and her closest companions were aware of her pregnancy and she had used poor health to explain her prolonged visit to Switzerland, the journey having been arranged by Adélaïde. At the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, Hortense received the protection of Alexander I of Russia, at his instigation, she was granted the title of Duchess of Saint-Leu by King Louis XVIII on 30 May 1814
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814, Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, one of the greatest commanders in history, his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleons political and cultural legacy has ensured his status as one of the most celebrated and he was born Napoleone di Buonaparte in Corsica to a relatively modest family from the minor nobility. When the Revolution broke out in 1789, Napoleon was serving as an officer in the French army. Seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution, he rose through the ranks of the military. The Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed a revolt against the government from royalist insurgents, in 1798, he led a military expedition to Egypt that served as a springboard to political power.
He engineered a coup in November 1799 and became First Consul of the Republic and his ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and in 1804 he became the first Emperor of the French. Intractable differences with the British meant that the French were facing a Third Coalition by 1805, in 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about growing French influence on the continent. Napoleon quickly defeated Prussia at the battles of Jena and Auerstedt, marched the Grand Army deep into Eastern Europe, France forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Tilsit signified the high watermark of the French Empire, hoping to extend the Continental System and choke off British trade with the European mainland, Napoleon invaded Iberia and declared his brother Joseph the King of Spain in 1808. The Spanish and the Portuguese revolted with British support, the Peninsular War lasted six years, featured extensive guerrilla warfare, and ended in victory for the Allies.
The Continental System caused recurring diplomatic conflicts between France and its client states, especially Russia, unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade, the Russians routinely violated the Continental System and enticed Napoleon into another war. The French launched an invasion of Russia in the summer of 1812. The resulting campaign witnessed the collapse of the Grand Army, the destruction of Russian cities, in 1813, Prussia and Austria joined Russian forces in a Sixth Coalition against France. A lengthy military campaign culminated in a large Allied army defeating Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig in October 1813, the Allies invaded France and captured Paris in the spring of 1814, forcing Napoleon to abdicate in April. He was exiled to the island of Elba near Rome and the Bourbons were restored to power, Napoleon escaped from Elba in February 1815 and took control of France once again. The Allies responded by forming a Seventh Coalition, which defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in June, the British exiled him to the remote island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, where he died six years at the age of 51
The House of Chaumet, founded in 1780, is a high-end jeweller based in Paris. Chaumet is a jewellery and watchmaking designer founded in 1780 by Marie-Étienne Nitot, fourteen artisans ply their trade in the workshop on Place Vendôme under the direction of foreman Pascal Bourdariat. As of 2012, it was owned by LVMH, Marie-Étienne Nitot settled in Paris in 1780 after having served his apprenticeship at Auber, jeweller to Queen Marie-Antoinette. His aristocratic clientele remained loyal to him until the French Revolution in 1789 and it was after that that the Nitot jewellery house really took off, becoming the official jeweller of Napoleon I in 1802. With the help of his son François Regnault, Nitot created the jewellery that would offer the French Empire splendour, the jewellery for Napoleon’s wedding to Joséphine de Beauharnais, and to Marie Louise de Habsburg-Lorraine, was created by Nitot. He designed and set Napoleon’s coronation crown, the hilt of his sword as well as other pieces for the court.
François Regnault Nitot took over his father’s jewellery house on his death in 1809, Napoleon’s exile caused Nitot, a fervent royalist, to withdraw from the jewellery house, selling the business to his foreman, Jean Baptiste Fossin. Assisted by his son Jules, Fossin elegantly interpreted romantic jewellery pieces inspired by the arts of the Italian Renaissance and the French 18th century and they attracted a prestigious clientele which included Queen Victoria, who granted Jean-Valentin Morel a permit as an official supplier. In 1907, the workshops and boutique were set up at 12 place Vendôme, Marcel Chaumet succeeded his father Joseph in 1928, at the height of the Art Deco period. The jewellery house participated in the 1925 Exposition des Arts Décoratifs in Paris, Jewellery was more geometric, following the ‘boyish style’ of the 1920s, becoming more feminine during the 1930s. Colours and fine gems were imperative for jewellery, from the 1920s onwards, the renown of the jewellery house spread to the world of the arts and show business.
In 1934, Maison Chaumet sponsored the establishment of the young jeweller Pierre Sterlé, Chaumet adapted the ‘New Look’ of the pioneers Christian Dior and Yves Saint Laurent, attracting the fashionable women of the time. In 1958, the sons of Marcel Chaumet and Pierre, were appointed executive directors of the House and they took over the Breguet brand in 1970. François Bodet, a Maison Chaumet executive, renewed the brand, the 1970s were marked by originality and unconventional combinations, such as pairings of diamonds and peridot mounted on yellow gold. The Lien ring, a circle encompassed by a loop in the centre, was created in 1977. In the 1980s, diamonds were added to the base and the ring was produced in gold with a double circle. In the mid-1990s, the Lien became a cross, before making way in 2002 for a Lien set with diamonds, a ‘Premiers Liens’ collection was launched in 2007, in yellow and pink gold versions. In the 1980s, René Morin, the director, used his varied influences to promote the resurgence of precious objects
Marie Antoinette (/ˈmæriˌæntwəˈnɛt/, /ˌɑ̃ːntwə-/, /ˌɑ̃ːtwə-/, US /məˈriː-/, born Maria Antonia Josepha Johanna, was the last Queen of France and Navarre before the French Revolution. She was born an Archduchess of Austria, and was the fifteenth and second youngest child of Empress Maria Theresa and Francis I, in April 1770, upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne, she became Dauphine of France. After eight years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to a daughter, Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, the Diamond Necklace affair damaged her reputation further. On 10 August 1792, the attack on the Tuileries forced the family to take refuge at the Assembly. On 21 September 1792, the monarchy was abolished, after a two-day trial begun on 14 October 1793, Marie Antoinette was convicted by the Revolutionary Tribunal of high treason, and executed by guillotine on Place de la Révolution on 16 October 1793. Maria Antonia was born on 2 November 1755, at the Hofburg Palace and she was the youngest daughter of Empress Maria Theresa, ruler of the Habsburg Empire, and her husband Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor.
Her godparents were Joseph I and Mariana Victoria and Queen of Portugal, Archduke Joseph, shortly after her birth, she was placed under the care of the Governess of the Imperial children, Countess von Brandeis. Maria Antonia was raised with her older sister Maria Carolina. As to her relationship with her mother, it was difficult, despite the private tutoring she received, results of her schooling were less than satisfactory. At the age of ten she could not write correctly in German or in any language used at court, such as French. Under the teaching of Christoph Willibald Gluck, Maria Antonia developed into a good musician and she learned to play the harp, the harpsichord and the flute. During the familys gatherings in the evenings, she would sing and she excelled at dancing, had an exquisite poise, and loved dolls. Following the Seven Years War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, on 14 May she met her husband at the edge of the forest of Compiègne.
Upon her arrival in France, she adopted the French version of her name, a further ceremonial wedding took place on 16 May 1770 in the Palace of Versailles and, after the festivities, the day ended with the ritual bedding. The lack of consummation of the marriage plagued the reputation of both Louis-Auguste and Marie Antoinette for the seven years. The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed, on the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful and well-liked by the common people. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success, on the other hand, those opposed to the alliance with Austria, and others, for personal reasons, had a difficult relationship with Marie Antoinette. Madame du Barry, for example, was Louis XVs mistress and had political influence over him
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
Princess Augusta of Bavaria
Princess Augusta of Bavaria, Duchess of Leuchtenberg was the second child and eldest daughter of Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria and Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt. Although originally promised in marriage to the heir of Baden, Charles, on 14 January 1806 in Munich, Augusta married Eugène de Beauharnais, only son of Josephine de Beauharnais and Alexandre, vicomte de Beauharnais and stepson of Napoleon. Although a diplomatic marriage, this union would turn out to be a happy one, in 1817, Augustas father created his son-in-law Duke of Leuchtenberg and Prince of Eichstädt, with the style Royal Highness. Augusta and Eugène had seven children, Princess Joséphine Maximiliane Eugénie Napoléonne de Beauharnais, married Oscar I of Sweden, himself the son of Napoleons old love, Princess Eugénie Hortense Auguste de Beauharnais, married Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen. Prince Auguste Charles Eugène Napoléon de Beauharnais, 2nd Duke of Leuchtenberg, there was no issue from this marriage.
Princess Amélie Auguste Eugénie Napoléone de Beauharnais, married Pedro I of Brazil, Princess Theodelinde Louise Eugénie Auguste Napoléone de Beauharnais, married Wilhelm, 1st Duke of Urach
Napoleon Diamond Necklace
The Napoleon Diamond Necklace is a diamond necklace commissioned by Napoleon I of France c. It is currently on display in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, the Napoleon Diamond Necklace consists of 28 mine cut diamonds set into a single thread, with a fringe of alternating pendeloque and briolettes diamond cuts. The five pear-shaped pendoloques are each mounted below a small brilliant cut diamond, the four ovaline pendeloques are mounted above designs which incorporate 23 brilliant cut diamonds each. Each briolette mounting is set with 12 rose cut diamonds, while the gems of the Napoleon Diamond Necklace have never been professionally graded by a lapidary, infrared spectroscopic analysis of the diamonds has shown that they are primarily Type Ia. However,13 of the 52 largest diamonds in the necklace are of the rare Type IIa variety, a number of the Type Ia diamonds show indications of sulfide crystal imperfections. In 1810, Napoleon I of France divorced the Empress Joséphine and he re-married two months to Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.
Within a year, Marie Louise bore a son, to celebrate, in June 1811 Napoleon I commissioned the Napoleon Diamond Necklace from the Parisian jewellery firm Nitot et Fils, at a cost of 376,274 French francs. This sum was the equivalent of the Empresss entire annual household budget, there are several contemporary portraits of Marie Louise wearing the Napoleon Diamond Necklace, including a number by the artists François Gérard and Giovan Battista Borghesi. Several years later, in 1815, Napoleon was exiled to Saint Helena, Marie Louise returned to Austria with the necklace and owned it until her death. Upon the death of Marie Louise in 1847, the passed to Archduchess Sophie of Austria. Two diamonds were removed from the necklace to shorten it, at the request of Princess Sophie and these diamonds were fitted to a pair of earrings, the location of which is now unknown. Following the death of Sophie in 1872, the Napoleon Diamond Necklace was jointly inherited by her three surviving sons, Archdukes Karl Ludwig, Ludwig Viktor, and Franz Joseph of Austria.
Karl Ludwig acquired his brothers stakes in the necklace, and upon his death in 1914 passed it to his third wife, Maria Theresa of Portugal. At the start of the Great Depression in 1929, Maria Theresa engaged two people presenting themselves as Colonel Townsend and Princess Baronti to sell the necklace for US$450,000, after resolving the incident, Maria Theresa held the necklace until her death in 1944. Four years later, the Habsburg family sold it to the French industrialist Paul-Louis Weiller, as such, he kept it intact, reselling it the same year to Marjorie Merriweather Post. Post donated the necklace to the Smithsonian Institution in 1962, and it has remained on display at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
The Napoleon Tiara was a papal tiara given to Pope Pius VII in June 1805 on the occasion of the coronation of Napoleon I and Joséphine de Beauharnais. While lavishly decorated with jewels, it was too small and heavy to be worn. The tiara, which was of traditional papal tiara design, was designed and manufactured by Henri Auguste, in total, the tiara included 3,345 precious stones and 2,990 pearls. During the insurrection of 1831, the tiara was buried in Vatican Gardens, the Vatican adjusted the size of the tiara so that it could be worn. It was used as the tiara for a number of popes. The Napoleon Tiara was last worn during the First Vatican Council in 1870, with the exception of the emerald and 8 rubies in the monde, all the jewels were removed and replaced by replicas made of coloured glass on the orders of Pope Benedict XV. The jewels were sold to raise money for the victims of the First World War. At his coronation, Napoleon promised to send the pope an altar, only the tiara was actually delivered.
Tiaras traditionally weighted between 2 and 5 pounds, the Napoleon Tiara, weighted a hefty 18 pounds. It was too small to fit comfortably on a human head, some of the jewels and decoration for this tiara came from earlier tiaras smashed and stolen by the troops of the French Directory in 1798. General Louis-Alexandre Berthier invaded Rome, established Roman Republic, abolished the Papal States, due to the destruction of the tiaras, Pope Pius VII had to use the improvised papier-mâché tiara for his coronation in 1800. The great emerald, which Pope Pius VI had to remove from his tiara in order to pay the war reparations per the Treaty of Tolentino, was placed on the tiara in the monde. The emerald was originally part of the Tiara of Pope Gregory XIII made by Cristoforo Foppa and displays Gregory XIIIs name and coat of arms. Originally, the middle of the hoop of each contained a bas-relief glorifying Napoleon, they represented the re-establishment of worship, the Concordat of 1801. These inscriptions were removed probably by Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, the Cardinal Secretary of State and they were replaced by inscriptions form the scripture, Acts 20,28 at the top, Revelation 11,4 in the middle, and Psalm 85,10 at the bottom.
In the painting of The Coronation of Napoleon by Jacques-Louis David, the tiara is held behind the pope by one of his aides, the emeralds are not in the painting. Nevertheless, the pope responded with a thank you letter on June 23,1805 and said that he intended to use the tiara for the mass on the Feast of Saints Peter
A parure is a set of various items of matching jewelry, which rose to popularity in 17th-century Europe. A parure typically consists of a combination of a necklace, brooch, bracelet. A variation is the demiparure which consists of as few as two matching pieces, such as earrings and a necklace or brooch. Cleverly, the parure was not static but modular and could be remade into more fashionable jewelry in order to stay au courant in the court and fashion-forward for the times. Members of court and higher social ranks vied for the best jewelers to create the most imaginative and elaborate collections that would astound one another, some necklaces could be worn intact or temporarily disassembled into bracelets, hair ornaments or brooches with smart interchangeable components and locking systems. Napoleon was fond of lavishing these gem suites on his beloved first wife, Joséphine, later, he gave similar sets to his second wife, Marie-Louise, including a set made from cut steel. The artisans under Louis XIV were credited with some of the first parure inventions in the 18th century, often paired with silver, were popular at that time.
The standout example was created for Mademoiselle d’Aubigné’s wedding, which included, there is a bias to towards paste parures from the period surviving to the present. The low value of the component parts making them less likely to be broken up for reuse, from the mid 19th century Parures made up of hair jewellery or Jet pieces were made for Mourning wear