Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris. Le Figaro is the oldest national daily in France and is one of the three French newspapers of record, along with Le Monde and Libération. With its center-right editorial line, Le Figaro is the second-largest national newspaper in France after Le Parisien and before Le Monde, although some regional papers such as Ouest-France have larger circulations. In 2012, the paper had an average circulation of 330,952 copies per issue; the paper is published in the berliner format, switching from a broadsheet in 2009. The newspaper is owned by Le Figaro Group owned by Dassault Group since 2004 whose publications include TV Magazine and Evene. Le Figaro was founded as a satirical weekly in 1826, taking its name and motto from Le Mariage de Figaro, the 1778 play by Pierre Beaumarchais that poked fun at privilege, its motto, from Figaro's monologue in the play's final act, is "Sans la liberté de blâmer, il n'est point d'éloge flatteur".
In 1833, editor Nestor Roqueplan fought a duel with a Colonel Gallois, offended by an article in Le Figaro, was wounded but recovered. Albert Wolff, Émile Zola, Alphonse Karr, Jules Claretie were among the paper's early contributors, it was published somewhat irregularly until 1854, when it was taken over by Hippolyte de Villemessant. In 1866, Le Figaro became a daily newspaper, its first daily edition, that of 16 November 1866, sold 56,000 copies, having highest circulation of any newspaper in France. Its editorial line was royalist. Pauline Savari was among the contributors to the paper at this time. On 16 March 1914, Gaston Calmette, the editor of Le Figaro, was assassinated by Henriette Caillaux, the wife of Finance Minister Joseph Caillaux, after he published a letter that cast serious doubt on her husband's integrity. In 1922, Le Figaro was purchased by perfume millionaire François Coty. Abel Faivre did cartoons for the paper. Coty enraged many when he renamed the paper Figaro, which it remained until 1933.
By the start of World War II, Le Figaro had become France's leading newspaper. After the war, it became the voice of the upper middle class, continues to maintain a conservative position. In 1975, Le Figaro was bought by Robert Hersant's Socpresse. In 1999, the Carlyle Group obtained a 40% stake in the paper, which it sold in March 2002. Since March 2004, Le Figaro has been controlled by Serge Dassault, a conservative businessman and politician best known for running the aircraft manufacturer Dassault Aviation, which he inherited from his father, its founder, Marcel Dassault. Dassault owns 80% of the paper. In 2006, Le Figaro was banned in Egypt and Tunisia for publishing articles insulting Islam. Le Figaro switched to Berliner format in 2009; the paper has published The New York Times International Weekly on Friday since 2009, an 8-page supplement featuring a selection of articles from The New York Times translated into French. In 2010, Lefigaro.fr created a section called Le Figaro in English, which provides the global English-speaking community with daily original or translated content from Le Figaro’s website.
The section ended in 2012. Le Figaro has traditionally held a conservative editorial stance, becoming the voice of the French upper and middle classes; the newspaper's ownership by Serge Dassault has been a source of controversy in terms of conflict-of-interest, as Dassault owns a major military supplier and has served in political positions from the Union for a Popular Movement party. His son Olivier Dassault is a member of the French National Assembly. Dassault has remarked in an interview in 2004 on the public radio station France Inter that "newspapers must promulgate healthy ideas" and that "left-wing ideas are not healthy ideas."In February 2012, a general assembly of the newspaper's journalists adopted a motion accusing the paper's managing editor, Étienne Mougeotte, of having made Le Figaro into the "bulletin" of the governing party, the Union for a Popular Movement, of the government and of President Nicolas Sarkozy. They accused the paper of one-sided political reporting. Mougeotte had said that Le Figaro would do nothing to embarrass the government and the right.
Mougeotte publicly replied: "Our editorial line pleases our readers. I don't see. We are a right-wing newspaper and we express it by the way. Our readers our journalists too. There's nothing new to that!" In the period of 1995–96, the paper had a circulation of 391,533 copies, behind Le Parisien's 451,159 copies. Libération Madame Figaro Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher; the World's Great Dailies: Profiles of Fifty Newspapers pp 124–29 Le Figaro website Le Figaro digital archives from 1826 to 1942 in Gallica, the digital library of the BnF
Gérard Lanvin is a César Award-winning French actor. He quit his studies, he took on a role in Vous n'aurez pas l'Alsace et la Lorraine in 1977 on an offer from actor Coluche. He received the Prix Jean Gabin in 1982 for his role in Une étrange affaire. In 1995 he won a César Award for Best Actor with Le Fils préféré. Other appearances include Une semaine 3 zéros. During the 2000s, he returned to the big screen with popular comedies. In 2001, he received the César Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role with The Taste of Others. Gérard Lanvin on IMDb Allociné page
Get Well Soon (film)
Get Well Soon is a 2014 French comedy film written and directed by Jean Becker. Gérard Lanvin as Pierre Laurent Fred Testot as Le capitaine Maxime Leroy Jean-Pierre Darroussin as Hervé Laurent Swann Arlaud as Camille Daniel Guichard as Serge Anne-Sophie Lapix as Florence Claudia Tagbo as Myriam Philippe Rebbot as Thierry Mona Jabeur as Maëva Louis-Do de Lencquesaing as Le chirurgien Isabelle Candelier as Claudine Laurent Maurane as Françoise Get Well Soon on IMDb
Gérard Xavier Marcel Depardieu is a French actor. He is one of the most prolific character actors in film history, having completed more than 170 films since 1967, he has received acclaim for his performances in The Last Metro, for which he won the César Award for Best Actor, in Police, for which he won the Volpi Cup for Best Actor, Jean de Florette, Cyrano de Bergerac, winning the Cannes Film Festival for Best Actor, his second César Award for Best Actor, his first Academy Award nomination for Best Actor. He co-starred in Peter Weir's comedy Green Card, winning a Golden Globe Award and acted in many big budget Hollywood movies including Ridley Scott's 1492: Conquest of Paradise, Kenneth Branagh's Hamlet, Randall Wallace's The Man in the Iron Mask, Ang Lee's Life of Pi, he is Chevalier of the Ordre national du Mérite. He was granted citizenship of Russia in January 2013, became a cultural ambassador of Montenegro during the same month. Gérard Depardieu was born in Châteauroux, France, he is one of the five children of Anne Jeanne Josèphe and René Maxime Lionel Depardieu, a metal worker and volunteer fireman.
After leaving school at the age of thirteen, he worked at a printworks. He became involved in selling stolen things, was put on probation at one point. At the age of sixteen, Depardieu left Châteauroux for Paris. There, he began acting in the new comedy theatre Café de la Gare, along with Patrick Dewaere, Romain Bouteille, Sotha and Miou-Miou, he studied dancing under Jean-Laurent Cochet. His first film role to gain attention was playing Jean-Claude in Bertrand Blier's comedy Les Valseuses. Other prominent early roles include a starring role in Bernardo Bertolucci's historical epic 1900, with Robert De Niro, a role in François Truffaut's The Last Metro, with Catherine Deneuve for which he won his first César Award for Best Actor, his international profile rose as a result of his performance as a doomed, hunchbacked farmer in the film Jean de Florette and received notice for his starring role in Cyrano de Bergerac, for which he won his second César Award for Best Actor, the Cannes Film Festival for Best Actor, received a nomination for an Academy Award.
Depardieu co-starred in Peter Weir's English language romantic comedy Green Card, for which he won a Golden Globe Award. He has since had other roles in other English language films, including Ridley Scott's 1492: Conquest of Paradise, Kenneth Branagh's Hamlet, Ang Lee's Life of Pi, he played Obélix in the four live-action Astérix films in which he is said to have discovered Mélanie Laurent when she was fourteen. In 2009, he took part in a rare performance of Sardou's La Haine at the Festival de Radio France et Montpellier Languedoc Roussillon, with Fanny Ardant. In 2013, he starred in an independent film titled A Farewell to Fools. Depardieu featured as a main character in Antwerp, a play in The Europeans Trilogy by Paris-based UK playwright Nick Awde. In 1970, Depardieu married Élisabeth Guignot, with whom he had two children, actor Guillaume and actress Julie. On 28 January 1992, while separated from Guignot, he had a daughter, with the model Karine Silla. In 1996, he divorced Guignot and began a relationship with actress Carole Bouquet, his partner from 1997 to 2005.
On 14 July 2006, he had a son, with French-Cambodian Hélène Bizot. Since 2005, Depardieu has lived with Clémentine Igou, he underwent heart surgery in July 2000. On 13 October 2008, Depardieu's son Guillaume died from pneumonia at the age of 37; the infection arose. Guillaume's health had been adversely affected by drug use. A motorcycle crash resulted in a number of post-accident operations performed in an attempt to save the leg; these were complicated by the development of post-operative wound infections necessitating the amputation of the leg. In his sixties, Depardieu attracted attention from legal authorities for his behavior. On 16 August 2011, he urinated in a bottle while on board a CityJet flight bound for Dublin as it taxied in Paris; the incident was attributed to urinary incontinence caused by a prostate problem with the flight attendant not allowing him to get up from his seat to go to the toilet because the aircraft was moving. In August 2012, he was accused of battery for punching a motorist in Paris.
In November 2012, he was arrested for driving while intoxicated after he fell from his scooter, was found to have a blood alcohol level of 1.8 grams per litre, well above the French limit for driving of 0.5. He has been an official resident of Néchin, since 7 December 2012. French prime minister Jean-Marc Ayrault criticised his move. On 15 December 2012, Depardieu publicly stated. On 3 January 2013, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed an Executive Order granting Russian citizenship to Depardieu. In his first interview thereafter, Depardieu attacked Putin's critics. In his autobiography, Depardieu said Putin "immediately liked my hooligan side." In February 2013, he registered as a resident of Saransk. In January 2013, he was appointed a cultural ambassador for Montenegro. During the summer of 2015, due to Russian-Ukrainian political issues, Depardieu was banned from television and movie theaters in Ukraine. In August 2018, he