Anise called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. Its flavor has similarities with some other spices, such as star anise and liquorice, it is cultivated and used to flavor food and alcoholic drinks around the Mediterranean. It served as a carminative in herbal medicine; the name "anise" is derived via Old French from the Latin word, anisum, or Greek, referring to dill. Anise is an herbaceous annual plant growing to 3 ft or more tall; the leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 3⁄8–2 in long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, divided into numerous small leaflets. The flowers are white 1⁄8 inch in diameter, produced in dense umbels; the fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 1⁄8–1⁄4 in long called "aniseed". Anise is a food plant for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug. Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, was brought to Europe for its medicinal value.
Anise plants grow best in light, well-drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon; because the plants have a taproot, they do not transplant well after being established, so they should either be started in their final location or be transplanted while the seedlings are still small. Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor dishes and candies; the word is used for both the species of its licorice-like flavor. The most powerful flavor component of the essential oil of anise, anethole, is found in both anise and an unrelated spice indigenous to northern China called star anise used in South Asian, Southeast Asian, East Asian dishes. Star anise is less expensive to produce, has displaced P. anisum in Western markets. While produced in larger quantities, by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tons, compared to 400 tons of star anise; as with all spices, the composition of anise varies with origin and cultivation method. These are typical values for the main constituents.
Moisture: 9–13% Protein: 18% Fatty oil: 8–23% Essential oil: 2–7% Starch: 5% N-free extract: 22–28% Crude fibre: 12–25%In particular, the anise seeds products should contain more than 0.2 milliliter volatile oil per 100 grams of spice. Anise essential oil can be obtained from the fruits by either steam distillation or extraction using supercritical carbon dioxide; the yield of essential oil is influenced by the growing conditions and extraction process, with supercritical extraction being more efficient. Regardless of the method of isolation the main component of the oil is anethole, with minor components including 4-anisaldehyde and pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methylbutyrates, amongst others. Anise is sweet and aromatic, distinguished by its characteristic flavour; the seeds, whole or ground, are used for preparation of teas and tisanes, as well as in a wide variety of regional and ethnic confectioneries, including black jelly beans, British aniseed balls and "troach" drops, Australian humbugs, New Zealand aniseed wheels, Italian pizzelle, German Pfeffernüsse and Springerle, Austrian Anisbögen, Dutch muisjes, New Mexican bizcochitos, Peruvian picarones.
It is a key ingredient in Mexican atole de anís and champurrado, similar to hot chocolate, it is taken as a digestive after meals in Pakistan and India. The Ancient Romans served spiced cakes with aniseed called mustaceoe at the end of feasts as a digestive; this tradition of serving cake at the end of festivities is the basis for the tradition of serving cake at weddings. Anise is used to flavor Greek ouzo. Outside the Mediterranean region, it is found in Mexican Xtabentún; these liquors are clear, but on addition of water become cloudy, a phenomenon known as the ouzo effect. Anise is used together with other herbs and spices in some root beers, such as Virgil's in the United States; the main use of anise in traditional European herbal medicine was for its carminative effect, as noted by John Gerard in his Great Herball, an early encyclopedia of herbal medicine: The seed wasteth and consumeth winde, is good against belchings and upbraidings of the stomacke, alaieth gripings of the belly, provoketh urine maketh abundance of milke, stirreth up bodily lust: it staieth the laske, the white flux in women.
In Turkish folk medicine, its seeds have been used as appetizer and diuretic drug. Anise has been thought a treatment for menstrual cramps and colic. In the 1860s, American Civil War nurse Maureen Hellstrom used anise seeds as an early form of antiseptic; this method was found to have caused high levels of toxicity in the blood and was discontinued shortly thereafter. According to Pliny the Elder, anise was used as a cure for sleeplessness, chewed with alexanders and a little honey in the morning to freshen the breath, when mixed with wine, as a remedy for asp bites. In 19th-century medicine, anise was prepared as aqua anisi in doses of an ounce or more and as spiritus anisi in doses of 5–20 minims. Builders of steam locomotives in Britain incorporated capsules of aniseed oil into white metal plain bearings, so
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
Louis XV of France
Louis XV, known as Louis the Beloved, was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1 September 1715 until his death in 1774. He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five; until he reached maturity on 15 February 1723, the kingdom was ruled by Philippe II, Duke of Orléans, as Regent of France. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from 1726 until the Cardinal's death in 1743, at which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom, his reign of 59 years was the second longest in the history of France, exceeded only by his predecessor and great-grandfather, Louis XIV, who had ruled for 72 years. In 1748, Louis returned the Austrian Netherlands, won at the Battle of Fontenoy of 1745, he ceded New France in North America to Spain and Great Britain at the conclusion of the disastrous Seven Years' War in 1763. He incorporated the territories of the Duchy of Lorraine and the Corsican Republic into the Kingdom of France, he was succeeded in 1774 by his grandson Louis XVI, executed by guillotine during the French Revolution.
Two of his other grandsons, Louis XVIII and Charles X, occupied the throne of France after the fall of Napoleon I. Historians give his reign low marks as wars drained the treasury and set the stage for the governmental collapse and French Revolution in the 1780s. Louis XV was the great-grandson of Louis XIV and the third son of the Duke of Burgundy, his wife Marie Adélaïde of Savoy, the eldest daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, he was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February 1710. When he was born, he was named the Duke of Anjou; the possibility of his becoming King seemed remote. However, the Grand Dauphin died of smallpox on 14 April 1711. On 12 February 1712 the mother of Louis, Marie Adélaïde, was stricken with measles and died, followed on 18 February by Louis's father, the former Duke of Burgundy, next in line for the throne. On 7 March, it was found that both Louis and his older brother, the former Duke of Brittany, had the measles; the two brothers were treated with bleeding.
On the night of 8–9 March, the new Dauphin died from the combination of the disease and the treatment. The governess of Louis, Madame de Ventadour, would not allow the doctors to bleed Louis further; when Louis XIV died on 1 September 1715, Louis, at the age of five, inherited the throne. The Ordinance of Vincennes from 1374 required that the kingdom be governed by a regent until Louis reached the age of thirteen; the title of Regent was given to his cousin Philippe, the Duke of Orleans. Louis XIV, distrusted Philippe, a renowned soldier, but was regarded by the King as an atheist and libertine; the King referred to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes. Louis XIV wanted France to be ruled by his favorite but illegitimate son, Duke of Maine, in the council. In August 1714, shortly before his own death, the King rewrote his will to restrict the powers of the regent. Philippe, nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies. Decisions were to be made by majority vote, meaning that the Regent could be outvoted by Maine's party.
Orléans saw the trap, after the death of the King, he went to the Parlement of Paris, an assembly of nobles where he had many allies, had the Parlement annul the King's will. In exchange for their support, he restored to the Parlement its droit de remontrance – the right to challenge the King's decisions, removed by Louis XIV; the droit de remontrance would impair the monarchy's functioning and marked the beginning of a conflict between the Parlement and King which led to the French Revolution in 1789. On 9 September 1715, the Regent had the young King transported away from the court in Versailles to Paris, where the Regent had his own residence in the Palais Royal. On 12 September, he performed his first official act, opening the first lit de justice of his reign at the Palais Royal. From September 1715 until January 1716 he lived in the Château de Vincennes, before moving to the Tuileries Palace. In February 1717, when he reached the age of seven, he was taken from his governess Madame Ventadour and placed in the care of François de Villeroy, the 73-year-old Duke and Maréchal de France, named as his governor in Louis XIV's will of August 1714.
Villeroy instructed the young King in court etiquette, taught him how to review a regiment, how to receive royal visitors. His guests included the Russian Tsar Peter the Great in 1717. Louis learned the skills of horseback riding and hunting, which became the great passion of the young King. In 1720, following the example of Louis XIV, Villeroy had the young Louis dance in public in two ballets at the Tuileries Palace on 24 February 1720, again in The Ballet des Elements on 31 December 1721; the shy Louis evidently did not enjoy the experience. The King's tutor was the Abbé André-Hercule de Fleury, the bishop of Fréjus, who saw that he was instructed in Latin, history
Ivry-sur-Seine is a commune in the Val-de-Marne department in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 5.3 km from the center of Paris. Paris's main Asian district, the Quartier Asiatique in the 13th arrondissement, borders the commune and now extends into the northern parts of Ivry. Asian commercial activity Chinese and Vietnamese, has increased in Ivry-sur-Seine during the past two decades; the commune contains one of the highest concentrations of Vietnamese in France, who began settling in the city in the late 1970s after the Vietnam War. Politically, Ivry-sur-Seine has demonstrated strong electoral support for the French Communist Party. Between 1925 and 2015 the office of mayor was held by just three individuals: Georges Marrane, Jacques Laloë, Pierre Gosnat, all members of the Communist Party. Ivry-sur-Seine is twinned with Bishop Auckland in England. Ivry-sur-Seine was called Ivry; the name Ivry comes from Medieval Latin Ivriacum or Ibriacum meaning "estate of Eburius", a Gallo-Roman landowner.
In 1897, the name of the commune became Ivry-sur-Seine, in order to distinguish it from other communes of France called Ivry. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, about a third of the commune of Ivry-sur-Seine was annexed to Paris, now forms the Chinatown area of the 13th arrondissement of Paris. Ivry-sur-Seine is most famous as the place of execution of Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry in March 1963. Richard Ellman notes that James Joyce's daughter, received psychiatric treatment in the commune's hospital in 1936 and was visited by both Joyce and Samuel Beckett. Fnac has its head office in the commune; the head office moved there in 2008. E. Leclerc's head office is in the commune. Ivry-sur-Seine is served by two railway stations on the Paris Métro Line 7: Pierre et Marie Curie and Mairie d'Ivry; the east of the commune is served by Ivry-sur-Seine station on Paris RER line C with stops at the Bibliothèque Nationale de France and the city centre.
Orly Airport is located to the south of Ivry-sur-Seine. Senior high schools: Collège et lycée Romain Rolland Lycée technique Fernand LégerColleges and universities: ESIEA ESME Sudria École des technologies numériques appliquées Institut polytechnique des sciences avancées IONIS School of Technology and Management As of circa 1998 Ivry and Vitry-sur-Seine had a combined Asian population of 3,600; that year about 250 Asians from those communes worked in the 13th arrondissement of Paris, the overall demographics of Ivry and Vitry Asians were similar to those in the 13th arrondissement. Luc Abalo, handball player Nicolas Appert, spent a number of years in Ivry-sur-Seine Antonin Artaud, died in Ivry-sur-Seine on 4 March 1948. Yohann Auvitu, ice hockey player Souleymane Bamba, footballer Paul Boccara and historian. Pierre-Claude-Victor Boiste and editor of the Dictionnaire universel de la langue française Yannick Bonheur, figure skater Pierre Contant d'Ivry, architect born in Ivry-sur-Seine. Mana Dembele, footballer Jean Ferrat, spent a number of years in Ivry-sur-Seine before settling in Ardèche.
Catherine Ferry, singer Reda Kateb, actor Tripy Makonda, footballer Dany N'Guessan, footballer Jean Renaudie and founder of the Atelier de Montrouge, responsible for the complete renovation of Ivry town centre. Bakary Sako, footballer Antoine Spire and writer. Maurice Thorez, former leader of the French Communist Party, elected deputy for d'Ivry-sur-Seine in 1932 until his death in 1964. Mickael Toti, basketball player Makan Traore, footballer Bano Traore, athlete Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association Ivry-sur-Seine city council website