Charles de Freycinet
Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet was a French statesman and four times Prime Minister during the Third Republic. He served an important term as Minister of War and he belonged to the Opportunist Republicans faction. He was elected a member of the Academy of Sciences, and in 1890, Freycinet was born at Foix of a Protestant family and was the nephew of Louis de Freycinet, a French navigator. Charles Freycinet was educated at the École Polytechnique and he entered government service as a mining engineer. He was sent on several special missions, including one to the UK. It was mainly Freycinets powers of organization which enabled Gambetta to raise army after army to oppose the invading Germans and he revealed himself to be a competent strategist, but the policy of dictating operations to the generals in the field was not attended with happy results. In 1871 he published a defence of his administration under the title of La Guerre en province pendant le siège de Paris. He entered the Senate in 1876 as a follower of Gambetta and he retained his post in the ministry of William Henry Waddington, whom he succeeded in December 1879 as Prime Minister and Minister for Foreign Affairs.
He passed an amnesty for the Communards, but in attempting to steer a course on the question of the religious associations, he lost Gambettas support. In January 1882 he again became Prime Minister and Foreign Minister and his refusal to join Britain in the bombardment of Alexandria was the death-knell of French influence in Egypt. He attempted to compromise by occupying the Isthmus of Suez, but the vote of credit was rejected in the Chamber by 417 votes to 75, and the ministry resigned. He returned to office in April 1885 as Foreign Minister in Henri Brissons cabinet and he came to power with an ambitious programme of internal reform, but apart from settling the question of the exiled pretenders, his successes were chiefly in the sphere of colonial extension. In spite of his skill as a parliamentary tactician, he failed to keep his party together. In April 1888 he became Minister of War in Charles Floquets cabinet — the first civilian since 1848 to hold that office. The introduction of the service and the establishment of a general staff, a supreme council of war.
His premiership was marked by heated debates on the clerical question and he failed to clear himself entirely of complicity in the Panama scandals, and in January 1893 resigned the Ministry of War. In November 1898 he once again became Minister of War in the Charles Dupuy cabinet, but resigned office on 6 May 1899
The term civil engineer was established in 1750 to contrast engineers working on civil projects with the military engineers, who worked on armaments and defenses. Over time, various sub-disciplines of civil engineering have become recognized, other engineering practices became recognized as independent engineering disciplines, including chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, and electrical engineering. In some places, an engineer may perform land surveying, in others, surveying is limited to construction surveying. Civil engineers generally work in a variety of locations and conditions, many spend time outdoors at construction sites so that they can monitor operations or solve problems onsite. The job is typically a blend of in-office and on-location work, in many countries, civil engineers are subject to licensure. In some jurisdictions with mandatory licensing, people who do not obtain a license may not call themselves civil engineers, in Belgium, Civil Engineer is a legally protected title applicable to graduates of the five-year engineering course of one of the six universities and the Royal Military Academy.
Their speciality can be all fields of engineering, structural, mechanical, chemical and this use of the title may cause confusion to the English speaker as the Belgian civil engineer can have a speciality other than civil engineering. In fact, Belgians use the adjective civil in the sense of civilian, students were required to pass an entrance exam on mathematics to start civil engineering studies. This exam was abolished in 2004 for the Flemish Community, but is organised in the French Community. Today the degree spans over all fields within engineering, like engineering, mechanical engineering, computer science, electronics engineering. A civil engineer is the most well-known of the two, the area of expertise remains obfuscated for most of the public. A noteworthy difference is the courses in mathematics and physics, regardless of the equivalent masters degree. This is because the educational system is not fully adopted to the international standard graduation system. Today this is starting to change due to the Bologna process, a Scandinavian civilingenjör will in international contexts commonly call herself Master of Science in Engineering and will occasionally wear an engineering class ring.
At the Norwegian Institute of Technology, the tradition with an NTH Ring goes back to 1914, in Norway, the title Sivilingeniør will no longer be issued after 2007, and has been replaced with Master i teknologi. In the English translation of the diploma, the title will be Master of Science, since Master of Technology is not a title in the English-speaking world. The extra overlapping year of studies have been abolished with this change to make Norwegian degrees more equal to their international counterparts, in Spain, a civil engineering degree can be obtained after four years of study in the various branches of mathematics, mechanics, etc. The earned degree is called Grado en Ingeniería Civil, further studies at a graduate school include masters and doctoral degrees
Pedro II of Brazil
Dom Pedro II, nicknamed the Magnanimous, was the second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil, reigning for over 58 years. Born in Rio de Janeiro, he was the child of Emperor Dom Pedro I of Brazil and Empress Dona Maria Leopoldina. His fathers abrupt abdication and departure to Europe in 1831 left a five-year-old Pedro II as Emperor and led to a grim and lonely childhood, obliged to spend his time studying in preparation for rule, he knew only brief moments of happiness and encountered few friends of his age. Inheriting an Empire on the verge of disintegration, Pedro II turned Portuguese-speaking Brazil into a power in the international arena. Brazil was victorious in three international conflicts under his rule, as well as prevailing in other international disputes. Pedro II steadfastly pushed through the abolition of slavery despite opposition from powerful political, a savant in his own right, the Emperor established a reputation as a vigorous sponsor of learning and the sciences. Pedro II had become weary of emperorship and despaired over the future prospects.
He did not allow his ouster to be opposed and did not support any attempt to restore the monarchy and he spent the last two years of his life in exile in Europe, living alone on very little money. The men who had exiled him soon began to see in him a model for the Brazilian republic, a few decades after his death, his reputation was restored and his remains were returned to Brazil with celebrations nationwide. Historians have regarded the Emperor in a positive light and several have ranked him as the greatest Brazilian. Pedro was born at 02,30 on 2 December 1825 in the Palace of São Cristóvão, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Named after St. Peter of Alcantara, his name in full was Pedro de Alcântara João Carlos Leopoldo Salvador Bibiano Francisco Xavier de Paula Leocádio Miguel Gabriel Rafael Gonzaga. Through his father, Emperor Dom Pedro I, he was a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of Braganza and was referred to using the honorific Dom from birth and he was the grandson of Portuguese King Dom João VI and nephew of Dom Miguel I.
His mother was the Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria, daughter of Franz II, through his mother, Pedro was a nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte and first cousin of Emperors Napoleon II of France, Franz Joseph I of Austria-Hungary and Don Maximiliano I of Mexico. The only legitimate child of Pedro I to survive infancy. Empress Maria Leopoldina died on 11 December 1826, a few days after a stillbirth, Two and a half years later, his father married Amélie of Leuchtenberg. Prince Pedro developed a relationship with her, whom he came to regard as his mother. He and Amélie immediately departed for Europe, leaving behind the Prince Imperial, upon leaving the country, Emperor Pedro I selected three people to take charge of his son and remaining daughters
Georges Ernest Boulanger
Georges Ernest Jean-Marie Boulanger, nicknamed Général Revanche, was a French general and politician. His base of support was the districts of Paris and other cities, plus rural traditionalist Catholics. He promoted an aggressive nationalism, known as Revanchism, which opposed Germany, the elections of September 1889 marked a decisive defeat for the Boulangists. The defeat of the Boulangists ushered in a period of dominance by the Opportunist Republicans. Academics have attributed the failure of the movement to Boulangers own weaknesses, despite his charisma, he lacked coolness and decisiveness, he was a mediocre leader who lacked vision and courage. He was never able to unite the disparate elements, ranging from the far left to the far right and he was able, however, to frighten Republicans and force them to reorganize and strengthen their solidarity in opposition to him. Born in Rennes, Boulanger graduated from Saint-Cyr and entered service in the French Army in 1856. He fought in the Austro-Sardinian War, and in the occupation of Cochin China, after which he became a captain, during the Franco-Prussian War, Georges Boulanger was noted for his bravery, and soon promoted to chef de bataillon, he was again wounded while fighting at Champigny-sur-Marne.
Subsequently, Boulanger was among the Third Republic military leaders who crushed the Paris Commune in April–May 1871 and he was wounded a third time as he led troops to the siege of the Panthéon, and was promoted commandeur of the Légion dhonneur by Patrice Mac-Mahon. However, he was demoted, and his resignation in protest was rejected. In 1884 he was appointed to command the army occupying Tunis, but was recalled owing to his differences of opinion with Pierre-Paul Cambon and he returned to Paris, and began to take part in politics under the aegis of Georges Clemenceau and the Radicals. In January 1886, when Charles de Freycinet was brought into power, Clemenceau assumed Boulanger was a republican, because he was known not to attend Mass. However Boulanger would soon prove himself a conservative and monarchist and it was in the capacity of War Minister that Boulanger gained most popularity. He introduced reforms for the benefit of soldiers and appealed to the French desire for revenge against Imperial Germany—in doing so and he managed to quell the major workers strike in Decazeville.
The French Parliament hastily passed a law expelling all possible claimants to the crown from French territories, Boulanger communicated to dAumale his expulsion from the armed forces. He received the adulation of the public and the press after the Sino-French War and he vigorously pressed for the accelerated adoption, in 1886, of the new and technically revolutionary Lebel rifle which introduced for the first time smokeless powder high-velocity ammunition. On Freycinets defeat in December of the year, Boulanger was retained by René Goblet at the war office. For the Goblet government, Boulanger was an embarrassment and risk, on 17 May Goblet was voted out of office and replaced by Maurice Rouvier
Exposition Universelle (1889)
The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a worlds fair held in Paris, from 6 May to 31 October 1889. It was held during the year of the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, an event considered symbolic of the beginning of the French Revolution. The 1889 Exposition covered an area of 0.96 km2, including the Champ de Mars, the Trocadéro, the quai dOrsay, a part of the Seine. Transport around the Exposition was partly provided by a 3 kilometre 600 millimetre gauge railway by Decauville and it was claimed that the railway carried 6,342,446 visitors in just six months of operation. Some of the used on this line saw service on the Chemins de Fer du Calvados. The main symbol of the Fair was the Eiffel Tower, which served as the arch to the Fair. The 1889 fair was held on the Champ de Mars in Paris, which had been the site of the earlier Paris Universal Exhibition of 1867, since the lifts had not been completed when the Exposition opened, the first visitors had to walk up to the second floor platform.
Workers had worked through the night the day before the exhibition opened to complete the construction needed to safely allow patrons to set foot upon the structure. No one other than construction personnel were allowed higher than the second floor platform, an equally significant building constructed for the fair was the Galerie des machines, designed by architect Ferdinand Dutert and engineer Victor Contamin. It was reused at the exposition of 1900 and destroyed in 1910, at 111 meters, the Galerie spanned the longest interior space in the world at the time, using a system of hinged arches made of steel or iron. Although often described as being constructed of steel, it was made of iron. There is a description, with illustrations, of the Expositions two famous buildings in the British journal Engineering. A follow-up report appears a late issue with this summation, the exhibition will be famous for four distinctive features, the 28 June issue of Engineering mentions a remarkable Great Model of the Earth created by Theodore Villard and Charles Cotard.
There were unseasonal thunderstorms in Paris during that summer of 1889, causing distress to the canopies and decoration of the exposition. The Exhibition included a building by the Paris architect Pierre-Henri Picq and this was an elaborate iron and glass structure decorated with ceramic tiles in a Byzantine-Egyptian-Romanesque style. After the Exposition the building was shipped to Fort de France and reassembled there, known as the Schoelcher Library, initially it contained the 10,000 books that Victor Schoelcher had donated to the island. Today it houses over 250,000 books and an ethnographic museum, a Negro village where 400 people were displayed constituted the major attraction. At the Exposition, the French composer Claude Debussy first heard Javanese gamelan music and this influenced some of his compositions
Charles Thomas Floquet was a French statesman. He studied law in Paris, and was called to the bar in 1851, the coup détat of that year aroused the strenuous opposition of Floquet, who had, while yet a student, given proof of his republican sympathies by taking part in the fighting of 1848. He made his name by his brilliant and fearless attacks on the government in a series of political trials, when the tsar Alexander II visited the Palais de Justice in 1867, Floquet was said to have confronted him with the cry Vive la Pologne, monsieur. In 1871 he was elected to the National Assembly by the département of the Seine, during the Commune he formed the Ligue d’union républicaine des droits de Paris to attempt a reconciliation with the government of Versailles. When his efforts failed, he left Paris, and was imprisoned by order of Thiers and he became editor of the Republique Française, was chosen president of the municipal council, and in 1876 was elected deputy for the eleventh arrondissement.
He took a prominent place among the radicals, and became president of the group of the Union républicaine. In 1882 he held for a time the post of prefect of the Seine. In 1885 he succeeded Henri Brisson as president of the chamber and this difficult position he filled with such tact and impartiality that he was re-elected the two following years. Heated debates in the chamber culminated on 13 July in a duel between Floquet and Boulanger in which the latter was wounded, in the following February the government fell on the question of revision, and in the new chamber of November Floquet was re-elected to the presidential chair. See Discours et opinions de M. Charles Floquet, edited by Albert Faivre and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. Floquet, Charles Thomas. Media related to Charles Floquet at Wikimedia Commons
Republicanism is an ideology of being a citizen in a state as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty. Many countries are republics in the sense that they are not monarchies, this article covers only the ideology of republicanism. This form of government collapsed in the part of the 1st century BCE, giving way to what was a monarchy in form. Republics revived subsequently, for example, Renaissance Florence or early modern Britain, the concept of a republic became a powerful force in Britains North American colonies where it led to the American Revolution. In Europe, it gained influence through the French Revolution. In Ancient Greece, several philosophers and historians analysed and described elements we now recognize as classical republicanism, the Greek concept of politeia was rendered into Latin as res publica. Consequently, political theory until relatively recently often used republic in the sense of regime. There is no single written expression or definition from this era that exactly corresponds with an understanding of the term republic.
However, most of the features of the modern definition are present in the works of Plato, Aristotle. These include theories of mixed government and of civic virtue, for example, in The Republic, Plato places great emphasis on the importance of civic virtue together with personal virtue on the part of the ideal rulers. Indeed, in Book V, Plato asserts that until rulers have the nature of philosophers or philosophers become the rulers, there can be no civic peace or happiness. Aristotle considered Carthage to have been a republic as it had a system similar to that of some of the Greek cities, notably Sparta. Some of this history, composed more than 500 years after the events, with scant written sources to rely on, Polybius exerted a great influence on Cicero as he wrote his politico-philosophical works in the 1st century BCE. In one of works, De re publica, Cicero linked the Roman concept of res publica to the Greek politeia. However, the term republic, despite its derivation, is not synonymous with the Roman res publica.
This Roman Republic would, by an understanding of the word, still be defined as a true republic. Thus, Enlightenment philosophers saw the Roman Republic as an ideal system, several offices from the republican era, held by individuals, were combined under the control of a single person. These changes became permanent, and gradually conferred sovereignty on the Emperor, ciceros description of the ideal state, in De re publica, does not equate to a modern-day republic, it is more like enlightened absolutism
Seine-Maritime is a department of France in the Normandy region of northern France. It is situated on the northern coast of France, at the mouth of the Seine, until 1955 it was named Seine-Inférieure. 1815 - Occupation After the victory at Waterloo of the coalition armies,1843 – Railways and industry In Rouen and Bolbec, the number of textile factories is increasing. Metallurgy and naval construction as well, world War II Occupied by the Wehrmacht, Seine-Inférieure is the witness of two Allied military raids in 1942, the Bruneval raid and Dieppe raid. The department can be split into three areas, The Seine valley. The Seine flows through the provincial capital Rouen, the northern coastline, including the towns of Dieppe and Le Havre. The Norman Pays de Bray, with its hills and bocage landscape, the département was created in 1790 as Seine-Inférieure, one of five departements that replaced the former province of Normandy. In 1800 five arrondissements were created within the département, namely Rouen, Le Havre, Dieppe and Yvetot, in 1843 the railway from Paris reached the region.
The département is connected to the adjacent Eure department via the Tancarville, madame Bovary by Gustave Flaubert is set in Seine Maritime. The first story of long-running series Valérian and Laureline is set in Seine-Maritime, with the character Laureline originating from the area
National Assembly (France)
The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic. The upper house is the Senate, the National Assemblys members are known as députés. There are 577 députés, each elected by a constituency through a two-round voting system. Thus,289 seats are required for a majority, the assembly is presided over by a president, normally from the largest party represented, assisted by vice-presidents from across the represented political spectrum. The term of the National Assembly is five years, however and it is guarded by Republican Guards. The Constitution of the French Fifth Republic greatly increased the power of the executive at the expense of Parliament, the President of the Republic can decide to dissolve the National Assembly and call for new legislative elections. This is meant as a way to resolve stalemates where the Assembly cannot decide on a political direction. The National Assembly can overthrow the government by a vote of no confidence. For this reason, the minister and his cabinet are necessarily from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly.
The Government used to set the priorities of the agenda for the Assemblys sessions and this, was amended on 23 July 2008. Under the amended constitution, the Government sets the priorities for two weeks in a month, another week is designated for the Assemblys control prerogatives. And the fourth one is set by the Assembly, one day per month is set by a minority or opposition group. Members of the assembly can ask written or oral questions to ministers, the Wednesday afternoon 3 p. m. session of questions to the Government is broadcast live on television. Like Prime Ministers Questions in Britain, it is largely a show for the viewers, with members of the majority asking flattering questions, while the opposition tries to embarrass the government. Since 1988, the 577 deputies are elected by universal suffrage with a two-round system by constituency, for a five-year mandate. The constituencies each have approximately 100,000 inhabitants, districts were not redrawn between 1982 and 2009. As a result of population movements over that period, there were inequalities between the less populous rural districts and the urban districts, the constituencies were redrawn in 2009, but this redistribution was controversial.
Among other controversial measures, it created eleven constituencies and seats for French residents overseas, albeit without increasing the overall number of seats beyond 577