A memoir is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life. The assertions made in the work are understood to be factual. While memoir has been defined as a subcategory of biography or autobiography since the late 20th century, the genre is differentiated in form, presenting a narrowed focus. A biography or autobiography tells the story "of a life", while a memoir tells a story "from a life", such as touchstone events and turning points from the author's life; the author of a memoir may be referred to a memorialist. Memoirs have been written since the ancient times, as shown by Julius Caesar's Commentarii de Bello Gallico known as Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. In the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars, his second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events that took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
The noted Libanius, teacher of rhetoric who lived between an estimated 314 and 394 AD, framed his life memoir as one of his literary orations, which were written to be read aloud in the privacy of his study. This kind of memoir refers to the idea in ancient Greece and Rome, that memoirs were like "memos", or pieces of unfinished and unpublished writing, which a writer might use as a memory aid to make a more finished document on; the Sarashina Nikki is an example of an early Japanese memoir, written in the Heian period. A genre of book writing, Nikki Bungaku, emerged during this time. In the Middle Ages, Geoffrey of Villehardouin, Jean de Joinville, Philippe de Commines wrote memoirs, while the genre was represented toward the end of the Renaissance, through the works of Blaise de Montluc and Margaret of Valois, that she was the first woman to write her Memoirs in modern-style; until the Age of Enlightenment encompassing the 17th and 18th centuries, works of memoir were written by Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury.
While Saint-Simon was considered a writer possessing a high level of skill for narrative and character development, it wasn't until well after his death that his work as a memoirist was recognized, resulting in literary fame. Over the latter half of the 18th through the mid-20th century, memoirists included those who were noted within their chosen profession; these authors wrote as a way to publish their own account of their public exploits. Authors included politicians or people in court society and were joined by military leaders and businessmen. An exception to these models is Henry David Thoreau's 1854 memoir Walden, which presents his experiences over the course of two years in a cabin he built near Walden Pond. Twentieth-century war memoirs became a genre of their own, from the First World War, Ernst Jünger and Frederic Manning's Her Privates We. Memoirs documenting incarceration by Nazi Germany during the war include Primo Levi's If This Is a Man, which covers his arrest as a member of the Italian Resistance Movement, followed by his life as a prisoner in Auschwitz.
In the early 1990s, memoirs written by ordinary people experienced a sudden upsurge, as an increasing number of people realized that their ancestors’ and their own stories were about to disappear, in part as a result of the opportunities and distractions of technological advances. At the same time and other research began to show that familiarity with genealogy helps people find their place in the world and that life review helps people come to terms with their own past. With the advent of inexpensive digital book production in the first decade of the 21st century, the genre exploded. Memoirs written as a way to pass down a personal legacy, rather than as a literary work of art or historical document, are emerging as a personal and family responsibility; the Association of Personal Historians formed in Amherst, Massachusetts, in the early days of the modern memoir, as an international trade association for professionals who assist individuals and organizations in documenting their life stories, preferably in archival formats.
With the expressed interest of preserving history through the eyes of those who lived it, some organizations work with potential memoirists to bring their work to fruition. The Veterans History Project, for example, compiles the memoirs of those who have served in a branch of the United States Armed Forces – those who have seen active combat. Association of Personal Historians Diary Fake memoirs Histoire de ma vie Last will and testament Time Magazine. Memoir Network
A biography, or bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work and death. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae, a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting various aspects of his or her life, including intimate details of experience, may include an analysis of the subject's personality. Biographical works are non-fiction, but fiction can be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs. An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded as a subsection of history with a focus on a particular individual of historical importance; the independent genre of biography as distinct from general history writing, began to emerge in the 18th century and reached its contemporary form at the turn of the 20th century.
One of the earliest biographers was Cornelius Nepos, who published his work Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae in 44 BC. Longer and more extensive biographies were written in Greek by Plutarch, in his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A. D. In this work famous Greeks are paired with famous Romans, for example the orators Demosthenes and Cicero, or the generals Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. Another well-known collection of ancient biographies is De vita Caesarum by Suetonius, written about AD 121 in the time of the emperor Hadrian. In the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the early history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits and priests used this historic period to write biographies, their subjects were restricted to the church fathers, martyrs and saints. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity.
One significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard. In Medieval Islamic Civilization, similar traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad and other important figures in the early history of Islam began to be written, beginning the Prophetic biography tradition. Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards, they contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period. The earliest biographical dictionaries focused on the lives of the prophets of Islam and their companions, with one of these early examples being The Book of The Major Classes by Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi, and began the documentation of the lives of many other historical figures who lived in the medieval Islamic world. By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings and tyrants began to appear; the most famous of such biographies was Le Morte d'Arthur by Sir Thomas Malory.
The book was an account of his Knights of the Round Table. Following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives. Vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early "bestseller". Two other developments are noteworthy: the development of the printing press in the 15th century and the gradual increase in literacy. Biographies in the English language began appearing during the reign of Henry VIII. John Foxe's Actes and Monuments, better known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs, was the first dictionary of the biography in Europe, followed by Thomas Fuller's The History of the Worthies of England, with a distinct focus on public life. Influential in shaping popular conceptions of pirates, A General History of the Pyrates, by Charles Johnson, is the prime source for the biographies of many well-known pirates.
A notable early collection of biographies of eminent men and women in the United Kingdom was Biographia Britannica edited by William Oldys. The American biography followed the English model, incorporating Thomas Carlyle's view that biography was a part of history. Carlyle asserted that the lives of great human beings were essential to understanding society and its institutions. While the historical impulse would remain a strong element in early American biography, American writers carved out a distinct approach. What emerged was a rather didactic form of biography, which sought to shape the individual character of a reader in the process of defining national character; the first modern biography, a work which exerted considerable influence on the evolution of the genre, was James Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson, a biography of lexicographer and man-of-letters Samuel Johnson published in 1791. While Boswell's personal acquaintance with his subject only began in 1763, when Johnson was 54 years old, Boswell covered the entirety of Johnson's life by means of additional research.
Itself an important stage in the development of the modern genre of biography, it has been claimed to be the greatest biography writte
Hôtel-Dieu de Paris
The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris founded by Saint Landry in 651 AD is the oldest hospital in the city of Paris, is the most central of the Assistance publique - hôpitaux de Paris hospitals. The hospital is associated with the Faculté de Médecine Paris-Descartes, it still resides on the bank of the Île de la Cité, next to Notre-Dame, connected to the "Rive Gauche" by the pont au Double. Although the facility had been ravaged by disastrous fires on several occasions, the two buildings of the facility were built in the 7th and 17th centuries, it was built as a symbol of hospitality. It was the only hospital in Paris until the Renaissance; the Hôtel-Dieu was founded by Saint Landry in 651 AD, is considered to be the first hospital in the city and the oldest worldwide still operating. The history of Parisian hospitals dates from the Middle Ages. Poverty was widespread during that period, the Hôtel-Dieu became an opportunity for many of the bourgeois and nobility to come to its aid, their efforts allowed the construction of the Hôpital de la Charité, which linked piety and medical care.
Like many hospitals of that era, it started as a general institution catering for the poor and sick, offering food and shelter in addition to medical care. The creation of the Hôtel-Dieu continued this tradition of charity up until the 19th century, despite being called into question during the centuries which followed. In the 16th century the Hôtel-Dieu faced a financial crisis, as it was only financed by help, subsidies or privileges; this brought about the creation in 1505 of a council of laymen governors: the Presidents of Parliament, the Chambre des Comptes, the Cour des Aides and the Prévôt des Marchands. The state progressively intervened, firstly by the intermediary of the Lieutenant Général de Police, member of the Bureau de l’Hôtel-Dieu de Paris in 1690 by the intermediary of Jacques Necker, who created the roles of Inspecteur général des hôpitaux civils et des maisons de force and Commissaire du roi pour tout ce qui a trait aux hôpitaux. During this period, the image of the poor changed.
The 17th century elite created establishments to house the poor. Hospitals thus took the name of "Hôpital Général" or "Hôpital d'enfermement", of which the Hôtel-Dieu was one; the centralized approach to extreme poverty in France was based on the premise that medical care was a right for those without family or income, formalized the admission process in hospitals to prevent overcrowding and unsanitary conditions. In parallel to her husband's work on the management of hospitals, Madame Necker progressively modified the symbolism of hospitals: from charity to benevolence. In addition, the ideas advocated by the Siècle des Lumières allowed reflection on hospitals; however it was not until the end of the 18th century that hospitals became a "curing machine", where the patient is treated and leaves cured. Previous Paris hospitals were characterized with poor sanitation and treatment followed by high mortality rate; the Hôtel-Dieu had a mortality rate close to 25%. Testimonies revealed that at least 3 patients shared one hospital bed, attempts at isolating contagious diseases were and women would have to share beds while giving birth.
The 1,200 beds in the hospital were inadequate for housing its over 3,500 patients. Conditions enhanced in 1787, when the Hôtel-Dieu implemented a code of medical services that shifted the hospital from a curing machine run by nuns to a medical and surgical establishment run by doctors. By the 19th century hospitals became places of teaching and medical research in addition to practicing medicine; the Hôtel-Dieu, had received a high status as a surgical training institution by the late 18th century with the appointment of Pierre J. Desault as chef de service in 1785. Desault established an elaborate educational program for surgical interns when they had only informal training. In 1772 a fire destroyed a large part of the Hôtel-Dieu, not rebuilt until the reign of Napoléon; this fire sparked discussions over the conditions and possible reforms that would be made to the Hospital system. Other designs were built and numerous modifications made. King Louis XV ordered the demolition of Hôtel Dieu in 1773 after hearing of its poor patient conditions.
The execution of the order was delayed due to the King's death and the ascension of Louis XVI, persuaded of an alternate plan to reconstruct the damaged parts of the hospital. This scheme was submitted to the Academy of Sciences for review, debate regarding Hôtel Dieu extended until 1785 as it transformed into discussions about the reformation of Paris's hospital system. Before the revolution, Many problems had been identified and solutions had been proposed regarding France's medical services. Jacques Tenon's Mémoires sur les hôpitaux de Paris, discusses the horrendous sanitary conditions, overcrowding facilities and high mortality rates of the Paris hospitals, he mentions that Hôtel-Dieu had a mortality rate of 25 percent, making it "the most unhealthy and uncomfortable of all hospitals." Though it was the largest of Paris' hospitals with 1,200 beds, many beds held three or more patients– women gave birth in shared beds and there was no separation amongst patients with contagious diseases.
In 1801, the Parisian hospitals adopted a new administrative framework: the Conseil général des hôpitaux et hospices civils de Paris. This willingness to improve management brought a
Middlemarch, A Study of Provincial Life is a novel by the English author George Eliot, first published in eight instalments in 1871–1872. The novel is set in the fictitious Midlands town of Middlemarch during 1829–1832, follows several distinct, intersecting stories with a large cast of characters. Issues include the status of women, the nature of marriage, self-interest, hypocrisy, political reform, education. Despite comic elements, Middlemarch is a work of realism encompassing historical events: the 1832 Reform Act, the beginnings of the railways, the death of King George IV and succession of his brother, the Duke of Clarence, it incorporates contemporary medicine and examines the reactionary views of a settled community facing unwelcome change. Eliot began writing the two pieces that would form Middlemarch in the years 1869–1870 and completed the novel in 1871. Although initial reviews were mixed, it is now seen as her best work and one of the great novels in English. Middlemarch originates in two unfinished pieces that Eliot worked on during the years 1869 and 1870: the novel "Middlemarch" and the long story "Miss Brooke".
The former piece is first mentioned in her journal on 1 January 1869 as one of the tasks for the coming year. In August she began writing, but progress ceased in the following month amidst a lack of confidence about it and distraction caused by the illness of George Henry Lewes's son Thornie, dying of tuberculosis. Following Thornie's death on 19 October 1869, all work on the novel stopped. In December she writes of having begun another story, on a subject that she had considered "ever since I began to write fiction". By the end of the month she had written a hundred pages of this story and entitled it "Miss Brooke". Although a precise date is unknown, the process of incorporating material from "Middlemarch" into the story she had been working on was ongoing by March 1871. In the process of composition, Eliot compiled a notebook of hundreds of literary quotations including excerpts from poets, playwrights and critics in eight different languages. By May 1871, the growing length of the novel had become a concern to Eliot, as it threatened to exceed the three-volume format, the norm in publishing.
The issue was compounded by the fact that Eliot's most recent novel, Felix Holt, the Radical —also set in the same pre-Reform Bill England—had not sold well. The publisher John Blackwood, who had made a loss on acquiring the English rights to that novel, was approached by Lewes in his role as Eliot's literary agent, he suggested that the novel be brought out in eight two-monthly parts, borrowing from the method of Victor Hugo's novel Les Misérables. This was an alternative to the monthly issuing that had occurred for such longer works as David Copperfield and Vanity Fair, it avoided the objections of Eliot herself to the cutting up of her novel into small parts. Blackwood agreed to the venture, though he acknowledged "there will be complaints of a want of the continuous interest in the story" due to the independence of each volume; the eight books duly appeared throughout the last three instalments being issued monthly. With the deaths of William Makepeace Thackeray and Charles Dickens, Eliot was "generally recognised as the greatest living English novelist" at the time of the novel's final publication.
Middlemarch centres on the lives of the residents of Middlemarch, a fictitious Midlands town, from 1829 onwards — the years preceding the 1832 Reform Act. The narrative is variably considered to consist of three or four plots of unequal emphasis: the life of Dorothea Brooke; the two main plots are those of Lydgate. Each plot happens concurrently, although Bulstrode's is centred in the chapters. Dorothea Brooke is a 19-year-old orphan, living with her younger sister, under the guardianship of her uncle, Mr Brooke. Dorothea is an pious young woman, whose hobby involves the renovation of buildings belonging to the tenant farmers, though her uncle discourages her. Dorothea is courted by Sir James Chettam, a young man close to her own age, but she remains oblivious to him, she is instead attracted to The Reverend Edward Casaubon, 45, Dorothea accepts his offer of marriage, despite her sister's misgivings. Chettam is meanwhile encouraged to turn his attention to Celia, who has developed an interest in him.
Fred and Rosamond Vincy are the eldest children of Middlemarch's town mayor. Having never finished university, Fred is considered a failure and a layabout, but he allows himself to coast because he is the presumed heir of his childless uncle Mr Featherstone, an unpleasant, though rich man. Featherstone keeps a niece of his through marriage, Mary Garth, as a companion, though she is considered plain, Fred is in love with her and wants to marry her. On their honeymoon in Rome and Casaubon experience the first tensions in their marriage when Dorothea finds that her husband has no interest in involving her with his intellectual pursuits, her chief reason for marrying him, she meets Casaubon's much younger cousin whom he supports financially. Ladislaw begins to feel attracted to Dorothea, though she remains oblivious, the two become friendly. Fred finds himself unable to repay the money. Having asked Mr Garth, Mary's father, to co
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".a Where vitalism explicitly invokes a vital principle, that element is referred to as the "vital spark", "energy" or "élan vital", which some equate with the soul. In the 18th and 19th centuries vitalism was discussed among biologists, between those who felt that the known mechanics of physics would explain the difference between life and non-life and vitalists who argued that the processes of life could not be reduced to a mechanistic process; some vitalist biologists proposed testable hypotheses meant to show inadequacies with mechanistic explanations, but these experiments failed to provide support for vitalism. Biologists now consider vitalism in this sense to have been refuted by empirical evidence, hence regard it as a superseded scientific theory. Vitalism has a long history in medical philosophies: many traditional healing practices posited that disease results from some imbalance in vital forces.
The notion that bodily functions are due to a vitalistic principle existing in all living creatures has roots going back at least to ancient Egypt. In Greek philosophy, the Milesian school proposed natural explanations deduced from materialism and mechanism. However, by the time of Lucretius, this account was supplemented, in Stoic physics, the pneuma assumed the role of logos. Galen believed. In Europe, medieval physics was influenced by the idea of pneuma, helping to shape aether theories. Vitalists included the Italian doctor Marcello Malpighi. Caspar Friedrich Wolff is considered to be the father of epigenesis in embryology, that is, he marks the point when embryonic development began to be described in terms of the proliferation of cells rather than the incarnation of a preformed soul. However, this degree of empirical observation was not matched by a mechanistic philosophy: in his Theoria Generationis, he tried to explain the emergence of the organism by the actions of a vis essentialis, stating "All believers in epigenesis are vitalists."
Carl Reichenbach developed the theory of Odic force, a form of life-energy that permeates living things. In the 17th century, modern science responded to Newton's action at a distance and the mechanism of Cartesian dualism with vitalist theories: that whereas the chemical transformations undergone by non-living substances are reversible, so-called "organic" matter is permanently altered by chemical transformations. Johann Friedrich Blumenbach was influential in establishing epigenesis in the life sciences in 1781 with his publication of Über den Bildungstrieb und das Zeugungsgeschäfte. Blumenbach established that the removed parts would regenerate, he inferred the presence of a "formative drive" in living matter. But he pointed out that this name, "like names applied to every other kind of vital power, of itself, explains nothing: it serves to designate a peculiar power formed by the combination of the mechanical principle with that, susceptible of modification". In the early 18th century, the physicians Marie François Xavier Bichat and John Hunter recognized a "living principle" in addition to mechanics.
Jöns Jakob Berzelius, one of the early 19th century fathers of modern chemistry, argued that a regulative force must exist within living matter to maintain its functions. Vitalist chemists predicted that organic materials could not be synthesized from inorganic components, but Friedrich Wöhler synthesised urea from inorganic components in 1828. However, contemporary accounts do not support the common belief that vitalism died when Wöhler made urea; this Wöhler Myth, as historian Peter Ramberg called it, originated from a popular history of chemistry published in 1931, which, "ignoring all pretense of historical accuracy, turned Wöhler into a crusader who made attempt after attempt to synthesize a natural product that would refute vitalism and lift the veil of ignorance, until'one afternoon the miracle happened'". Between 1833 and 1844, Johannes Peter Müller wrote a book on physiology called Handbuch der Physiologie, which became the leading textbook in the field for much of the nineteenth century.
The book showed Müller's commitments to vitalism. He describes in detail the circulatory, respiratory, endocrine and sensory systems in a wide variety of animals but explains that the presence of a soul makes each organism an indivisible whole, he claimed the behavior of light and sound waves showed that living organisms possessed a life-energy for which physical laws could never account. Louis Pasteur after his famous rebuttal of spontaneous generation, performed several experiments that he felt supported vitalism. According to Bechtel, Pasteur "fitted fermentation into a more general programme describing special reactions that only occur in living organisms; these are irreducibly vital phenomena." Rejecting the claims of Berzelius, Liebig and others that fermentation resulted from chemical agents or catalysts within cells, Pasteur concluded that fermentation was a "vital action". Hans Driesch interpreted his experiments as showing, his main argument was that when one cuts up an embryo after its first division or two, each part grows in
Nantua is a commune and subprefecture in the Ain department in eastern France. The usual demonym for its inhabitants is Nantuatien. Indeed, Nantua has long been a town of shoemakers, it is located in the Haut-Bugey region, among the southern foothills of the Jura Mountains, is famous for its fresh-water fish and crayfish. The town grew up around a Benedictine Monastery founded in 671 by St. Amand and the church of St Peter where the body of Charles the Bald was buried; the Priory of Nantua was burned in 1230 by Etienne I of Thoire-Villars. Boniface of Savoy, Archbishop of Canterbury was selected Prior of Nantua in 1232. Nantua faces a small lake on its west side and is protected by high cliffs on its landward sides which gives rise to a mild continental climate. Nantua is twinned with: Brembilla, Italy Communes of the Ain department Sauce Nantua INSEE Town council website Tourism office website
Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury. The word pathology refers to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices. However, when used in the context of modern medical treatment, the term is used in a more narrow fashion to refer to processes and tests which fall within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," an area which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease through analysis of tissue and body fluid samples. Idiomatically, "a pathology" may refer to the predicted or actual progression of particular diseases, the affix path is sometimes used to indicate a state of disease in cases of both physical ailment and psychological conditions. A physician practicing pathology is called a pathologist; as a field of general inquiry and research, pathology addresses four components of disease: cause, mechanisms of development, structural alterations of cells, the consequences of changes.
In common medical practice, general pathology is concerned with analyzing known clinical abnormalities that are markers or precursors for both infectious and non-infectious disease and is conducted by experts in one of two major specialties, anatomical pathology and clinical pathology. Further divisions in specialty exist on the basis of the involved sample types and physiological systems, as well as on the basis of the focus of the examination. Pathology is a significant field in medical research; the study of pathology, including the detailed examination of the body, including dissection and inquiry into specific maladies, dates back to antiquity. Rudimentary understanding of many conditions was present in most early societies and is attested to in the records of the earliest historical societies, including those of the Middle East and China. By the Hellenic period of ancient Greece, a concerted causal study of disease was underway, with many notable early physicians having developed methods of diagnosis and prognosis for a number of diseases.
The medical practices of the Romans and those of the Byzantines continued from these Greek roots, but, as with many areas of scientific inquiry, growth in understanding of medicine stagnated some after the Classical Era, but continued to develop throughout numerous cultures. Notably, many advances were made in the medieval era of Islam, during which numerous texts of complex pathologies were developed based on the Greek tradition. So, growth in complex understanding of disease languished until knowledge and experimentation again began to proliferate in the Renaissance and Baroque eras, following the resurgence of the empirical method at new centers of scholarship. By the 17th century, the study of microscopy was underway and examination of tissues had led British Royal Society member Robert Hooke to coin the word "cell", setting the stage for germ theory. Modern pathology began to develop as a distinct field of inquiry during the 19th Century through natural philosophers and physicians that studied disease and the informal study of what they termed “pathological anatomy” or “morbid anatomy”.
However, pathology as a formal area of specialty was not developed until the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with the advent of detailed study of microbiology. In the 19th century, physicians had begun to understand that disease-causing pathogens, or "germs" existed and were capable of reproduction and multiplication, replacing earlier beliefs in humors or spiritual agents, that had dominated for much of the previous 1,500 years in European medicine. With the new understanding of causative agents, physicians began to compare the characteristics of one germ’s symptoms as they developed within an affected individual to another germ’s characteristics and symptoms; this realization led to the foundational understanding that diseases are able to replicate themselves, that they can have many profound and varied effects on the human host. To determine causes of diseases, medical experts used the most common and accepted assumptions or symptoms of their times, a general principal of approach that persists into modern medicine.
Modern medicine was advanced by further developments of the microscope to analyze tissues, to which Rudolf Virchow gave a significant contribution, leading to a slew of research developments. By the late 1920s to early 1930s pathology was deemed a medical specialty. Combined with developments in the understanding of general physiology, by the beginning of the 20th century, the study of pathology had begun to split into a number of rarefied fields and resulting in the development of large number of modern specialties within pathology and related disciplines of diagnostic medicine; the term pathology comes from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos, meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia, "study of". The modern practice of pathology is divided into a number of subdisciplines within the discrete but interconnected aims of biological research and medical practice. Biomedical research into disease incorporates the