Stéphanie de Beauharnais
Stéphanie, Grand Duchess of Baden was the Grand Duchess consort of Baden by marriage to Karl, Grand Duke of Baden. Born in Versailles at the beginning of the French Revolution, Stéphanie was a great-granddaughter to Claude de Beauharnais and Renée Hardouineau who were married in La Rochelle during 1713, their oldest son was François de Beauharnais, Marquess de la Ferte-Beauharnais who served as a governor of Martinique. Their younger son was Claude de Beauharnais, 1st Count des Roches-Baritaud, Stephanie's paternal grandfather. Claude was married in 1753 to Marie Anne Françoise Mouchard, known in poetry as Fanny de Beauharnais, their oldest son was 2nd Count des Roches-Baritaud. In 1783 the 2nd Count married Claudine Françoise de Lezay; the marriage resulted in the birth of first her older brother Alberic de Beauharnais and Stephanie herself. Her father was remarried in 1799 to Suzanne Fortin-Duplessis; the second marriage resulted in the birth of her half-sister Joséphine de Beauharnais, Marchioness de Quiqueran-Beaujeu.
The fates of her family however would be defined by another Joséphine. On December 13, 1779 Alexandre, Vicomte de Beauharnais, first cousin of her father, was married to Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie. On July 23, 1794, Alexandre was guillotined. Joséphine had affairs with several influential figures of the French Directory, including Paul François Jean Nicolas Barras; the latter would introduce her to his recent favorite Napoléon Bonaparte. Napoléon soon started courting her. On March 9, 1796 they were married. General Napoléon Bonaparte was now stepfather to Eugène de Beauharnais and Hortense de Beauharnais, second cousins of Stephanie; as his prominence and wealth continued to rise, Napoléon found himself being de facto patron to both the Bonaparte and the de Beauharnais families. Stephanie would soon see her patron rise to become First Consul of France, her "uncle" crowned himself Emperor of the French on December 2, 1804. As a prominent member of the new Imperial Family, Stephanie held residence in the Tuileries Palace.
Her new status allowed her to live a rather luxurious life. She would soon however have to depart both France; this was a consequence of Napoleon's effort to secure an alliance with the Prince-elector of Baden. The alliance was to be secured through a marriage between the descendants of the two sovereigns, connecting the two dynasties; the Prince-Elector was to be represented by his grandson. Napoleon on the other hand lacked legitimate descendants of his own, he named her "Princesse Française" with the style of Imperial Highness. The marriage took place in Paris on April 8, 1806. On July 25, 1806 her new grandfather-in-law was named Grand Duke of Baden. By most accounts the arranged marriage was not successful, her husband was determined to continue living as a bachelor. He set residence in Karlsruhe, she was allowed to settle separately in Mannheim. The official complaints by the Emperor did not resolve this situation; the Grand Duke offered Schwetzingen to be their common summer residence. But only Stephanie accepted the offer.
The situation changed somewhat when it became evident that the aging Grand Duke would not live much longer. The couple reconciled in an effort to produce heirs for the throne. On June 10, 1811, Stephanie's husband, Karl succeeded his grandfather as Grand Duke of Baden, he and Grand Duchess Stephanie would have five children: Princess Luise Amelie Stephanie of Baden. She was married on November 1830 to Gustav, Prince of Vasa. Unnamed son. One theory suspects the dead unnamed child to be unrelated to her and her actual son to be Kaspar Hauser. Although some authors have argued that this was not the case, "the silly fairytale, which to this day moves many pens and has found much belief, was disproved in Otto Mittelstädt's book on Kaspar Hauser and his Baden Princedom." The idea has remained current in some circles to this day. Princess Josephine Friederike Luise of Baden, she was married on October 1834 to Karl Anton, Fürst of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Prince Alexander of Baden. Princess Marie Amelie Elisabeth Karoline of Baden.
She was married on February 23, 1843 to William Alexander Anthony Archibald Douglas-Hamilton, 11th Duke of Hamilton. Among her descendants are the former Kings of Romania and former King of Yugoslavia, the present King of the Belgians, the present Grand Duke of Luxembourg and the present Sovereign Prince of Monaco; the Grand Duke died on December 8, 1818. Stephanie remained a widow for the rest of her long life, she was a devoted mother to her three daughters. Her residence in Mannheim became a popular Salon for intellectuals. Stephanie died in Nice, France in 1860, 41 years after her husband. 28 August 1789 - 1804: Mademoiselle Stéphanie de Beauharnais 1804 - 8 April 1806: Her Imperial Highness French Princess Stéphanie de Beauharnais 8 April 1806 - 25 July 1806: Her Imperial Highness The Hereditary Princess of Baden 25 July 1806 - 10 June 1811: Her Imperial Highness The Hereditary Grand Duchess of Baden 10 June 1811 - 11 April 1814: Her Imperial Highness The Grand Duchess of Baden 11 April 1814 - 8 December 1818: Her Royal Highness The Grand Duchess of Baden 8 December 1818 - 29 January 1860: Her Royal Highness The Dowager Grand Duchess of Baden A German article and portrait of her Information and photo of her e
Princess Anne of Orléans
Princess Anne of Orléans was a member of the House of Orléans and the Duchess of Aosta by marriage. She was Duke of Guise and Princess Isabelle of Orléans, she married at Naples, Italy, on 5 November 1927, her cousin, Prince Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of Aosta and had two daughters: Margherita Isabella Maria Vittoria Emanuela Elena Gennara. She married on 28–29 December 1953 Archduke Robert, styled Archduke of Austria-Este, second son of the last Austrian emperor Karl I, has issue three sons and two daughters. Maria Cristina Giusta Elena Giovanna, who married on January 29, 1967 Prince Casimir of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, descended from Spanish princes ruling in Sicily, has issue two sons and two daughters. 5 August 1906 – 5 November 1927 Her Royal Highness Princess Anne of Orléans 5 November 1927 – 4 July 1931 Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Apulia 4 July 1931 – 3 March 1942 Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Aosta 3 March 1942 – 21 January 1951"Her Royal Highness Princess Anne, Duchess of Aosta 21 January 1951 – 19 March 1986"Her Royal Highness The Dowager Duchess of Aosta
A boarding school provides education for pupils who live on the premises, as opposed to a day school. The word "boarding" is used in i.e. lodging and meals. As they have existed for many centuries, now extend across many countries, their function and ethos varies greatly. Traditionally, pupils stayed at the school for the length of the term; some are for either girls while others are co-educational. In the United Kingdom, which has a rich history of such schools, many independent schools offer boarding, but so do a few dozen state schools, many of which serve children from remote areas. In the United States, most boarding schools cover grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years; some American boarding schools offer a post-graduate year of study to help students prepare for college entrance. In some times and places boarding schools are the most elite educational option, whereas in other contexts, they serve as places to segregate children deemed a problem to their parents or wider society.
Notoriously and the United States tried to assimilate indigenous children in the Canadian Indian residential school system and American Indian boarding schools respectively. Some function as orphanages, e.g. the G. I. Rossolimo Boarding School Number 49 in Russia. Tens of millions of rural children are now educated at boarding schools in China. Therapeutic boarding schools offer treatment for psychological difficulties. Military academies provide strict discipline. Education for children with special needs has a long association with boarding; some boarding schools offer an immersion into democratic education, such as Summerhill School. Others are determinedly international, such as the United World Colleges; the term boarding school refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has several separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. A number of senior teaching staff are appointed as housemasters, dorm parents, prefects, or residential advisors, each of whom takes quasi-parental responsibility for anywhere from 5 to 50 students resident in their house or dormitory at all times but outside school hours.
Each may be assisted in the domestic management of the house by a housekeeper known in U. K. or Commonwealth countries as matron, by a house tutor for academic matters providing staff of each gender. In the U. S. boarding schools have a resident family that lives in the dorm, known as dorm parents. They have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Older students are less supervised by staff, a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior students. Houses develop distinctive characters, a healthy rivalry between houses is encouraged in sport. Houses or dorms include study-bedrooms or dormitories, a dining room or refectory where students take meals at fixed times, a library and study carrels where students can do their homework. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, storage facilities for bicycles or other sports equipment; some facilities may be shared between several dorms.
In some schools, each house has students of all ages, in which case there is a prefect system, which gives older students some privileges and some responsibility for the welfare of the younger ones. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different classes. In some schools, day students are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Most school dormitories have an "in your room by" and a "lights out" time, depending on their age, when the students are required to prepare for bed, after which no talking is permitted; such rules may be difficult to enforce. International students may take advantage of the time difference between countries to contact friends or family. Students sharing study rooms are less to disturb others and may be given more latitude; as well as the usual academic facilities such as classrooms, halls and laboratories, boarding schools provide a wide variety of facilities for extracurricular activities such as music rooms, sports fields and school grounds, squash courts, swimming pools and theatres.
A school chapel is found on site. Day students stay on after school to use these facilities. Many North American boarding schools are located in beautiful rural environments, have a combination of architectural styles that vary from modern to hundreds of years old. Food quality can vary from school to school, but most boarding schools offer diverse menu choices for many kinds of dietary restrictions and preferences; some boarding schools have a Dress Code for specific meals like Dinner or for specific days of the week. Students are free to eat with friends, teammates, as well as with faculty and coaches. Extra curricular activities groups, e.g. the French Club, may have meals together. The Dining Hall serves a central place where lessons and learning can continue between students and teachers or
The Holy See called the See of Rome, is the apostolic episcopal see of the bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, ex cathedra the universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Catholic Church, a sovereign entity of international law. Founded in the 1st century by Saints Peter and Paul, by virtue of Petrine and Papal primacy according to Catholic tradition, it is the focal point of full communion for Catholic bishops and Catholics around the world organised in polities of the Latin Church, the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, their dioceses and religious institutes; as a recognised sovereign subject of international law, headed by the Pope, the Holy See is headquartered in, operates from, exercises "exclusive dominion" over the independent Vatican City State enclave in Rome, Italy. The Holy See maintains bilateral diplomatic relations with 172 sovereign states, signs concordats and treaties, performs multilateral diplomacy with multiple intergovernmental organizations, including the United Nations and its agencies, the Council of Europe, the European Communities, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe the Organization of American States and the Organization for African Unity.
The Holy See is administered by the Roman Curia, similar to a centralised government, with the Cardinal Secretary of State as its chief administrator, in addition to various dicasteries, comparable to ministries and executive departments. Papal elections are carried out by the College of Cardinals. Although the Holy See is sometimes metonymically referred to as the "Vatican", the Vatican City State was distinctively established with the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy to ensure the temporal and spiritual independence of the Papacy; as such, ambassadors are accredited to the Holy See and not the Vatican City State. Conversely, Papal nuncios to states and international organisations are recognised as representing the Holy See and the integrity of the Catholic Church along with its 1.3 billion members, not the Vatican City State, as prescribed in the Canon law of the Catholic Church. The "Holy See" thus refers to the See of Rome viewed as the central government of the Catholic Church.
The Catholic Church, in turn, is the largest non-government provider of education and health care in the world, while the diplomatic status of the Holy See facilitates the access of its vast international network of charities. The word "see" comes from the Latin word "sedes", meaning "seat", which refers to the Episcopal throne; the term "Apostolic See" can refer to any see founded by one of the Apostles, when used with the definite article, it is used in the Catholic Church to refer to the see of the Bishop of Rome, whom that Church sees as successor of Saint Peter, the Prince of the Apostles. While Saint Peter's Basilica in Vatican City is the church most associated with the Papacy, the actual cathedral of the Holy See is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran within the city of Rome; every see. In Greek, the adjective "holy" or "sacred" is applied to all such sees as a matter of course. In the West, the adjective is not added, but it does form part of an official title of two sees: besides the Diocese of Rome, the Bishopric of Mainz bears the title of "the Holy See of Mainz".
The apostolic see of Rome was established in the 1st century by Saint Peter and Saint Paul the capital of the Roman Empire, according to Catholic tradition. The legal status of the Catholic Church and its property was recognised by the Edict of Milan in 313 by Roman Emperor Constantine the Great, it became the state church of the Roman Empire by the Edict of Thessalonica in 380. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, the temporal legal jurisdisction of the Papal primacy was further recognised as promulgated in Canon law; the Holy See was granted territory in Duchy of Rome by the Donation of Sutri in 728 of King Liutprand of the Lombards, sovereignty by the Donation of Pepin in 756 by King Pepin of the Franks. The Papal States held extensive territory and armed forces in 756–1870. Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor by translatio imperii in 800; the Papal coronations of the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire from 858 and the Dictatus papae in 1075 mark the peak of the pope's temporal power claims.
Several contemporary states still trace their own sovereignty to recognition in medieval Papal bulls. Sovereignty of the Holy See was retained despite multiple sacks of Rome during the Early Middle Ages. Yet, relations with the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy Roman Empire were at times strained, reaching from the Diploma Ottonianum and Libellus de imperatoria potestate in urbe Roma regarding the "Patrimony of Saint Peter" in the 10th century, to the Investiture Controversy in 1076-1122, settled again by the Concordat of Worms in 1122; the exiled Avignon Papacy during 1309-1376 put a strain on the Papacy, however returned to Rome. Pope Innocent X was critical of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 as it weakened the authority of the Holy See throughout much of Europe. Following the French Revolution, the Papal States were occupied as the "Roman Republic" from 1798 to 1799 as a sister republic of the First French Empire under Napoleon, before their territory was reestablished. Notwithstanding, the Holy See was represented in and identified as a "permanent subject of general customary international law vis-à-vis all states" in the Congress of Vien
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is a German dynasty that ruled the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, one of the Ernestine duchies. It is a cadet branch of the Saxon House of Wettin. Founded by Ernest Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it has been the royal house of several European monarchies. Agnatic branches reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I and in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, George V changed the name of his branch from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Windsor" in 1917; the same happened in 1920 in Belgium, where the name was changed to "de Belgique" or "van België" or "von Belgien", meaning "of Belgium". The first duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was Ernest I, who reigned from 1826 until his death in 1844, he had been Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld from 1806 until the duchy was reorganized in 1826. Ernest's younger brother became King of the Belgians in 1831, his descendants continue to serve as Belgian heads of state.
Léopold's only daughter, Princess Charlotte of Belgium, was the consort of Maximilian I of Mexico, she was known as Empress Carlota of Mexico in the 1860s. Ernest I's second son, Prince Albert, married Queen Victoria in 1840, thus is the progenitor of the United Kingdom's current royal family, called Windsor since 1917. In 1826, a cadet branch of the house inherited the Hungarian princely estate of the Koháry family, converted to Roman Catholicism, its members managed to marry a queen-regnant of Portugal, an imperial princess of Brazil, an archduchess of Austria, a French royal princess, a royal princess of Belgium and a royal princess of Saxony. A scion of this branch named Ferdinand, became ruling Prince, Tsar, of Bulgaria, his descendants continued to reign there until 1946; the current head of the House of Bulgaria, the former Tsar Simeon II, deposed and exiled after World War II, goes by the name of Simeon Sakskoburggotski and served as Bulgaria's prime minister from 2001 to 2005. The ducal house consisted of all male-line descendants of John Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld legitimately born of an equal marriage and females, their wives in equal and authorised marriages, their widows until remarriage.
According to the House law of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the full title of the Duke was: There were two official residences, in Gotha and Coburg. Therefore, the whole ducal court, including the court theatre, had to move twice a year: from Gotha to Coburg for the summer and from Coburg to Gotha for the winter. For the Court Theater, two identical buildings had to be built in 1840 in Gotha and Coburg and thereafter maintained at the same time. In addition to the residential castles, Friedenstein in Gotha and Ehrenburg in Coburg, the ducal family used the Schloss Reinhardsbrunn in Gotha, as well as the Rosenau and Callenberg Castles in Coburg, a hunting lodge in Grein, Austria. Ernest I 1826–1844 Ernest II 1844–1893 Alfred 1893–1900 Charles Edward 1900–1918 Charles Edward 1918–1954 Friedrich Josias 1954–1998 Andreas 1998–presentAlthough the ducal branch is eponymous with the dynasty, its head is not the senior member of the family genealogically or agnatic. In 1893, the reigning duke Ernest II died childless, whereupon the throne would have devolved, by male primogeniture, upon the descendants of his brother Prince Albert.
However, as heirs to the British throne, Albert's descendants consented and the law of the duchy ratified that the ducal throne would not be inherited by the British monarch or heir apparent. Therefore, the German duchy became a secundogeniture, hereditary among the younger princes of the British royal family who belonged to the House of Wettin, their male-line descendants. Instead of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales inheriting the duchy, it was diverted to his next brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. Upon the latter's death without surviving sons, it went to the youngest grandson of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria, Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany. Charles Edward's uncle Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and his male line had renounced their claim. Although senior by birth, they were either not acceptable to the German Emperor as either a member of the British military or unwilling to move to Germany; the current head of the ducal branch is the grandson of Charles Edward. Since the duchy was abolished in 1918, the heads use the title Prince rather than Duke.
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry is a Catholic cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. It was founded with the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, second son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, with Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág, their second son Prince August inherited the estates of the House of Koháry in Austria. August's youngest son became Ferdinand I of Bulgaria; the Portuguese line was founded by Prince Ferdinand's eldest son, Ferdinand the younger, who married Queen Maria II of the House of Braganza and became king himself. It was overthrown in the Revolution of 1910, after which it became extinct in 1932 upon the death of Manuel II. Duarte Nuno of Braganza and his successors were descendants of the banished Miguelist line. Pedro V Luís I Carlos I Manuel II Ferdinand I Boris III Simeon II In 2001, elected Prime Minister of Bulgaria as Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha—also known as
Margherita, Archduchess of Austria-Este
Margherita, Dowager Archduchess of Austria-Este is the first-born child of the late Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta and Princess Anne d'Orléans. Margherita's family announced her engagement to Robert, Archduke of Austria-Este on 20 October 1953, they married on 29 December 1953 in Bourg-en-Bresse, France and 29 December 1953, in Brou, France. He was the second son of former Emperor Charles I of Zita of Bourbon-Parma. Robert was 38, Margherita was 23; as the royal couple arrived for the first ceremony, hundreds of Austrians and Italians stood outside the town hall where the marriage was held. The wedding was attended by former King Umberto II of Italy and Robert's older brother Otto of Habsburg, the claimant to the Austrian throne. At six feet tall, Margherita was, according to an impressive sight, she wore an ivory gown made out of satin with a long train hung from a diamond tiara. The couple took up residence in Paris, they had five children: Archduchess Maria Beatrice Anna Felicitas Zita Charlotte Adelheid Christina Elisabeth Gennara.
Married Count Riprand of Arco-Zinneberg, a great-grandson of the last Bavarian king, Ludwig III, has issue. They have six daughters: Countess Anna Therese Marie von und zu Arco-Zinneberg, married Colin McKenzie on 29 September 2018 at Niederaltaich Abbey in Bavaria. Countess Margherita Ginevra Maria von und zu Arco-Zinneberg Countess Olympia Elena Maria von und zu Arco-Zinneberg engaged in March 2019 to Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon Countess Maximiliana Aimée Maria von und zu Arco-Zinneberg Countess Marie Gabrielle Hillary von und zu Arco-Zinneberg Countess Giorgiana Astrid Maria von und zu Arco-Zinneberg Archduke Lorenz Otto Carl Amadeus Thadeus Maria Pius Andreas Marcus d'Aviano, Created Prince of Belgium on 10 November 1995. Married 22 September 1984 at Brussels, Princess Astrid of Belgium only daughter of King Albert II of the Belgians, they have three daughters and two sons: Prince Amedeo Marie Joseph Carl Pierre Philippe Paola Marcus d'Aviano of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este Princess Maria Laura Zita Beatrix Gerhard of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este Prince Joachim Carl Maria Nikolaus Isabelle Marcus d'Aviano of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este Princess Luisa Maria Anna Martine Pilar of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este Princess Laetitia Maria Nora Anna Joachim Zita of Belgium, Archduchess of Austria-Este.
Married Princess Katharina of Isenburg-Birstein. They have a daughter: Archduke Bartholomäus Karl Robert of Austria. Married Andrea Czarnocki-Lucheschi, they have three sons and a daughter: Alvise Marie Lorenz Bronislaw Robert Marcus d'Aviano Czarnocki-Lucheschi Carlo Amedeo Czarnocki-Lucheschi Maria Anna Astrid Martin Zita Lucia Victoria Czarnocki-Lucheschi Alessandro Czarnocki-Lucheschi
Pope Paul VI
Pope Saint Paul VI was head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 21 June 1963 to his death in 1978. Succeeding John XXIII, he continued the Second Vatican Council which he closed in 1965, implementing its numerous reforms, fostered improved ecumenical relations with Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches, which resulted in many historic meetings and agreements. Montini served in the Holy See's Secretariat of State from 1922 to 1954. While in the Secretariat of State and Domenico Tardini were considered as the closest and most influential advisors of Pius XII, who in 1954 named him Archbishop of Milan, the largest Italian diocese. Montini became the Secretary of the Italian Bishops' Conference. John XXIII elevated him to the College of Cardinals in 1958, after the death of John XXIII, Montini was considered one of his most successors. Upon his election to the papacy, Montini took the name Paul VI, he re-convened the Second Vatican Council, which had automatically closed with the death of John XXIII.
After the Council had concluded its work, Paul VI took charge of the interpretation and implementation of its mandates walking a thin line between the conflicting expectations of various groups within Catholicism. The magnitude and depth of the reforms affecting all fields of Church life during his pontificate exceeded similar reform programmes of his predecessors and successors. Paul VI spoke to Marian conventions and mariological meetings, visited Marian shrines and issued three Marian encyclicals. Following Ambrose of Milan, he named Mary as the Mother of the Church during the Second Vatican Council. Paul VI described himself as a humble servant for a suffering humanity and demanded significant changes from the rich in North America and Europe in favour of the poor in the Third World, his positions on birth control, promulgated famously in the 1968 encyclical Humanae vitae, were contested in Western Europe and North America. The same opposition emerged in reaction to the political aspects of some of his teaching.
Following the standard procedures that lead to sainthood, Pope Benedict XVI declared that the late pontiff had lived a life of heroic virtue and conferred the title of Venerable upon him on 20 December 2012. Pope Francis beatified him on 19 October 2014 after the recognition of a miracle attributed to his intercession, his liturgical feast was celebrated on the date of his birth on 26 September until 2019 when it was changed to the date of his sacerdotal ordination on 29 May. Pope Francis canonised Paul VI on 14 October 2018. Giovanni Battista Montini was born in the village of Concesio, in the province of Brescia, Italy, in 1897, his father Giorgio Montini was a lawyer, director of the Catholic Action and member of the Italian Parliament. His mother was Giudetta Alghisi, from a family of rural nobility, he had two brothers, Francesco Montini, who became a physician, Lodovico Montini, who became a lawyer and politician. On 30 September 1897, he was baptised with the name Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini.
He attended the Cesare Arici school, run by the Jesuits, in 1916 received a diploma from the Arnaldo da Brescia public school in Brescia. His education was interrupted by bouts of illness. In 1916, he entered the seminary to become a Catholic priest, he was ordained priest on 29 May 1920 in Brescia and celebrated his first Holy Mass in Brescia in the Basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie. Montini concluded his studies in Milan with a doctorate in Canon Law in the same year. Afterwards he studied at the Gregorian University, the University of Rome La Sapienza and, at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo at the Accademia dei Nobili Ecclesiastici. In 1922, at the age of twenty-five, again at the request of Giuseppe Pizzardo, Montini entered the Secretariat of State, where he worked under Pizzardo together with Francesco Borgongini-Duca, Alfredo Ottaviani, Carlo Grano, Domenico Tardini and Francis Spellman, he never had an appointment as a parish priest. In 1925 he helped found the publishing house Morcelliana in Brescia, focused on promoting a'Christian-inspired culture'.
Montini had just one foreign posting in the diplomatic service of the Holy See as Secretary in the office of the papal nuncio to Poland in 1923. Of the nationalism he experienced there he wrote: "This form of nationalism treats foreigners as enemies foreigners with whom one has common frontiers. One seeks the expansion of one's own country at the expense of the immediate neighbours. People grow up with a feeling of being hemmed in. Peace becomes a transient compromise between wars." He described his experience in Warsaw as "useful, though not always joyful". When he became pope, the Communist government of Poland refused him permission to visit Poland on a Marian pilgrimage, his organisational skills led him to a career in the papal civil service. In 1931, Pacelli appointed him to teach history at the Pontifical Academy for Diplomats In 1937, after his mentor Giuseppe Pizzardo was named a cardinal and was succeeded by Domenico Tardini, Montini was named Substitute for Ordinary Affairs under Cardinal Pacelli, the Secretary of State.
His immediate supervisor was Domenico Tardini. Pacelli became Pope Pius XII in 1939 and confirmed Montini's appointment as Substitute under the new Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Maglione. In that role that of a chief of staff, he met the pope every morning until 1954 and developed a rather close relationship with him. Of his service to two popes he w