William of the White Hands
White Hands and Whitehands redirect here. For similar uses, see White hand, William of the White Hands, called William White Hands, was a French cardinal. William was born in Brosse, Île-de-France, France and he was a son of Theobald the Great, Count of Blois and Count of Champagne, and Matilda of Carinthia. William served as Bishop of Chartres in 1165, Archbishop of Sens, Archbishop of Reims, and he anointed his nephew, Philip II of France, as co-king on 1 November 1179 in Rheims. Pope Alexander III created him Cardinal Priest of Santa Sabina in March 1179, as such and he died on 7 September 1202. William was portrayed by actor Liam OCallaghan in the 1978 BBC TV drama series The Devils Crown, ludwig Falkenstein, “Guillaume aux Blanches Mains, archevêque de Reims et légat du siège apostolique, ” Revue d’histoire de l’Église de France, XCI,2005, pp. 5-25. Kanonistische Abteilung, CXX,2003, pp. 107-284, * Dietrich Lohrmann, Papsturkunden in Frankreich. Jules Mathorez, “Guillaume aux Blanches-Mains, évêque de Chartres, ” Archives du diocese de Chartres, Pièces detaches, Etudes et documents, XX,1914, pp. 187-340
William X, Duke of Aquitaine
William X, called the Saint, was Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, and Count of Poitou from 1126 to 1137. He was the son of William IX by his second wife, William was born in Toulouse during the brief period when his parents ruled the capital. His birth is recorded in the Chronicle of Saint-Maixent for the year 1099, Willelmo comiti natus est filius, that same year, much to Philippas ire, Duke William IX mortgaged Toulouse to Philippas cousin, Bertrand of Toulouse, and left on Crusade. Philippa and her infant son William X were left in Poitiers, when Duke William IX returned from his unsuccessful crusade, he took up with Dangerose, the wife of a vassal, and set aside his rightful wife, Philippa. This caused strain between father and son, until 1121 when William X married Aenor de Châtellerault, a daughter of his fathers mistress Dangerose by her first husband and he possibly had one natural son, William. William, called of Poitiers in the Pipe rolls may have been a brother of Eleanor. Chronicler John of Salisbury tells us that Petronilla died in 1151 or 1152, William administered his Aquitaine duchy as both a lover of the arts and a warrior.
He became involved in conflicts with Normandy and for France, even inside his borders, William faced an alliance of the Lusignans and the Parthenays against him, an issue resolved with total destruction of the enemies. In international politics, William X initially supported antipope Anacletus II in the schism of 1130, opposite to Pope Innocent II. In 1134 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux convinced William to drop his support to Anacletus, in 1137 William joined the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, but died during the trip. On his deathbed, he expressed his wish to see king Louis VI of France as protector of his fifteen-year-old daughter Eleanor, Louis VI naturally accepted this guardianship and married the heiress of Aquitaine to his own son, Louis VII. Dukes of Aquitaine family tree Parsons, John Carmi, Eleanor of Aquitaine and Lady,2002 Bernard F. Reilly, The Contest of Christian and Muslim Spain, 1031-1157, Blackwell Publishing,1995. John of Salisburys Memoirs of the Papal Court translated from the Latin with introduction and notes by Marjorie Chibnall
Floris I, Count of Holland
Floris I of Holland was Count of Holland, called Frisia west of the Vlie, from 1049 to 1061. He was a son of Dirk III and Othelindis and he succeeded his brother Dirk IV, Count of Holland, who was murdered in 1049. He was involved in a war of a few Lotharingian vassals against the imperial authority, on a retreat from Zaltbommel he was ambushed and killed in battle at Nederhemert, on 28 June 1061. Gertrude married secondly in 1063 Robert the Frisian, Count of Flanders, who acted as guardian for the children of her previous marriage and as regent for his stepson until 1071
William I, Count of Burgundy
William I, called the Great, was Count of Burgundy from 1057 to 1087 and Mâcon from 1078 to 1087. He was a son of Renaud I and Alice of Normandy, daughter of Richard II, william was the father of several notable children, including Pope Callixtus II. In 1057, he succeeded his father and reigned over a larger than that of the Franche-Comté itself. In 1087, he died in Besançon, Prince-Archbishopric of Besançon and he was buried in Besançons Cathedral of St John. William married a woman named Stephanie and she married secondly Godfrey I, Count of Leuven and was possibly the mother of Joscelin of Louvain
Bertha of Holland
Bertha of Holland, known as Berthe or Bertha of Frisia and erroneously as Berta or Bertrada, was queen consort of the Franks from 1072 until 1092, as the first wife of King Philip I. Berthas marriage to the king in 1072 was a result of negotiations between him and her stepfather, Count Robert the Frisian of Flanders. After nine years of childlessness, the couple had three children, including Philips successor, Louis the Fat. Philip, grew tired of his wife by 1090 and that marriage was a scandal since both Philip and Bertrada were already married to other people, at least until Queen Bertha died the next year. Bertha was the daughter of Count Floris I of Holland and his wife and she is erroneously referred to as Matilda by Chronologia Johannes de Beke. Bertha had six siblings and both of her parents came from large families and her father ruled a territory vaguely described as Friesland west of the Vlie, which is where Bertha spent her childhood. Count Floris I was assassinated in 1061, and two years her mother remarried to Robert of Flanders, now known as Robert the Frisian, became guardian of Bertha and her six siblings.
In 1070, Robert the Frisian became involved in a war with King Philip I of France over succession to the County of Flanders. Within two years and Philip concluded a treaty which was to be sealed by a marriage, Roberts own daughters were too young. Robert thus agreed to the marriage of his stepdaughter to King Philip, Bertha married Philip, thus becoming queen of the Franks, probably in 1072. Bertha had no kings among her ancestors and lacked even tenuous links with the Carolingian that her predecessors could claim. Consequently, contemporary chroniclers did not even try to present her lineage as more exalted than that of a counts daughter, the shortage of royal candidates made Bertha a suitable choice. Little is known about Berthas queenship and she co-signed only three donation charters. However, she plays a prominent role in the hagiography titled Vita Arnulfi, the hagiography describes how she used her regal power to expel Abbot Gerard of Saint-Médard and reinstate the former abbot, who had been removed due to his mismanagement of the abbey.
Saint Arnulf of Soissons warned her that doing so would incur the wrath of God and lead to her being out of the kingdom into exile. The queen furiously refused to listen to him, the hagiography, was written after Bertha died and during Bertradas queenship, which might explain the name confusion. For six years, King Philip and Queen Bertha were troubled by their childlessness and especially by the lack of male children, the birth of the long-awaited heir apparent had such a great impact that a story of a miracle developed around it. Reportedly, the couples fertility was only restored thanks to the prayers of a hermit, Arnulf informed Queen Bertha that she was expecting a son and that it would be appropriate to give him the Carolingian name of Louis
Marie-Gabrielle Capet was a French Neoclassical painter. She was born in Lyon on 6 September 1761, marie-Gabrielle came from a modest background and her previous background and artistic training is unknown, but in 1781 she became the pupil of the French painter Adelaide Labille-Guiard in Paris. She excelled as a painter, and her works include oil paintings, watercolours. Marie-Gabrielle Capet was born at Lyon in 1761, in eighteenth-century France, the Royal Academy of Art was responsible for training artists and exhibiting artworks at the Salon that glorified heroic values promoted by the Bourbon patriarchy. Until the French Revolution, the Royal Academy of Art in Paris was the institution for official artistic practice. In 1781, twenty-year-old Capet moved to Paris to become the student of Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, Capet showed her early work at the Exposition de la Jeunesse, and exhibited at the Salon when it was opened to all artists after the French Revolution. Her body of work included paintings, oil paintings, and pastels.
Many of her paintings were portraits, though by 1808 she was regarded as a history painter in her own right. She counted among other customers several members of the family, and other members of Paris society, such as the lawyer Pierre-Nicolas Berryer. Capet and Labille-Guiard not only enjoyed a relationship, but were close family friends. Capet would move in with her teacher at the Louvre until Labille-Guiards death, even after Adélaïde Labille-Guiard married the painter François Vincent in 1799, Capet continued to live in their home. Among her works the best known are those of Mesdames Adelaide and Victoire, Madame Vincent surrounded by her pupils, at that time the Academy had limited the members of women painters to only four woman members. She died in Paris in 1818
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. Philips predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself king of France. The son of King Louis VII and his wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné God-given because he was the first son of Louis VII. Philip was given the nickname Augustus by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably, the military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals, Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority and he built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.
Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165 and he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philips recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered, however, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Rheims on 1 November 1179 by the Archbishop Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. He was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all power was transferred to Philip. Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180, while the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII. In April 1182, partially to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne, Philips eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died.
The main source of funding for Philips army was from the royal demesne, in times of conflict, he could immediately call up 250 knights,250 horse sergeants,100 mounted crossbowmen,133 crossbowmen on foot,2,000 foot sergeants, and 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights,9,000 sergeants,6,000 urban militiamen, using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men, within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wifes dowry, finally the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin
House of Capet
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians, historians in the 19th century came to apply the name Capetian to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice and they were sometimes called the third race of kings, the Merovingians being the first, and the Carolingians being the second. The name is derived from the nickname of Hugh, the first Capetian King, the direct succession of French kings, father to son, from 987 to 1316, of thirteen generations in almost 330 years, was unparallelled in recorded history. The direct line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328, with the death of Charles IV, the throne passed to the House of Valois, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV. He proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and coronation of his son, Robert II, the throne thus passed securely to Robert on his fathers death, who followed the same custom – as did many of his early successors.
Louis VIII – the eldest son and heir of Philip Augustus – married Blanche of Castile, a granddaughter of Aliénor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England. In her name, he claimed the crown of England, invading at the invitation of the English Barons and these lands were added to the French crown, further empowering the Capetian family. Louis IX – Saint Louis – succeeded Louis VIII as a child, unable to rule for several years, the government of the realm was undertaken by his mother, at the death of Louis IX, France under the Capetians stood as the pre-eminent power in Western Europe. Unfortunately for the Capetians, the proved a failure. Philip IV had married Jeanne, the heiress of Navarre and Champagne, by this marriage, he added these domains to the French crown. More importantly to French history, he summoned the first Estates General – in 1302 – and in 1295 established the so-called Auld Alliance with the Scots and it was Philip IV who presided over the beginning of his Houses end. The first quarter of the century saw each of Philips sons reign in rapid succession, Louis X, Philip V, Louis – unwilling to release his wife and return to their marriage – needed to remarry.
He arranged a marriage with his cousin, Clementia of Hungary and this proved the case, but the boy – King John I, known as the Posthumous – died after only 5 days, leaving a succession crisis. Eventually, it was decided based on several reasons that Joan was ineligible to inherit the throne, which passed to the Count of Poitiers. Marie died in 1324, giving birth to a stillborn son, the last of the direct Capetians were the daughters of Philip IVs three sons, and Philip IVs daughter, Isabella. Since they were female, they could not transmit their Capetian status to their descendants, the wife of Edward II of England, Isabella overthrew her husband in favour of her son and her co-hort, only for Edward III to execute Mortimer and have Isabella removed from power. Joan, the daughter of Louis X, succeeded on the death of Charles IV to the throne of Navarre, she now being – questions of paternity aside – the unquestioned heiress
Baldwin I, Latin Emperor
He lost his final battle to Kaloyan, the emperor of Bulgaria, and spent his last days as his prisoner. Baldwin was the son of Baldwin V of Hainaut and Margaret I, when the childless Philip of Alsace left on the last of his personal crusades in 1177, he designated his brother-in-law Baldwin V his heir. One year later, Philip of Alsace had his protégé married to his niece, Isabelle of Hainaut, offering the County of Artois and other Flemish territories as dowry, much to the dismay of Baldwin V. Count Philips wife Elisabeth died in 1183, and Philip Augustus seized the province of Vermandois on behalf of Elisabeths sister, Philip remarried, to Matilda of Portugal. Philip gave Matilda a dower of a number of major Flemish towns, when Countess Margaret I died in 1194, Flanders descended to her eldest son Baldwin, who ruled as Baldwin IX, Count of Flanders. In 1186, the younger Baldwin had married Marie of Champagne, daughter of Count Henry I of Champagne, the chronicler Gislebert describes Baldwin as being infatuated with his young bride, who nevertheless preferred prayer to the marital bed.
Immediately after this arrangement, the count of Hainauts son Baldwin, thirteen years old, received as wife Marie and this Marie began sufficiently young to devote herself to divine obedience in prayers, vigils and alms. The solemn rejoicing of the wedding was celebrated at Valenciennes with an abundance of knights and ladies, through Marie, Baldwin had additional connections and obligations to the defenders of the Holy Land, her brother Henry II of Champagne had been King of Jerusalem in the 1190s. Maries uncles Richard I of England and Philip II of France had just been on the Third Crusade, Baldwins own family had been involved in the defence of Jerusalem, his uncle Philip had died on Crusade. Baldwins maternal grandmother was great-aunt of Queen Isabella I of Jerusalem, Baldwin wanted to continue the tradition. Margaret died in 1194, and the younger Baldwin became Count of Flanders and his father died the next year, and he succeeded to Hainaut. Isabelle had died in 1190, but King Philip still retained her dowry, on behalf of Isabelles son, the eight years of Baldwins rule in Flanders were dominated by his attempts to recover some of this land.
After Philip II of France took Baldwins brother, Philippe of Namur, the Treaty of Péronne was signed in January 1200 on the condition that Baldwin receive the territories he had won during the war. Baldwin was made the vassal of Philip II, and the king returned portions of Artois to Baldwin. In this fight against the French king, Baldwin allied with others who had quarrels with Philip, including kings Richard I and John of England, and the German King Otto IV. A month after the treaty, on Ash Wednesday 1200 in the town of Bruges, Baldwin took the cross and he spent the next two years preparing, finally leaving on 14 April 1202. As part of his effort to leave his domains in good order, one detailed an extensive criminal code, and appears to be based on a now-lost charter of his father. The other laid down rules for inheritance
Anne of Kiev
Anne of Kiev, Anna Yaroslavna, Anna of Rus called Agnes, was the queen consort of Henry I of France, and regent of France during the minority of her son, Philip I of France, from 1060 until 1065. Anne founded St. Vincent Abbey in Senlis, Anne was born between 1024 and 1032. Her parents were Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev and Novgorod, there is not much information about her childhood, but she was evidently given a careful education, and could read and write, which was rare even among royal princesses at the time. In 1043–44, Anne was suggested to marry Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1049, the King of France sent an embassy to distant Kiev, which returned with Anne. But she did bring wealth to the match, including a jacinth which Suger mounted in the reliquary of St Denis and Henry I were married at the cathedral of Reims on 19 May 1051. Immediately after the ceremony, she was crowned queen of France and she became the first French queen to be crowned at Reims. Only one year after the marriage, Anne fulfilled her task by giving birth to an heir to the throne, Anne came to play an important personal role as queen of France.
As queen, it was her role to act as the manager of the court and household, supervise the upbringing of the royal children. But she came to play a political role, Queen Anne could ride a horse, was knowledgeable in politics, and actively participated in governing France. She accompanied Henry I on his travels around France. Many French documents bear her signature, written in old Slavic language, Henry I respected Anna so much that his many decrees bear the inscription With the consent of my wife Anna and In the presence of Queen Anna. French historians point out there are no other cases in the French history. On 4 August 1060, Henry I died and was succeeded by her son Philip I, by that time eight years old. During his minority, Anne, as a member of the council, acted as Regent of France. She was the first queen of France to serve as regent, Anne was a literate woman, rare for the time, but there was some opposition to her as regent on the grounds that her mastery of French was less than fluent.
In 1061, the Regent Anne reportedly took a fancy for Count Ralph IV of Valois. The traditional story describe how Ralph IV organized an abduction of Anne when she was hunting in the hunting grounds in Senlis and brought her to Crépy-en-Valois. Accused of adultery, Ralph IVs wife Eleanor de Montdidier appealed to Pope Alexander II, the Popes investigation resulted in the marriage between Anne and Ralph IV to be declared invalid and Ralph IV to be excommunicated in 1064
Isabella of Hainault
Isabella of Hainaut was Queen of France as the first spouse of King Philip II. Isabella was born in Valenciennes on 5 April 1170, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, at the age of one, her father had her betrothed to Henry, the future Count of Champagne. He was the nephew of Adèle of Champagne, who was Queen of France, in 1179, both their fathers swore that they would proceed with the marriage, but her father agreed to her marrying Philip II of France. She married King Philip on 28 April 1180 at Bapaume and brought as her dowry the county of Artois, the marriage was arranged by her maternal uncle Philip, Count of Flanders, who was advisor to the King. Isabella was crowned Queen of France at Saint Denis on 28 May 1180, as Baldwin V rightly claimed to be a descendant of Charlemagne, the chroniclers of the time saw in this marriage a union of the Carolingian and Capetian dynasties. The wedding did not please the queen mother, since it had meant the rejection of her nephew and the lessening of influence for her kinsmen.
Meanwhile, King Philip in 1184, was waging war against Flanders, according to Gislebert of Mons, Isabella appeared barefooted and dressed as a penitent in the towns churches and thus gained the sympathy of the people. Her appeals angered them so much that they went to the palace, the kings uncle, successfully interposed and no repudiation followed as repudiating her would have meant the loss of Artois to the French crown. Finally, on 5 September 1187, she gave birth to the needed heir and her second pregnancy was extremely difficult, on 14 March 1190, Isabella gave birth to twin boys named Robert and Philip. Due to complications in childbirth, Isabella died the next day and she was not quite 20 years old and was mourned for greatly in the capital, since she had been a popular queen. The twins lived only four days, both having died on 18 March 1190 and her son Louis succeeded her as Count of Artois. Isabellas dowry of Artois eventually returned to the French Crown following the death of King Philip, Queen Isabelle, she of noble form and lovely eyes.
In 1858, Isabelles body was exhumed and measured at the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris, at 90 cm from pelvis to feet, she would have stood about 58-59, tall. It was during this exhumation that a seal was discovered in the queens coffin. Little used during her time, it is one of the few medieval seals with a royal connection to survive from the Middle Ages. Philip Augustus, King of France 1180-1223, attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Meaux Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in the town of Meaux, France. It is located in the department of Seine-et-Marne, east of Paris, the cathedral is a national monument and is the seat of the Bishop of Meaux. Construction of the cathedral began between 1175 -1180, when a structure in Romanesque style was started, defects in the original design and construction had to be corrected in the 13th century, in which the architect Gautier de Vainfroy was much involved. He had to remove the previous cathedral almost totally and start a new structure in Gothic style, in the 13th century work was often interrupted due to lack of funds, a problem removed by the generosity of Charles IV in the early 14th century. Further progress was interrupted by the Hundred Years War and occupation by the English, the archives of the diocese were destroyed in 1793 –1794, thus deleting much knowledge about the early history of the church. The composer Pierre Moulu worked at the cathedral in the early 16th century, the design of the cathedral, because of its construction period, encompasses several periods of Gothic art.
The cathedral rises to a height of 48 meters, the interior ornamentation is noted for its smoothness, and the space for its overall luminosity. The cathedral contains an organ, built in the 17th century. Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet Bishop Louis Pierre Joseph Cornet Marie of France, Countess of Champagne Saint Fiacre Dictionnaire des églises de France, Luxembourg, rempart / Desclée de Brouwer, Paris. ISBN 2-904365-23-0 Location Villard de Honnecourt mentions this cathedral in this manuscript and actually has a drawing of it on Plate #48 he says This is the plan of the Church of ST