England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Philip I of Namur
Philip I, called the Noble, was the margrave of Namur from 1195 until his death. He was the son of Baldwin V, Count of Hainault. His paternal grandmother was Alice, Countess of Namur, baldwins will left Namur to Philip, but as a fief of Hainault. However, Theobald I of Bar, who had married Henry of Luxembourgs heiress, refused to relinquish Namur, the war lasted for three years until the Treaty of Dinant, signed on 26 July 1199, recognised Philip as holder of Namur. Philip was left as regent of Hainault while his brother, Baldwin VI, went on the Fourth Crusade and acted as guardian to the young heiresses Joanna. This insulted the barons of Flanders and Hainault and they revolted and forced him to give up the regency, in Namur, Philip reigned as a peaceful and pious promoter of social development. He intervened as the mediator between many feuding lords and he died of dysentery on 9 October 1212, in Valenciennes. He had designated his twin sister Yolande as heir
Ingeborg of Denmark, Queen of France
Ingeborg of Denmark was a French queen by marriage to Philip II of France. She was a daughter of Valdemar I of Denmark and Sofia of Minsk, Ingeborg was married to Philip II Augustus of France on 15 August 1193 after the death of Philips first wife Isabelle of Hainaut. Her marriage brought a dowry from her brother Knut VI. Stephen of Tournai described her as kind, young of age. At the marriage, she was renamed Isambour, on the day after his marriage to Ingeborg, King Philip changed his mind, and attempted to send her back to Denmark. Outraged, Ingeborg fled to a convent in Soissons, from where she protested to Pope Celestine III, contemporary Canon law stated that a man and a woman could not marry if they shared an ancestor within the last seven generations. The council therefore declared the marriage void, Ingeborg protested again and the Danes sent a delegation to meet Pope Celestine. They convinced him that the family tree was false but the pope merely declared the annulment invalid. Ingeborg spent the next 20 years in imprisonment in various French castles.
In one stage she spent more than a decade in the castle of Étampes southwest of Paris and her brother Knud VI and his advisers continually worked against the annulment. Contemporary sources indicate that many of Philips advisers in France supported Ingeborg, possibly he wanted more allies against the rival Angevin dynasty. As a dowry, he had asked the support of Danish fleet for a year, Knud VI, Ingeborgs brother, agreed only to a dowry of 10.000 silver marks. Marriage had been negotiated through Philips adviser Bernard of Vincennes and Guillaume, Pope Celestine defended the Queen, but was able to do little for her. Indeed, Philip asked Pope Celestine III for an annulment on the grounds of non-consummation “per maleficium, Philip had not reckoned with Ingeborg, she insisted that the marriage had been consummated, and that she was his wife and the rightful Queen of France. The Franco-Danish churchman William of Paris intervened in the case of Philip Augustus who was attempting to repudiate Ingeborg, Philip married Agnes of Merania, a German heiress, in June 1196.
However, in 1198, new Pope Innocent III declared that new marriage was void because the previous marriage was still valid. He ordered Philip to dismiss Agnes and take Ingeborg back, Ingeborg had written to him, stating abuse and isolation and claiming thoughts of suicide because of harsh treatment. Philips response was to lock Ingeborg away in the chateau of Étampes, locked up in a tower, Ingeborg was a prisoner
Bertha of Holland
Bertha of Holland, known as Berthe or Bertha of Frisia and erroneously as Berta or Bertrada, was queen consort of the Franks from 1072 until 1092, as the first wife of King Philip I. Berthas marriage to the king in 1072 was a result of negotiations between him and her stepfather, Count Robert the Frisian of Flanders. After nine years of childlessness, the couple had three children, including Philips successor, Louis the Fat. Philip, grew tired of his wife by 1090 and that marriage was a scandal since both Philip and Bertrada were already married to other people, at least until Queen Bertha died the next year. Bertha was the daughter of Count Floris I of Holland and his wife and she is erroneously referred to as Matilda by Chronologia Johannes de Beke. Bertha had six siblings and both of her parents came from large families and her father ruled a territory vaguely described as Friesland west of the Vlie, which is where Bertha spent her childhood. Count Floris I was assassinated in 1061, and two years her mother remarried to Robert of Flanders, now known as Robert the Frisian, became guardian of Bertha and her six siblings.
In 1070, Robert the Frisian became involved in a war with King Philip I of France over succession to the County of Flanders. Within two years and Philip concluded a treaty which was to be sealed by a marriage, Roberts own daughters were too young. Robert thus agreed to the marriage of his stepdaughter to King Philip, Bertha married Philip, thus becoming queen of the Franks, probably in 1072. Bertha had no kings among her ancestors and lacked even tenuous links with the Carolingian that her predecessors could claim. Consequently, contemporary chroniclers did not even try to present her lineage as more exalted than that of a counts daughter, the shortage of royal candidates made Bertha a suitable choice. Little is known about Berthas queenship and she co-signed only three donation charters. However, she plays a prominent role in the hagiography titled Vita Arnulfi, the hagiography describes how she used her regal power to expel Abbot Gerard of Saint-Médard and reinstate the former abbot, who had been removed due to his mismanagement of the abbey.
Saint Arnulf of Soissons warned her that doing so would incur the wrath of God and lead to her being out of the kingdom into exile. The queen furiously refused to listen to him, the hagiography, was written after Bertha died and during Bertradas queenship, which might explain the name confusion. For six years, King Philip and Queen Bertha were troubled by their childlessness and especially by the lack of male children, the birth of the long-awaited heir apparent had such a great impact that a story of a miracle developed around it. Reportedly, the couples fertility was only restored thanks to the prayers of a hermit, Arnulf informed Queen Bertha that she was expecting a son and that it would be appropriate to give him the Carolingian name of Louis
St. Peter's Church, Leuven
Saint Peters Church of Leuven, Belgium, is situated on the citys Grote Markt, right across the ornate Town Hall. Built mainly in the 15th century in Brabantine Gothic style, the church has a floor plan. The first church on the site, made of wood and presumably founded in 986 and it was replaced by a Romanesque church, made of stone, featuring a West End flanked by two round towers like at Our Ladys Basilica in Maastricht. Of the Romanesque building only part of the remains, underneath the chancel of the actual church. In 1497 the building was complete, although modifications, especially at the West End. In 1458, a fire struck the old Romanesque towers that flanked the West End of the uncompleted building. The first arrangements for a new tower complex followed quickly, but were never realized, insufficient ground stability and funds proved this plan impracticable, as the central tower reached less than a third of its intended height before the project was abandoned in 1541. After the height was reduced by partial collapses from 1570 to 1604.
The architect had, made a maquette of the original design, despite their incomplete status, the towers are mentioned on the UNESCO World Heritage List, as part of the Belfries of Belgium and France. The church suffered damage in both World Wars. In 1914 a fire caused the collapse of the roof and in 1944 a bomb destroyed part of the northern side. The reconstructed roof is surmounted at the crossing by a flèche, a very late addition is the jacquemart, or golden automaton, which periodically rings a bell near the clock on the gable of the southern transept, above the main southern entrance door. Despite the devastation during the World Wars, the church remains rich in works of art, the chancel and ambulatory were turned into a museum in 1998, where visitors can view a collection of sculptures and metalwork. The church has two paintings by the Flemish Primitive Dirk Bouts on display, the Last Supper and the Martyrdom of St Erasmus, the street leading towards the West End of the church is named after the artist.
The Nazis seized The Last Supper in 1942, an elaborate stone tabernacle, in the form of a hexagonal tower, soars amidst a bunch of crocketed pinnacles to a height of 12.5 meters. In side chapels are the tombs of Duke Henry I of Brabant, his wife Matilda, godfrey II of Leuven is buried in the church. A large and elaborate oak pulpit, which is transferred from the church of Ninove, is carved with a life-size representation of Norbert of Xanten falling from a horse. One of the oldest objects in the art collection is a 12th-century wooden head, there is Nicolaas de Bruynes 1442 sculpture of the Madonna and Child enthroned on the seat of wisdom
Affligem Abbey is a Benedictine monastery in the municipality of Affligem, Flemish Brabant, Belgium,19 kilometres to the north-west of Brussels. Dedicated in 1086, it was the most important monastery in the Duchy of Brabant, the abbey of Affligem was probably founded on the 28th of June,1062 by six hermits, a group of knights who repented of their violent way of life. Hermann II, Count Palatine of Lotharingia and his guardian, Anno II, the count Palatine donated the land on which to build the abbey church. The first St Peterchurch was erected in 1083, the Rule of St Benedict was adopted in 1085 and the abbey was dedicated in 1086. The counts of Brabant, counts of Leuven, became their protectors in 1085/1086, a number of their family members are buried in the abbey church, including Queen Adeliza of England, as well as her father Duke Godfrey I of Leuven. The tomb of Queen Adeliza is lost, during the 12th century, the abbey became known for its strict observance of the discipline of the Cluniac reforms.
Several monasteries, among them Maria Laach Abbey in Germany, were founded by the monks of Affligem, in 1523, Affligem joined the Bursfelde Congregation, a union of Benedictine monasteries formed in the 15th century for the stricter observance of the Benedictine rule. In 1569, the Archbishop of Mechelen became commendatory abbot and exercised his authority through a dean, Archbishop Jacob Boonen introduced the Monte Cassino observance. At his insistence, the Prior of Affligem, Benedict van Haeften, founded in 1627 a new congregation, B. M. V. in Templo Praesentat, which included Affligem and several other Belgian monasteries. In 1796, during the French occupation, the monks were dismissed, part of the buildings destroyed, the last dean, Beda Regaus, preserved the miraculous image of Our Lady, as well as the staff and chalice of Saint Bernard. These came into the possession of a Benedictine monk, Veremund Daens, in 1869/70, the abbey of Affligem was re-established. It is now a member of the Flemish Province of the Subiaco Congregation within the Benedictine Confederation, the first abbot of the abbey was Fulgentius
Pope Innocent III
Pope Innocent III reigned from 8 January 1198 to his death. His birth name was Lotario dei Conti di Segni, sometimes anglicised to Lothar of Segni, Pope Innocent was one of the most powerful and influential popes. He exerted an influence over the Christian states of Europe. Pope Innocent was central in supporting the Catholic Churchs reforms of ecclesiastical affairs through his decretals and this resulted in a considerable refinement of Western canon law. Pope Innocent is notable for using interdict and other censures to compel princes to obey his decisions, Innocent called for Christian crusades against Muslim Spain and the Holy Land, as well as the Albigensian Crusade against the Cathars in southern France. One of Pope Innocents critical decisions was organizing the Fourth Crusade, originally intended to attack Jerusalem through Egypt, a series of unforeseen circumstances led the crusaders to Constantinople, where they ultimately sacked the city in 1204. Lotario de Conti was born in Gavignano, near Anagni and his father was Count Trasimund of Segni and was a member of a famous house, which produced nine Popes, including Gregory IX, Alexander IV and Innocent XIII.
Lotario was the nephew of Pope Clement III, his mother, as Pope, Lotario was to play a major role in the shaping of canon law through conciliar canons and decretal letters. He subscribed the papal bulls between 7 December 1190 and 4 November 1197, as a cardinal, Lotario wrote De miseria humanae conditionis. The work was popular for centuries, surviving in more than 700 manuscripts. Although he never returned to the work he intended to write, On the Dignity of Human Nature. Celestine III died on 8 January 1198 and he was only thirty-seven years old at the time. He took the name Innocent III, maybe as a reference to his predecessor Innocent II, as pope, Innocent III began with a very wide sense of his responsibility and of his authority. The Muslim recapture of Jerusalem in 1187 was to him a divine judgment on the moral lapses of Christian princes and he was determined to protect what he called the liberty of the Church from inroads by secular princes. The patrimonium was routinely threatened by Hohenstaufen German kings who, as Roman emperors, the early death of Henry VI left his 4-year-old son Frederick II as king.
Henry VI’s widow Constance of Sicily ruled over Sicily for her son before he reached the age of majority. She was as eager to remove German power from the kingdom of Sicily as was Innocent III, before her death in 1198, she named Innocent as guardian of the young Frederick until he reached his maturity. In exchange, Innocent was able to recover papal rights in Sicily that had been surrendered decades earlier to King William I of Sicily by Pope Adrian IV, the Pope invested the young Frederick II as King of Sicily in November 1198
Dedi III, Margrave of Lusatia
Dedi III, nicknamed the Fat, a member of the House of Wettin, was Margrave of Lusatia from 1185 until his death. Dedo was a son of the Wettin margrave Conrad I of Meissen. From 1144, he administered the lordship of Groitzsch as heir apparent of the late Count Henry of Groitzsch, Dedi participated in five campaigns of the Hohenstaufen emperor Frederick Barbarossa to Italy. In 1177, he served as Fredericks envoy to Pope Alexander III and swore, on Fredericks behalf, to uphold the Treaty of Venice, back in Germany, Dedi appears to have spent most of his life in Rochlitz. Like his elder brother Margrave Otto II of Meissen, he encouraged the settlement of ethnic Germans in his territory and he founded Wechselburg Priory as a private monastery, where he and his descendants were buried. Together with his elder brothers Margrave Otto II of Meissen and Margrave Theodoric I of Lusatia, when his brother Theodoric I, who styled himself a Margrave of Landsberg, died in 1185, Dedi inherited his Lusatian possessions and by appointment of Emperor Frederick succeeded him as margrave.
In the succession dispute in Meissen upon the death of Margrave Otto II in 1190, Dedi, in order to get into shape for participating in the Third Crusade, Dedi had his doctors attempt a liposuction. The operation was botched, and as a result, Dedi died on 16 August 1190 and he was a great-grandfather of Elizabeth of Hungary via Gertrude of Merania. Heinrich Theodor Flathe, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie,5, Duncker & Humblot, p.17
Agnes of Merania
Agnes Maria of Andechs-Merania was a Queen of France. She is called Marie by some of the French chroniclers, Agnes Maria was the daughter of Berthold, Duke of Merania, who was Count of Andechs, a castle and territory near Ammersee, Bavaria. Her mother was Agnes of Rochlitz, in June 1196 Agnes married Philip II of France, who had repudiated his second wife Ingeborg of Denmark in 1193. Pope Innocent III espoused the cause of Ingeborg, but Philip did not submit until 1200, Agnes died broken-hearted in July of the next year, at the castle of Poissy, and was buried in the Convent of St Corentin, near Nantes. Agnes and Philip had two children, Philip I, Count of Boulogne and Mary, were legitimized by the Pope in 1201 at the request of the King, little is known of the personality of Agnes, beyond the remarkable influence which she seems to have exercised over Philip. She has been made the heroine of a tragedy by François Ponsard, Agnès de Méranie and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed.
Agnes of Meran. Endnotes, See The notes of Robert Davidsohn in Philipp II, a genealogical notice is furnished by the Chronicon of the monk Alberic of Fontaines, in Pertz, vol. xxiii. Pp.872 f. and by the Genealogia Wettinensis, ibid. p.229, media related to Agnes of Merania at Wikimedia Commons
House of Capet
The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians, historians in the 19th century came to apply the name Capetian to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. It was not a contemporary practice and they were sometimes called the third race of kings, the Merovingians being the first, and the Carolingians being the second. The name is derived from the nickname of Hugh, the first Capetian King, the direct succession of French kings, father to son, from 987 to 1316, of thirteen generations in almost 330 years, was unparallelled in recorded history. The direct line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328, with the death of Charles IV, the throne passed to the House of Valois, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV. He proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and coronation of his son, Robert II, the throne thus passed securely to Robert on his fathers death, who followed the same custom – as did many of his early successors.
Louis VIII – the eldest son and heir of Philip Augustus – married Blanche of Castile, a granddaughter of Aliénor of Aquitaine and Henry II of England. In her name, he claimed the crown of England, invading at the invitation of the English Barons and these lands were added to the French crown, further empowering the Capetian family. Louis IX – Saint Louis – succeeded Louis VIII as a child, unable to rule for several years, the government of the realm was undertaken by his mother, at the death of Louis IX, France under the Capetians stood as the pre-eminent power in Western Europe. Unfortunately for the Capetians, the proved a failure. Philip IV had married Jeanne, the heiress of Navarre and Champagne, by this marriage, he added these domains to the French crown. More importantly to French history, he summoned the first Estates General – in 1302 – and in 1295 established the so-called Auld Alliance with the Scots and it was Philip IV who presided over the beginning of his Houses end. The first quarter of the century saw each of Philips sons reign in rapid succession, Louis X, Philip V, Louis – unwilling to release his wife and return to their marriage – needed to remarry.
He arranged a marriage with his cousin, Clementia of Hungary and this proved the case, but the boy – King John I, known as the Posthumous – died after only 5 days, leaving a succession crisis. Eventually, it was decided based on several reasons that Joan was ineligible to inherit the throne, which passed to the Count of Poitiers. Marie died in 1324, giving birth to a stillborn son, the last of the direct Capetians were the daughters of Philip IVs three sons, and Philip IVs daughter, Isabella. Since they were female, they could not transmit their Capetian status to their descendants, the wife of Edward II of England, Isabella overthrew her husband in favour of her son and her co-hort, only for Edward III to execute Mortimer and have Isabella removed from power. Joan, the daughter of Louis X, succeeded on the death of Charles IV to the throne of Navarre, she now being – questions of paternity aside – the unquestioned heiress
Adelaide of Maurienne
Adelaide of Savoy was the second spouse but first Queen consort of Louis VI of France. Adelaide was the daughter of Humbert II of Savoy and Gisela of Burgundy, and niece of Pope Callixtus II and she became the second wife of Louis VI of France, whom she married on 3 August 1113/14 in Paris, France. They had eight children, the second of whom became Louis VII of France, adelaide was one of the most politically active of all Frances medieval queens. Her name appears on 45 royal charters from the reign of Louis VI, during her tenure as queen, royal charters were dated with both her regnal year and that of the king. Among many other religious benefactions and Louis founded the monastery of St Peters at Montmartre, after Louis VIs death, Adélaide did not immediately retire to conventual life, as did most widowed queens of the time. Instead she married Matthieu I of Montmorency, with whom she had one child and she remained active in the French court and in religious activities. Adélaide is one of two queens in a legend related by William Dugdale, as the story goes, Queen Adélaide of France became enamoured of a young knight, William dAlbini, at a joust.
But he was engaged to Adeliza of Louvain and refused to become her lover. The jealous Adélaide lured him into the clutches of a hungry lion and this story is almost without a doubt apocryphal. In 1153 she retired to the abbey of Montmartre, which she had founded with Louis VII and she died there on 18 November 1154. She was buried in the cemetery of the Church of St. Pierre at Montmartre, not to be confused with his elder brother. Peter, married Elizabeth, Lady of Courtenay Nolan, Kathleen D. Capetian Women Facinger, a Study of Medieval Queenship, Capetian France, 987–1237 Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History 5 (1968, 3–48
Philip II of France
Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, a member of the House of Capet. Philips predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself king of France. The son of King Louis VII and his wife, Adèle of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné God-given because he was the first son of Louis VII. Philip was given the nickname Augustus by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the Crown lands of France so remarkably, the military actions surrounding the Albigensian Crusade helped prepare the expansion of France southward. Philip did not participate directly in these actions, but he allowed his vassals, Philip transformed France from a small feudal state into the most prosperous and powerful country in Europe. He checked the power of the nobles and helped the towns to free themselves from seigniorial authority and he built a great wall around Paris, re-organized the French government and brought financial stability to his country.
Philip was born in Gonesse on 21 August 1165 and he spent much of the following night attempting to find his way out, but to no avail. Exhausted by cold and fatigue, he was discovered by a peasant carrying a charcoal burner. His father went on pilgrimage to the Shrine of Thomas Becket to pray for Philips recovery and was told that his son had indeed recovered, however, on his way back to Paris, he suffered a stroke. In declining health, Louis VII had his 14-year-old son crowned and anointed as king at Rheims on 1 November 1179 by the Archbishop Guillaume aux Blanches Mains. He was married on 28 April 1180 to Isabelle of Hainaut, the daughter of Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut, and Margaret I, Countess of Flanders, who brought the County of Artois as her dowry. From the time of his coronation, all power was transferred to Philip. Eventually, Louis died on 18 September 1180, while the royal demesne had increased under Philip I and Louis VI, it had diminished slightly under Louis VII. In April 1182, partially to enrich the French crown, Philip expelled all Jews from the demesne, Philips eldest son Louis was born on 5 September 1187 and inherited the County of Artois in 1190, when his mother Isabelle died.
The main source of funding for Philips army was from the royal demesne, in times of conflict, he could immediately call up 250 knights,250 horse sergeants,100 mounted crossbowmen,133 crossbowmen on foot,2,000 foot sergeants, and 300 mercenaries. Towards the end of his reign, the king could muster some 3,000 knights,9,000 sergeants,6,000 urban militiamen, using his increased revenues, Philip was the first Capetian king to build a French navy actively. By 1215, his fleet could carry a total of 7,000 men, within two years, his fleet included 10 large ships and many smaller ones. In 1181, Philip began a war with Philip, Count of Flanders, over the Vermandois, which King Philip claimed as his wifes dowry, finally the Count of Flanders invaded France, ravaging the whole district between the Somme and the Oise before penetrating as far as Dammartin