Ministry of National Education (France)
The Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research, or "Ministry of National Education", as the title has changed no small number of times in the course of the Fifth Republic is the French government cabinet member charged with running France's public educational system and with the supervision of agreements and authorizations for private teaching organizations. The Ministry's headquarters is located in the 18th century Hôtel de Rochechouart on the rue de Grenelle in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. Given that National Education is France's largest employer, employs more than half of the French state civil servants, the position is traditionally a strategic one; the current minister is Jean-Michel Blanquer. A governmental position overseeing public education was first created in France in 1802. Following the various regime changes in France in the first decades of the 19th century, the position changed official status and name a number of times before the position of Minister of Public Instruction was created in 1828.
For much of its history, the position was combined with that of Minister of Public Worship, who dealt with issues related to the Roman Catholic Church, except in instances where the Minister of Public Instruction was a Protestant. The position has occasionally been combined with Minister of Sports and Minister of Youth Affairs. In 1932, the office's title was changed to Minister of National Education, although it was changed back in 1940–1941, was renamed Minister of Education during the Presidency of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. In 1975, it created the Comité d'études sur les formations d'ingénieurs which studies the training and job placement of engineers in France. List of Education Ministers of France Education in France France Ministry of National Education – Official website
2017 French legislative election
Legislative elections were held on 11 and 18 June 2017 to elect the 577 members of the 15th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic. They followed; the centrist party he founded in 2016, La République En Marche!, led an alliance with the centrist Democratic Movement. The Socialist Party was reduced to 30 seats and the Republicans reduced to 112 seats, both parties' allies suffered from a marked drop in support; the movement founded by Jean-Luc Mélenchon, la France Insoumise, secured 17 seats, enough for a group in the National Assembly. Among other major parties, the French Communist Party secured ten and the National Front obtained eight seats. Both rounds of the legislative election were marked by record low turnout.Édouard Philippe, appointed as Prime Minister by Macron following his victory in the presidential election, was reappointed following the second round of the legislative elections and presented his second government by 21 June. The 15th legislature of the French Fifth Republic commenced on 27 June.
In France, the legislative election takes place about a month after the second round of the presidential election, held on 7 May. Prior to 2002, the presidential and legislative elections were not always held in the same year. In the first round of the presidential election, on 23 April, Emmanuel Macron of En Marche! and Marine Le Pen of the National Front advanced to the runoff after placing first and second and were followed by François Fillon of the Republicans and Jean-Luc Mélenchon of la France Insoumise. In the first round, Macron led in 240 constituencies, against 216 for Le Pen, 67 for Mélenchon, 54 for Fillon. Macron won the second round on 7 May against Le Pen, securing 66.1% of valid votes. Upon the close of nominations for the legislative election, the Ministry of the Interior published a final list on 23 May containing a total of 7,882 candidates, with an average of 14 candidates within each constituency; the 2017 legislative election was the first held after the legal abolition of the dual mandate in France in 2014.
The 577 members of the National Assembly are elected using a two-round system with single-member constituencies. Candidates for the legislative elections had five days, from Monday 15 May to 18:00 on Friday 19 May, to declare and register their candidacy; the official campaign ran from 22 May to 10 June at midnight, while the campaign for the second round runs from 12 June at midnight to 17 June at midnight, with eligible candidates required to declare their presence by 18:00 CEST on 13 June. To be elected in the first round, a candidate was required to secure an absolute majority of votes cast, to secure votes equal to at least 25% of eligible voters in their constituency. Should none of the candidates satisfy these conditions, a second round of voting ensues. Only first-round candidates with the support of at least 12.5% of eligible voters are allowed to participate, but if only 1 candidate meets that standard the two candidates with the highest number of votes in the first round may continue to the second round.
In the second round, the candidate with a plurality is elected. Of the 577 constituencies, 539 are in metropolitan France, 27 are in overseas departments and territories and 11 are for French citizens living abroad. Voting in the first round took place from 08:00 to 18:00 on Saturday 3 June in French Polynesia and at French diplomatic missions in the Americas, on Sunday 4 June at French diplomatic missions outside the Americas. Voting in the French overseas departments and territories in the Americas took place from 08:00 to 18:00 on Saturday 10 June. Voting in metropolitan France took place from 08:00 to 20:00 on Sunday 11 June. Voting in the second round took place on Saturday 17 June from 08:00 to 18:00 in the French overseas departments and territories situated east of the International Date Line and west of metropolitan France, as well as at French diplomatic missions in the Americas. Voting in metropolitan France takes place from 08:00 to 20:00 on Sunday 18 June; the 15th National Assembly convened on 27 June at 15:00 CEST.
En Marche!, the movement founded by Emmanuel Macron, who won the presidential election under its banner, planned to run candidates in all 577 constituencies under the banner of "La République En Marche!", of which at least half were planned to be from civil society – the other half having held political office – and half women. No "double investiture" was permitted, though the original requirement of prospective candidates to leave their previous political party was waived by Macron on 5 May
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
2004 European Parliament election in France
Elections to the European Parliament were held in France on 13 June 2004. The opposition Socialist Party made substantial gains, although this was at the expense of minor parties; the governing Union for a Popular Movement and Union for French Democracy made gains. The elections were conducted in seven regional constituencies in metropolitan France, plus an eighth consisting of all overseas departments and territories. Allocation of seats was by proportional representation, with closed lists and no preferential voting, using the rule of the highest average, with a threshold of 5% of the votes in each. For a national list in alphabetical order, see List of members of the European Parliament for France, 2004–09 Jean-Louis Bourlanges Jean-Louis Cottigny Brigitte Douay Hélène Flautre Jean-Paul Gauzes Jacky Henin Carl Lang Marie-Noëlle Lienemann Vincent Peillon Tokia Saïfi Chantal Simonot Henri Weber Marie-Hélène Aubert Roselyne Bachelot-Narquin Philippe de Villiers Ambroise Guellec Stéphane Le Foll Philippe Morillon Bernard Poignant Marie-Line Reynaud Yannick Vaugrenard Bernadette Vergnaud Jean Marie Beaupuy Joseph Daul Bruno Gollnisch Natalie Griesbeck Benoît Hamon Adeline Hazan Marie-Anne Isler-Béguin Véronique Mathieu Pierre Moscovici Catherine Trautmann Kader Arif Françoise Castex Jean-Marie Cavada Christine de Veyrac Alain Lamassoure Anne Laperrouze Jean-Claude Martinez Robert Navarro Gérard Onesta Béatrice Patrie Jean-Luc Bennahmias Guy Bono Marie-Arlette Carlotti Thierry Cornillet Claire Gibault Françoise Grossetête Jean-Marie Le Pen Patrick Louis Michel Rocard Martine Roure Lydia Schenardi Ari Vatanen Dominique Vlasto Bernadette Bourzai Marie-Hélène Descamps Janelly Fourtou Catherine Guy-Quint Brice Hortefeux André Laignel Pervenche Berès Paul-Marie Coûteaux Marielle de Sarnez Harlem Désir Anne Ferreira Nicole Fontaine Patrick Gaubert Marine Le Pen Bernard Lehideux Alain Lipietz Gilles Savary Pierre Schapira Jacques Toubon Francis Wurtz Jean-Claude Fruteau Margie Sudre Paul Vergès
Jean-Claude Gaudin is a French politician for The Republicans. He has been Mayor of Marseille since 1995, he was a member of the National Assembly of France from Bouches-du-Rhône from 1978 to 1989 and has been a member of the French Senate from 1989 to 1995 and again from 1998. From 1995 to 1997, he served as Minister of Territorial Development in Alain Juppé's Second Cabinet, he served as Vice-President of the Senate from 1998 to 2011. Jean-Claude Gaudin was born on October 8, 1939 in Mazargues, a neighbourhood of the 9th arrondissement in Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône, France, his ancestors lived in Mazargues since 1600. His father was his mother, as an espadrille-maker, they entertained author and playwright Marcel Pagnol, actress Alida Rouffe, actor Raimu. They had a small house at the Calanque de Sormiou, where they spent their summers. In 1965, he was enrolled in the military service. Upon graduation from university, he became a teacher of history and geography for fifteen years at Saint-Joseph high school in Marseille.
He was elected on the list of centrist and socialist politicians known as the “Removes iron-Rastoin” against the Gaullist party Union for the New Republic. He was subsequently elected in a local election and became one of the youngest members of the town council of Marseille, he was re-elected again in 1971. In 1974, he took part in the presidential campaign of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. In 1978, he won his first election for the French National Assembly as the candidate in the 2nd district of the Rhône delta, he beat Charles-Emile Loo, with 53.7 % of the votes cast. In June 1981, he won reelection, he became president of the Union for French Democracy group to the French National Assembly. In 1986, he was given the responsibility for the executive of Provence the Alps Rivieras. On 25 April 1986, he became president of the first regional council of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur elected by direct vote. In 1988, after the dissolution of the French National Assembly, he was again re-elected, for the 4th time, deputy of the Rhone delta for 2nd district of Marseille, with 60.63% of the votes cast.
His presidency of the UDF Group to the French National Assembly was renewed. In September 1989, he won the district. In 1992, the renewal of the regional council of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur enlisted much media interest, he had to face the growing power of Jean-Marie Le Pen and the Front National. At the end of a harsh and difficult campaign, he carried the vote again, beating Bernard Tapie and Jean-Marie Le Pen, he was re-elected president of the regional council on 27 March 1992. In 1983, Gaudin tried to unseat Gaston Defferre as Mayor of Marseille, lost for a handful of votes. In 1989, he lost again. In 1995, Gaudin stood for the post of Mayor along with maintaining his position as a senator, he won with an absolute majority of 55 City council men out of 101 and was installed as Mayor of Marseille on 25 June 1995. On 7 November 1995, on a proposal from Alain Juppé, the President of the Republic Jacques Chirac named Jean-Claude Gaudin Minister for Integration and City and Regional Planning. On 14 July 1997, he was made Chevalier of the Légion d'honneur.
On 6 October 1998, he became Vice-President of the Senate. He was re-elected Mayor of Marseilles again on 25 March 2001 as well as 16 March 2008, president of the Urban Community Marseilles Provence Métropole on 11 April. On 3 October 2001, Jean-Claude Gaudin was re-elected as Vice-President of the Senate for a second time. In 2004, he was re-elected for a third time as Vice-President of the Senate. In 2004, Gaudin was interim president of the UMP after Alain Juppé stepped down and before Nicolas Sarkozy was elected. In 2013, he announced. In the first round of the election, he obtained 37,64% of the votes. In the second round he garnered 42,39% while the Socialist candidate got 31,09 and Front National's candidate 26,51. On 4 April, the municipal council in Marseille elected him as mayor for a new period with no opposing candidate, he has never been married. He is a practising Catholic, he lives in a rented apartment in Neuilly-sur-Seine during the week and spends his weekends in a mansion in Saint-Zacharie.
The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni