Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
History of Liechtenstein
Political identity came to the territory now occupied by the Principality of Liechtenstein in 814, with the formation of the subcountry of Lower Rhætia. Liechtenstein's borders have remained unchanged since 1434, when the Rhine established the border between the Holy Roman Empire and the Swiss cantons. A Roman road crossed the region from south to north, traversing the Alps by the Splügen Pass and following the right bank of the Rhine at the edge of the floodplain, for long uninhabited because of periodic flooding. Roman villas have been excavated in Nendeln; the late Roman influx of the Alemanni from the north is memorialized by the remains of a Roman fort at Schaan. The area, part of Raetia, was incorporated into the Carolingian empire, divided into countships, which became subdivided over the generations; because the Duchy of Swabia lost its duke in 1268 and was never restored, all vassals of the duchy became immediate vassals of the Imperial Throne. Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German gained ground, in 1300 an Alemannic population called the Walsers entered the region.
In the 21st century, the mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect. The medieval county of Vaduz was formed in 1342 as a small subdivision of the Werdenberg county of the dynasty of Montfort of Vorarlberg; the 15th century brought some devastation. The Principality takes its name from the Liechtenstein family, rather than vice versa, the family in turn takes its name from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria, which it owned from at least 1140 until the 13th century and from 1807 onwards. Over the centuries, the family acquired huge landed estates in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria. All of these rich territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords under various lines of the Habsburg family, to which many Liechtensteins were close advisors. Thus, without holding any land directly under the Holy Roman Emperors, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet the primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial Diet, although its head was elevated to princely rank in the late 17th century.
The area, to become Liechtenstein was invaded by both Austrian and Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War of 1618–1648. During the 17th century the country was afflicted by a plague and by a witch hunt, in which more than 100 persons were persecuted and executed. Prince Johann Adam Andreas of Liechtenstein bought the domain of Schellenberg in 1699 and the county of Vaduz in 1712; this Prince of Liechtenstein had wide landholdings in Austria and Moravia, but none of his lands were held directly from the Emperor. Thus, the prince was barred from entry to the Council of Princes and the prestige and influence that would entail. By acquiring the Lordships of Schellenberg and Vaduz, modest areas of mountain villages each of, directly subordinate to the Emperor because there no longer being a Duke of Swabia, the Prince of Liechtenstein achieved his goal; the territory took the name of the family. On January 23, 1719, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that the counties of Vaduz and Schellenberg be promoted to a principality with the name Liechtenstein for his servant Anton Florian of Liechtenstein whereby he and his successors became Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.
After having narrowly escaped mediatization to Bavaria in 1806, Liechtenstein became a sovereign state that year when it joined Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The French under Napoleon occupied the country for a few years, but Liechtenstein retained its independence in 1815. Soon afterward, Liechtenstein joined the German Confederation. In 1818, Johann I granted a constitution, although it was limited in its nature. 1818 saw the first visit of a member of the house of Liechtenstein, Prince Alois. However, the first visit by a sovereign prince would not occur until 1842. In 1862, a new Constitution was promulgated. During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Prince Johann II placed his soldiers at the disposal of the Confederation but only to “defend the German territory of Tyrol”; the Prince refused to have his men fight against other Germans. The Liechtenstein contingent took up position on the Stilfse Joch in the south of Liechtenstein to defend the Liechtenstein/Austrian border against attacks by the Italians under Garibaldi.
A reserve of 20 men remained in Liechtenstein. When the war ended on July 22, the army of Liechtenstein marched home to a ceremonial welcome in Vaduz. Popular legend claims that 80 men went to war but 81 came back. An Austrian liaison officer joined up with the contingent on the way back. In 1868, after the German Confederation dissolved, Liechtenstein disbanded its army of 80 men and declared its permanent neutrality, respected during both World Wars. Liechtenstein did not participate in World War I. However, until the end of the war, Liechtenstein was tied to Austria. In response, the Allied Powers imposed an economic embargo on the principality; the economic devastation forced the country to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. In 1919 Liechtenstein and Switzerland signed a treaty under which Switzerland assumes the representation of Liechtenstein interests at the diplomatic and consular level in countries where it maintains a representation and Liechtenstein
As there is no dominant national language, the four main languages of French, Italian and Romansch form the four branches which make up a literature of Switzerland. The original Swiss Confederation, from its foundation in 1291 up to 1798, gained only a few French-speaking districts in what is now the Canton of Fribourg, so the German language dominated. During that period the Swiss vernacular literature was in German, although in the 18th century, French became fashionable in Bern and elsewhere. At that time and Lausanne were not yet Swiss: Geneva was an ally and Vaud a subject land; the French branch does not begin to qualify as Swiss writing until after 1815, when the French-speaking regions gained full status as Swiss cantons. The Italian and Romansch-Ladin branches are less prominent. Like the earlier charters of liberties, the original League of 1291 was drawn up in Latin. Alliances among the cantons, as well as documents concerning the whole Confederation—the Parsons Ordinance of 1370, the Sempach Ordinance of 1393, the Compact of Stans and all the Recesses of the Diets—were compiled in German.
Political documents are not literature, but these pre-Reformation alliances rested on popular consent, were expressed in vernacular German rather than in clerkly Latin. First in order of date are the Minnesingers, the number of whom in the districts that formed part of the medieval Swiss Confederation are said to have exceeded thirty. Zürich was the chief literary centre of the Confederation; the two Manesses collected many of their songs in a manuscript that has come down to us and is preserved in Paris. The most prominent was Master John Hadlaub, who flourished in the second half of the 13th and the first quarter of the 14th centuries. Next we have a long series of war songs. One of the earliest and most famous of these was composed by Hans Halbsuter of Lucerne to commemorate the battle of Sempach, not far from his native town. There are other similar songs for the victory of Näfels and those of the battle of Grandson and battle of Morat in the Burgundian War. In the 14th century the Dominican friar Ulrich Boner of Bern versified many old fables.
More important are the historical chronicles. In the 14th century we have Christian Kuchlmaster's continuation of the annals of the famous monastery of St Gall, in the early 15th century the rhymed chronicle of the war between the Appenzellers and the abbot of St Gall, rather in the same century the chronicles of Conrad Justinger of Bern and Hans Fründ of Lucerne, besides the fantastical chronicle of Strattligen and a scarcely less fanciful poem on the supposed Scandinavian descent of the men of Schwyz and of Ober Hasle, both by Elogius Kiburger of Berne. In the 15th century, too, we have the White Book of Sarnen and the first William Tell song, which gave rise to the well-known legend, as well as the rather play named the Urnerspiel dealing with the same subject; the Burgundian War witnessed a great outburst of historical ardour in the shape of chronicles written by Diebold Schilling of Bern, by Melchior Russ, Diebold Schilling the Younger and Petermann Etterlin, all three of Lucerne as well as by Gerold Edlibach of Zürich, by Johnanes Lenz of Brugg.
In the vernacular, are the earliest descriptions of the Confederation, those by Albert von Bonstetten of Einsiedeln and by Conrad Turst of Zürich, to whom we owe the first map of the country. The Swiss humanists wrote in Latin, as did the Swiss Reformers, at any rate for the most part, though the Zürich Bible of 1531 is an exception. Nicholas Manuel, a many-sided Bernese, composed satirical poems in German against the pope, while Valerius Anshelm of Bern, wrote one of the best Swiss chronicles. Aegidius Tschudi of Glarus, despite great literary activity, published but a single German work in his lifetime, the Uralt warhafflig Alpisch Rhaetia sam pt dem Tract der anderen Alpgebirgen besides his map of Switzerland. Sebastian Munster, a Swiss by adoption, published his Cosmographia in German, the work being translated into Latin in 1550, but the many-sided Conrad Gesner, a born Swiss, wrote all his works in Latin, German translations appearing only at a date. The first important original product in German was the remarkable and elaborate history and description of Switzerland, issued in 1548 at Zürich by Johannes Stumpf of that town.
But Josias Simler, in a way his continuator, wrote all his works and geographical, in Latin. Matthew Merian engraved many plates, which were issued in a series of volumes under the general title of Topographia, the earliest volume describing Switzerland, while all had a text in German by an Austrian, Martin Zeiller. Characteristic of the age are the autobiography of the Valais scholar Thomas Platter and the diary of his still more distinguished son Felix, both written in German, though not published till long after. Swiss historical writers gave up the use of Latin for their native tongue, so Michael Stettler of Bern, Franz Haffner of Soleure, quite a number of Grisons authors, such as Bartholomäus Anhorn and his son of the same name and Johannes Guler von Wyneck. Fortunat Sprecher preferred to write his Pallas raetica in Latin, as did Fortunat von Juvalta in the case of his autobiography; the autobiography of Hans Ards
Weimar culture was the emergence of the arts and sciences that happened in Germany during the Weimar Republic, the latter during that part of the interwar period between Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 and Hitler's rise to power in 1933. 1920s Berlin was at the hectic center of the Weimar culture. Although not part of the Weimar Republic, some authors include the German-speaking Austria, Vienna, as part of Weimar culture. Germany, Berlin in particular, was fertile ground for intellectuals and innovators from many fields during the Weimar Republic years; the social environment was chaotic, politics were passionate. German university faculties became universally open to Jewish scholars in 1918. Leading Jewish intellectuals on university faculties included physicist Albert Einstein. Nine German citizens were awarded Nobel prizes during the Weimar Republic, five of whom were Jewish scientists, including two in medicine. Jewish intellectuals and creative professionals were among the prominent figures in many areas of Weimar culture.
With the rise of Nazism and the ascent to power of Adolf Hitler in 1933, many German intellectuals and cultural figures, both Jewish and non-Jewish, fled Germany for the United States, the United Kingdom, other parts of the world. The intellectuals associated with the Institute for Social Research fled to the United States and reestablished the Institute at the New School for Social Research in New York City. In the words of Marcus Bullock, Emeritus Professor of English at University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, "Remarkable for the way it emerged from a catastrophe, more remarkable for the way it vanished into a still greater catastrophe, the world of Weimar represents modernism in its most vivid manifestation." The culture of the Weimar period was reprised by 1960s left-wing intellectuals in France. Deleuze and Foucault reprised Wilhelm Reich. By 1919, an influx of labor had migrated to Berlin turning it into a fertile ground for the modern arts and sciences, leading to boom in trade and construction.
A trend that had begun before the Great War was given powerful impetus by fall of the Kaiser and royal power. In response to the shortage of pre-war accommodation and housing, tenements were built not far from the Kaiser's Stadtschloss and other majestic structures erected in honor of former nobles. Average people began using their backyards and basements to run small shops and workshops. Commerce expanded and included the establishment of Berlin's first department stores, prior WWI. An "urban petty bourgeoisie" along with a growing middle class grew and flourished in wholesale commerce, retail trade and crafts. Types of employment were becoming more modern, shifting but noticeably towards industry and services. Before World War I, in 1907, 54.9% of German workers were manual labourers. This dropped to 50.1% by 1925. Office workers and bureaucrats increased their share of the labour market from 10.3% to 17% over the same period. Germany was becoming more urban and middle class. Still, by 1925, only a third of Germans lived in large cities.
The total population of Germany rose from 62.4 million in 1920 to 65.2 million in 1933. The Wilheminian values were further discredited as consequence of World War I and the subsequent inflation, since the new youth generation saw no point in saving for marriage in such conditions, preferred instead to spend and enjoy. According to cultural historian Bruce Thompson, Fritz Lang movie Dr. Mabuse the Gambler captures Berlin's postwar mood: The film moves from the world of the slums to the world of the stock exchange and to the cabarets and nightclubs–and everywhere chaos reigns, authority is discredited, power is mad and uncontrollable, wealth inseparable from crime. Politically and economically, the nation was struggling with the terms and reparations imposed by the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I and endured punishing levels of inflation. During the era of the Weimar Republic, Germany became a center of intellectual thought at its universities, most notably social and political theory was combined with Freudian psychoanalysis to form the influential discipline of Critical Theory—with its development at the Institute for Social Research founded at the University of Frankfurt am Main.
The most prominent philosophers with which the so-called'Frankfurt School' is associated were Erich Fromm, Herbert Marcuse, Theodor Adorno, Walter Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas and Max Horkheimer. Among the prominent philosophers not associated with the Frankfurt School were Martin Heidegger and Max Weber; the German philosophical anthropology movement emerged at this time. Many foundational contributions to quantum mechanics were made in Weimar Germany or by German scientists during the Weimar period. While temporarily at the University of Copenhagen, German physicist Werner Heisenberg formulated his Uncertainty principle, with Max Born and Pascual Jordan, accomplished the first complete and correct definition of quantum mechanics, through the invention of Matrix mechanics. Göttingen was the center of research in aero- and fluid-dynamics in the early 20th century. Mathematical aerodynamics was founded by Ludwig Prandtl before World War
Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Anthony Ulrich, a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and ruling Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel from 1685 until 1702 jointly with his elder brother Rudolph Augustus, from 1704 until his death. He was one of the main proponents of enlightened absolutism among the Brunswick dukes, he was born in Hitzacker the residence of his father Duke Augustus the Younger of Brunswick-Lüneburg and his second wife Princess Dorothea of Anhalt-Zerbst. The next year his father, at the age of 55, assumed the rule in the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel after his Welf cousin Duke Frederick Ulrich had died childless. Anthony Ulrich was the second surviving son of the ducal couple. Anthony Ulrich's sister was Sibylle Ursula von Braunschweig-Lüneburg, who stood out as a writer and translator, he studied at the University of Helmstedt. On his Grand Tour, he travelled to Italy and the Low Countries, he met with Madeleine de Scudéry and became passionate about theatre; when he married Elisabeth Juliane, daughter of Duke Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderburg-Norburg, in 1656, he wrote a stage play on this occasion.
His father consulted him in politics and the government business. After Augustus the Younger's death in 1666, Rudolph Augustus, Anthony Ulrich's elder brother, became reigning duke and made Anthony Ulrich his proxy. Rudolph Augustus had more interest in hunting and his library than in government affairs and left most decisions to his brother; the young prince united the forces of the Welf principalities to combat the rebellious City of Brunswick, whose citizens had to accept the ducal overlordship in 1671. In the following year, his main concern was the rivalry with his cousin Duke Ernest Augustus, who from 1679 ruled over the Brunswick Principality of Calenberg. After the Ernest Augustus had received the new ninth prince-electorship from Emperor Leopold I in 1692 and went on to rule as Elector of Hanover, tensions between the two states rose, as both Anthony Ulrich and Rudolph Augustus were dismayed that they had not received the electorship according to the right of primogeniture. While both Hanover under Ernest Augustus' son Elector George Louis and the Welf Principality of Lüneburg sided with the Habsburg emperor in the War of the Spanish Succession, Anthony Ulrich decided to enter into an agreement with King Louis XIV of France.
This led to Hanover and Lüneburg forces invading the Principality of Wolfenbüttel in March 1702. By order of the emperor, Anthony Ulrich was deposed as duke against his brother's protestations, Rudolph Augustus remained as the only Wolfenbüttel ruler, while Anthony Ulrich fled to Saxe-Gotha. In April 1702, Rudolph Augustus signed a treaty with Hanover and Lüneburg that Anthony Ulrich agreed to. After Rudolph Augustus' death in 1704, Anthony Ulrich took over government again, he continued to settle various disputes with his Hanover cousin George Louis, who in 1705 inherited Lüneburg, until a final agreement between the two sister principalities was reached in 1706. Wolfenbüttel renounced all claims to the former Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg and received several smaller estates in compensation, it was now Anthony Ulrich's turn to approach the Imperial Habsburg dynasty. In 1704, he had concluded an agreement with his cousin Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg, wife of the future Emperor Joseph I, to marry his granddaughter Elisabeth Christine off to Joseph's brother Archduke Charles of Austria.
The young woman was reluctant to convert to the Catholic faith, which she did in a solemn ceremony at Bamberg Cathedral on 1 May 1707. The marriage took place the next year in Vienna. In 1709, Anthony Ulrich himself converted to the Catholic Church, he guaranteed to his subjects that this would not influence his government, although he allowed the consecration of the first Catholic church in Brunswick. He lived to see the election of Archduke Charles as Emperor Charles VI in 1711 and the marriage of his granddaughter Charlotte Christine with Alexei Petrovich Romanov, son of Tsar Peter I, in the same year, he died at the age of 80 at his Schloss Salzdahlum residence, which he had built, was buried in the crypt of the Wolfenbüttel Marienkirche. He was succeeded by Augustus William; as an admirer of King Louis XIV of France, Anthony Ulrich is known as a supporter of scholarship and the arts. He introduced the French language at the Wolfenbüttel court and spent enormous sums on cultural events and amusements.
From 1689 to 1690, he had a public opera house erected in Brunswick, Staatstheater Braunschweig, which soon became a venue for Baroque composers such as Johann Rosenmüller, Johann Sigismund Kusser, Reinhard Keiser, Georg Caspar Schürmann, Johann Adolph Hasse. He extended the Bibliotheca Augusta, a library founded by his father, he hired the philosopher Leibniz as a librarian, was a supporter of Anton Wilhelm Amo, the first black Doctor of Philosophy in Europe. The new rotunda of the Bibliotheca Augusta, built according to plans by Hermann Korb and completed in 1712, was the first genuine library building in Germany. Hermann Korb designed the plans for Schloss Salzdahlum, erected between 1694 and 1695, modelled on the French Château de Marly. Here the Prussian cr
Martin Opitz von Boberfeld was a German poet, regarded as the greatest of that nation during his lifetime. Opitz was born in Bunzlau in Lower Silesia, in the Principality of Schweidnitz-Jauer, the son of a prosperous citizen, he received his early education at the gymnasium of his native town, of which his uncle was rector, in 1617 attended the high school—"Schonaichianum"—at Beuthen an der Oder, where he made a special study of French and Italian poetry. In 1618 he entered the University of Frankfurt-on-Oder as a student of literae humaniores, in the same year published his first essay, sive De contemptu linguae Teutonicae, which presented the German language as suitable for poetry. In 1619 Opitz went to Heidelberg, where he became the leader of the school of young poets which at that time made that university town remarkable. Visiting Leiden in the following year he sat at the feet of the famous Dutch lyric poet Daniel Heinsius, whose Lobgesang Jesu Christi and Lobgesang Bacchi he had translated into alexandrines.
At the invitation of Gabriel Bethlen, the lord of Transylvania, he spent a year as professor of philosophy at the gymnasium of Weißenburg. After this he led a wandering life in the service of various territorial nobles. In 1624 Opitz was appointed councilor to Duke George Rudolf of Liegnitz and Brieg in Silesia, in 1625, as reward for a requiem poem composed on the death of Archduke Charles of Austria, was crowned poet laureate by Emperor Ferdinand II, who a few years ennobled him under the title "von Boberfeld." He was elected a member of the Fruitbearing Society in 1629, in 1630 he went to Paris, where he made the acquaintance of Hugo Grotius. He settled in 1635 in the Hanseatic city of Danzig in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, where King Władysław IV Vasa of Poland made him his historiographer and secretary. There he died of the plague on 20 August 1639 in Danzig. Opitz was the head of the so-called First Silesian School of poets, was during his life regarded as the greatest German poet.
Although he would not today be considered a poetical genius, he may justly claim to have been the "father of German poetry" in respect at least of its form. Opitz's own poems are in accordance with the rigorous rules, they are a formal and sober elaboration of considered themes, contain little beauty and less feeling. To this didactic and descriptive category belong his best poems, Trost-Gedichte in Widerwãrtigkeit des Krieges; these are in the main treatises in poetical form. In 1624 Opitz published a collected edition of his poetry under the title Acht Bücher deutscher Poematum. In 1637 he dedicated the Geistliche Poemata to the Duchess of Silesia Der Durchlauchtigen Hochgebornen Fürstin und Frawen/ Frawen Sibyllen Margarethen, gebornen Hertzogin in Schlesien/ zur Lignitz und Briegk: Vermähleten deß Heiligen Röm. Reichs Gräffin von Dönhoff... Dantzig/den6. Tag deß intermonats/im 1637. Jahr. Sibylle Margarethe was the daughter of Dorothea of Brandenburg and the wife of Gerhard Dönhoff, brother of Ernst Magnus Dönhoff and Kasper Dönhoff.
Besides numerous translations, Opitz edited Das Annolied, a Middle High German poem of the end of the 11th century, thus preserved it from oblivion since the original manuscript is now lost. Opitz wrote a pastoral novel, Schäferei der Nymphe Hercinie. Opitz died in Danzig. Martin Opitz, An den Durchlauchten, Hochgebornen Fürsten und Herren, Herren Uldrichen, Postulirten Administratorn desz Stiffts Schwerin, Erben zu Norwegen, Hertzog zu Schleswig, Stormarn undt der Ditmarschen... Lobgetichte, Brieg: Gründer, 1633. Martin Opitz, "Geistliche Poemata 1638", in: Erich Trunz Barock, Max Niemeyer Verlag Tübingen 1966 Works by Martin Opitz at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Martin Opitz at Internet Archive Works by Martin Opitz at LibriVox The Correspondence of Martin Opitz in EMLO Opitz, Martin. Ausgewählte dichtungen von Martin Opitz. Leipzig: F. A. Brockhaus. Opitz, Martin. Weltliche und geistliche Dichtung. Berlin und Stuttgart: W. Spemann
Paul Fleming (poet)
Paul Fleming spelt Flemming, was a German physician and poet. As well as writing notable verse and hymns, he spent several years accompanying the Duke of Holstein's embassies to Russia and Persia, he lived for a year at Reval on the coast of Estonia, where he wrote many love-songs. Born at Hartenstein, in Vogtland, the son of Abraham Fleming, a well-to-do Lutheran pastor, Fleming received his early education from his father before attending a school at Mittweida and the famous Thomasschule at Leipzig, he received his initial medical training at the University of Leipzig, where he studied literature and graduated as a Doctor of Philosophy before gaining his medical doctorate at the University of Hamburg. The Thirty Years' War drove Fleming to Holstein, where in 1633 Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, engaged him as physician and steward. Towards the end of 1633 the Duke sent Fleming with Adam Olearius as a member of an embassy to Russia and the Persian Empire headed by Otto Brüggemann and Philipp Kruse.
Fleming was outside Germany for six years, much of them in the two foreign empires. Travelling into Russia, Fleming was in an advance party of the embassy which went to Novgorod, where he remained while negotiations went on with the Swedes and the Russians. At the end of July 1634 the ambassadors joined the party, the embassy proceeded to Moscow, arriving on August 14. After four months in the capital city, the Holstein embassy departed again for the Baltic on Christmas Eve, 1634, on January 10 arrived at Reval in Swedish Estonia. While the ambassadors continued to Gottorp some of the party, including Fleming, remained in Reval. In the event, Fleming was there for about a year, during which he organized a poetry circle called "the Shepherds". Not long after his arrival in Reval, Fleming began his courtship of Elsabe Niehus, the daughter of Heinrich Niehus, a merchant from Hamburg, he wrote love poems for her, they became engaged to be married. In 1636 the embassy proceeded to Persia, by way of a further visit to Moscow, Elsabe was left behind.
Fleming's Epistolae ex Persia were four letters in verse written during his time in Persia, between 1636 and 1638. The embassy was at Isfahan in 1637. On returning to Reval, Fleming found that Elsabe had married another man and became engaged to her sister, Anna Niehus. In 1639 Fleming resumed his medical studies at the University of Leiden, in 1640 was awarded a doctorate, he settled in Hamburg, where he died on April 2, 1640. With his contemporaries Martin Opitz, Andreas Gryphius, Christian Hoffmann von Hoffmannswaldau and the rather Daniel Casper von Lohenstein, Fleming is one of the writers now called "the Silesian poets" or "the Silesian school"; as a lyricist he stands in the front rank of German poets. Fleming's well-known poems include Auf den Tod eines Madrigal. A number of his sonnets are about the places; the only collections published in his lifetime were Rubella seu Suaviorum Liber and Klagegedichte über das unschuldigste Leiden und Tod unsers Erlösers Jesu Christi, printed early in 1632, the second of which begins with an invocation of Melpomene, the Muse of tragedy.
His Teutsche Poemata, published posthumously in 1642, was renamed Geistliche und weltliche Gedichte and contains many notable love-songs. Fleming wrote in Latin as well as in German, his Latin poems were published in a single volume in 1863, edited by Johann Martin Lappenberg. Fleming has been called a man of "real poetic genius", "the only good poet in Germany during the Thirty Years' War", "possibly the greatest German lyric poet of the seventeenth century" and "the German Herrick". Günter Grass has called him "one of the major figures in German seventeenth-century literature". Fleming wrote the hymn in nine stanzas "In allen meinen Taten" on the melody of "O Welt, ich muss dich lassen" by Heinrich Isaac, contained in several hymnals. Johann Sebastian Bach used the final stanza to close both cantatas Meine Seufzer, meine Tränen and Sie werden euch in den Bann tun; the complete hymn is the base for Bach's chorale cantata In allen meinen Taten. In the 17th century another composer, David Pohle, had set twelve of Fleming's love-songs to music.
Rubella seu Suaviorum Liber Klagegedichte über das unschüldigste Leiden undt Tod unsers Erlösers Jesu Christi Prodromus Teutsche Poemata Geistliche und weltliche Gedichte was the title of editions of Teutsche PoemataSource: "Paul Fleming". Die Barockepoche im Spiegel der Lyrik. University of Konstanz. Retrieved October 3, 2018. Harry Mayne, Paul Fleming Herbert William Smith, The forms of praise in the German poetry of Paul Fleming Siegfried Scheer, Paul Fleming 1609 – 1640: seine literar-historischen Nachwirkungen in drei Jahrhunderten Marian R. Sperberg-McQueen, The German poetry of Paul Fleming: studies in genre and history Karen Brand, Diversität der deutschen Liebeslyrik von Paul Fleming Gerhard Dünnhaupt:'Paul Fleming', in Personalbibliographien zu den Drucken des Barock, vol. 2, pp. 1490–1513 Eva Dürrenfeld, Paul Fleming und Johann Christian Günther Heinz Entner, Paul Fleming – Ein deutscher Dichter im Dreißigjährigen Krieg (Leipzig: V