German Hunting and Fishing Museum
The German Hunting and Fishing Museum is a museum exhibiting objects connected with the history of hunting and fishing in Germany or other territories which nowadays belong to it. Located in the pedestrian zone of the city center of Munich, Bavaria, it is a rare institution worldwide; the building has been a church, part of a large Augustinian monastery between the 13th century and 1803. The museum has a display area of 3,000 square metres. Around 1900, with hunting being at its height of popularity, people asked for a hunting museum. In 1934, the Imperial Hunting Museum was established. During World War II, most of the objects were saved in Schloßgut Ast near Bavaria. All other objects were lost because of looting. After the war, there was a big discussion about the further structure of the Reichsjagdmuseum. In 1958, the year of the 800th anniversary of the founding of the city, the decision in favour of the Augustinian Church was taken; the German Hunting Museum was re-opened on St. Hubert's Day, 3 November 1966.
In 1982, fishing was added as a field of interest, the museum was renamed the German Hunting and Fishing Museum. The museum exhibits about 500 wild stuffed animals, including an Irish elk, a cave bear and several endemic freshwater fish; the collection includes fishing tackle, hunting weapons, large sledges presenting a time span of several centuries. Several so-called Wolpertinger creatures, Bavarian fictional animals, are on display. Www.jagd-fischerei-museum.de: Deutsches Jagd- und Fischereimuseum official page
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but from violence and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period January to May 1945. A war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers; these states employed large mercenary armies, the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence. The war was preceded by the election of the new Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples.
The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to choose, granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much more intolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant; these events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war; the Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union.
The southern states Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor; the Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action. After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic, intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories; the war bankrupted most of the combatant powers. The Dutch Republic enjoyed contrasting fortune; the Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers; the rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and dominant in the latter part of the 17th century. The Peace of Augsburg, signed by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, confirmed the result of the Diet of Speyer, ending the war between German Lutherans and Catholics, establishing that: Rulers of the 224 German states could choose the religion of their realms.
Subjects had to follow that emigrate. Prince-bishoprics and other states ruled by Catholic clergy were excluded and should remain Catholic. Prince-bishops who converted to Lutheranism were required to give up their territories. Lutherans could keep the territory they had taken from the Catholic Church since the Peace of Passau in 1552. Although the Peace of Augsburg created a temporary end to hostilities, it did not resolve the underlying religious conflict, made yet more complex by the spread of Calvinism throughout Germany in the years that followed; this added a third major faith to the region, but its position was not recognized in any way by the Augsburg terms, to which only Catholicism and Lutheranism were parties. The rulers of the nations neighboring the Holy Roman Empir
The Hofgarten is a garden in the center of Munich, located between the Residenz and the Englischer Garten. The garden was built in 1613–1617 by Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria as an Italian style Renaissance garden. In the center of the garden is a pavilion for the goddess Diana, built in 1615 by Heinrich Schön the elder. A path leads from each of the eight arches. On the roof of the Diana pavilion is the replica of a sculpture of Bavaria by Hubert Gerhard, created in 1623; the original is in the Kaisersaal of the Residenz. Facing the Hofgarten on the east side is the Bavarian Staatskanzlei, housed in the former Army Museum, with the addition of glass wings left and right of the original building; the repurposed building was completed in 1993. A few steps more eastwards the Hofgartenkaserne was located from 1801 to 1899. In front of the Staatskanzlei, the Kriegerdenkmal is located, built for commemoration of the Munich people, killed in action in World War I. In the north east corner, a square black granite memorial stands to the White Rose group, whose members were executed for a non violent campaign against Hitler's regime.
The south side towards the Residenz includes flowers in a design by Carl Effner from 1853, with arcades to the west and the north, including many wall paintings related to the history of Bavaria. To the west, the Hofgartentor leads towards the Theatinerkirche. Built in 1816, it is the first work in Munich by Leo von Klenze; the garden was destroyed during World War II, was rebuilt with a partial redesign which compromised between the landscape garden character it had acquired in the nineteenth century and the original formal design of the seventeenth century. Nowadays the garden is open to the public, is popular with both residents and tourists alike; the nearest Munich U-Bahn station is Odeonsplatz, located directly west of the garden. Munich Court Garden Information in English by the Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung 360° Panorama View of Hofgarten The installation "Replika" in the Hofgarten, 20.07. - 21.10.2012
New Town Hall (Munich)
The New Town Hall is a town hall at the northern part of Marienplatz in Munich, Germany. It hosts the city government including the city council, offices of the mayors and a small portion part of the administration. In 1874 the municipality had left the Old Town Hall for its new domicile. New Town Hall Munich The decision to constructed a new building came due to the lack of space in the Old Town Hall and the adjoining, so-called "Lesser Town Hall" on Petersbergl. In memory of the bourgeois high season during the Gothic period, the choice fell upon a neo-gothic design, which allowed an implement an independent architectural accent in contrast to the buildings of the royal family; the North side of the Marienplatz was chosen as the building site, where the house of the Landstände still stood, erected by the Bavarian Duke throughout the Middle Ages as a sort of representation of the opposing Landstände. The first section of the building in the Eastern part of the Marienplatz, on the corner of Dienerstrasse, was the results of an idea competition won by Georg Hauberrisser and carried out between 1867 and 1874.
When it became clear that this new building would not be able to accommodate the entire administration, the city began purchasing all the properties on the Dienerstrasse, Landschaftstrasse and Weinstrasse adjacent to the Town Hall started in 1887. From 1889 to 1892, the section on the corner of Dienerstrasse and Landschaftstrasse was constructed. In 1897, the Magistrate and municipal council decided to extend the buildings on the Marianplatz as well as the Weinstrasse and Landschaftstrasse to create a four-sided complex. For this, the entire area between the Marienplatz and Landschaftstrasse was used and on the other side, between Weinstrasse and Dienerstrasse. In 1898, the work for the extension began with the tower under architect Georg von Hauberrisser. In December 1905, the shell of the third building section was finished with the setting of the keystone on the Rathausturm. For the architectural design of the Munich Rathausturm, Hauberrisser was inspired by the Brussels Rathausturm; the 96-meter late-Gothic Belfry was built by Jan van Ruysbroeck in the years 1449 to 1455.
By the end of 1906, the offices were handed over. The façade area in the Marienplatz was 98.5 meters long, of which 48 meters belong to the first construction section. Examples that were used for the design were the City Hall in Brussels and the New Town Hall in Vienna; the minimal damages to the New Town Hall that occurred during the air raids on Munich 1944, was rebuilt after the war. The portion constructed at the Marienplatz received an additional floor, which were hidden behind the neo-gothic balustrade so that the buildings image was preserved; the façade on the Landschaftstrasse was simply restored. At the end of the 1990s, the New Town Hall was rebuilt and reconstructed identically, including the neo-gothic ornaments, which crown the roof; the building covers an area of 9159 m2 having 400 rooms. The 100 meters long main facade towards the Marienplatz is richly decorated, it shows the Guelph Duke Henry the Lion, the entire line of the Wittelsbach dynasty in Bavaria and is the largest princely cycle in a German town hall.
The central monument in the center of the main facade between the two phases at Marienplatz above the guard house, is an equestrian statue of Prince Regent Luitpold. The bay of the tower contains statues of the first four Bavarian kings; the main facade is placed toward the plaza. The basement is completely occupied by a large restaurant called Ratskeller. On the ground floor, some rooms are rented for small businesses. Located in the ground floor is the major official tourist information; the first floor hosts a big balcony towards the Marienplatz, used for large festivals such as football championships or for concerts during the Weihnachtsmarkt. Its main tower is available for visitors with an elevator. On the top thrones the Münchner Kindl; the Rathaus-Glockenspiel, performed by an apparatus daily at 11am, 12pm and 5pm, is a tourist attraction. Conference Rooms – Hallways – Staircase The complex of brick and shell limestone has six courtyards, built on an area 9159 m2 where the building covers 7115 m2.
The 100-meter-long main façade leading to Marienplatz is richly decorated. It shows Guelph Duke Henry the Lion and the entire line of the House of Wittelsbach rule in Bavaria and is the most extensive Princely cycle at a German Town Hall; as a central monument in the middle of the main façade, between the two building sections on the Marienplatz above the guardhouse, is a statue of the Prince Regent Luitpold. On the main façade of the Marienplatz and on that of the Weinstrasse are Munich’s founders, neo-gothic water fountains in the form of grimaces and masks, allegorical images, themes from the life of saints and folk legends; the corner of Marienplatz and Weinstrasse is called Wurmeck, the corner of Weinstrasse and Landschaftsstrasse is called Kleubereck. Numerous glass windows with local, national and religious motifs adorn the building. After most of the windows had been destroyed by the bombings during the final phase of the Second World War, most of the objects could be restored to their original form with the help of donations.
The 85 m high Rathausturm is crowned by the Münchner Kindl, created by Anton Schmid, with his son Wiggerl as model. At the top of the tower is the fifth-largest clockwork in Europe, first heard in 1908; the 43 bells of the mechanical clock play successively four different melodies, to which a total of 32 figur
The Frauenkirche is a church in the Bavarian city of Munich that serves as the cathedral of the Archdiocese of Munich and Freising and seat of its Archbishop. It is considered a symbol of the Bavarian capital city. Although called "Münchner Dom" on its website and URL, the church is always referred to as "Frauenkirche" by locals; the church towers are visible because of local height limits. According to the narrow outcome of a local plebiscite, city administration prohibits buildings with a height exceeding 99 m in the city center. Since November 2004, this prohibition has been provisionally extended outward and as a result, no buildings may be built in the city over the aforementioned height; the south tower, open to those wishing to climb the stairs, will, on completion of its current renovation, offer a unique view of Munich and the nearby Alps. Right next to the town's first ring of walls, a Romanesque church was added in the 12th century, replacing a former, late romanesque building and serving as a second city parish following Alter Peter church, the oldest.
The current late Gothic construction replaced this older church and was commissioned by Duke Sigismund and the people of Munich in the 15th century. The cathedral was erected in only 20 years' time by Jörg von Halsbach. For financial reasons and due to the lack of a nearby stone pit, brick was chosen as building material. Construction began in 1468. Since the cash resources were exhausted in 1479, Pope Sixtus IV granted an indulgence; the two towers were completed in 1488 and the church was consecrated in 1494. However, due to lack of funds, the planned, open-work spires typical of the Gothic style could not be built and the towers had to stay unfinished until 1525. Hartmann Schedel printed a view of Munich including the uncovered towers in his famous Nuremberg Chronicle known as Schedel's World Chronicle. However, because rainwater was penetrating the temporary roofing in the tower's ceilings, a decision was made to complete them in a budget-priced design; this is how the building got its famous domes atop each tower and the church became such a non-interchangeable landmark.
Their design was modelled on the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, which in turn took a lead from late Byzantine architecture and was at that time falsely considered to be Solomon's original temple. The building has a volume of about 200,000 m³, it is said to have had the capacity to house 20,000 standing people. This is quite remakable for a town that, besides having had another parish church, counted only 13,000 inhabitants at the end of the 15th century and for a church, erected to serve but a modest city parish repacing an earlier, yet smaller construction; the cathedral suffered severe damage during World War II due to the Allied forces' aerial raids during the latter stages of the war — the roof collapsed, one of the towers suffered severe damage and a lion's share of the immensely precious interior from all centuries since the foundation of the parish was lost either due to bomb raids or in their aftermath, when tons of debris had to be removed. Major restoration efforts began after the war and were carried out in several stages, the last of which came to an end in 1994.
The Frauenkirche was constructed from red brick in the late Gothic style within only 20 years. The building is designed plainly, without rich Gothic ornaments and its buttresses moved into and hidden in the interior. This, together with the two tower's special design, lets the construction, mighty anyway, look more enormous and gives it a near-modern appearance according to the principle of "less is more"; the Late Gothic brick building with chapels surrounding the apse is 109 metres long, 40 metres wide, 37 metres high. Contrary to a widespread legend that says the two towers with their characteristic domes are one meter different in height, they are equal: the north tower is 98.57 metres while the south tower is only 98.45 metres, 12 centimetres less. The original design called for pointed spires to top the towers, much like Cologne Cathedral, but those were never built because of lack of money. Instead, the two domes were constructed during the Renaissance and do not match the architectural style of the building, however they have become a distinctive landmark of Munich.
With an enclosed space of about 200,000 m³, with 150,000 m³ up to the height of the vault, it is the second among the largest hall churches in general and the second among the largest brick churches north of the Alps. Catholic Mass is held in the cathedral, which still serves as a parish church, it is among the largest hall churches in southern Germany. The interior does not overwhelm despite its size; the hall is divided into 3 sectors (the main nave and two side aisles of equal height by a double-row of 22 pillars that help enclose the space. These are voluminous, but appear quite slim due to their impressive height and the building's height-to-width ratio; the arches were designed by Heinrich von Straubing. From the main portal the view seems to be only the rows of columns with no windows and translucent "walls" between the vaults through which the light seems to shine; the spatial effect of the church is connected with a legend about a footprint in a square tile at the entrance to the nave, the so-called "devil's footstep".
The Alps are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies in Europe, separating Southern from Central and Western Europe and stretching 1,200 kilometres across eight Alpine countries: France, Italy, Liechtenstein, Austria and Slovenia. The mountains were formed over tens of millions of years as the African and Eurasian tectonic plates collided. Extreme shortening caused by the event resulted in marine sedimentary rocks rising by thrusting and folding into high mountain peaks such as Mont Blanc and the Matterhorn. Mont Blanc spans the French–Italian border, at 4,810 m is the highest mountain in the Alps; the Alpine region area contains about a hundred peaks higher than 4,000 metres. The altitude and size of the range affects the climate in Europe. Wildlife such as ibex live in the higher peaks to elevations of 3,400 m, plants such as Edelweiss grow in rocky areas in lower elevations as well as in higher elevations. Evidence of human habitation in the Alps goes back to the Palaeolithic era.
A mummified man, determined to be 5,000 years old, was discovered on a glacier at the Austrian–Italian border in 1991. By the 6th century BC, the Celtic La Tène culture was well established. Hannibal famously crossed the Alps with a herd of elephants, the Romans had settlements in the region. In 1800, Napoleon crossed one of the mountain passes with an army of 40,000; the 18th and 19th centuries saw an influx of naturalists and artists, in particular, the Romantics, followed by the golden age of alpinism as mountaineers began to ascend the peaks. The Alpine region has a strong cultural identity; the traditional culture of farming and woodworking still exists in Alpine villages, although the tourist industry began to grow early in the 20th century and expanded after World War II to become the dominant industry by the end of the century. The Winter Olympic Games have been hosted in the Swiss, Italian and German Alps. At present, the region has 120 million annual visitors; the English word Alps derives from the Latin Alpes.
Maurus Servius Honoratus, an ancient commentator of Virgil, says in his commentary that all high mountains are called Alpes by Celts. The term may be common to Italo-Celtic, because the Celtic languages have terms for high mountains derived from alp; this may be consistent with the theory. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the Latin Alpes might derive from a pre-Indo-European word *alb "hill". Albania, a name not native to the region known as the country of Albania, has been used as a name for a number of mountainous areas across Europe. In Roman times, "Albania" was a name for the eastern Caucasus, while in the English languages "Albania" was used as a name for Scotland, although it is more derived from the Latin albus, the color white; the Latin word Alpes could come from the adjective albus. In modern languages the term alp, albe or alpe refers to a grazing pastures in the alpine regions below the glaciers, not the peaks. An alp refers to a high mountain pasture where cows are taken to be grazed during the summer months and where hay barns can be found, the term "the Alps", referring to the mountains, is a misnomer.
The term for the mountain peaks varies by nation and language: words such as Horn, Kopf, Spitze and Berg are used in German speaking regions. The Alps are a crescent shaped geographic feature of central Europe that ranges in a 800 km arc from east to west and is 200 km in width; the mean height of the mountain peaks is 2.5 km. The range stretches from the Mediterranean Sea north above the Po basin, extending through France from Grenoble, stretching eastward through mid and southern Switzerland; the range continues onward toward Vienna and east to the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia. To the south it dips into northern Italy and to the north extends to the southern border of Bavaria in Germany. In areas like Chiasso and Allgäu, the demarcation between the mountain range and the flatlands are clear; the countries with the greatest alpine territory are Austria, Italy and Switzerland. The highest portion of the range is divided by the glacial trough of the Rhône valley, from Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn and Monte Rosa on the southern side, the Bernese Alps on the northern.
The peaks in the easterly portion of the range, in Austria and Slovenia, are smaller than those in the central and western portions. The variances in nomenclature in the region spanned by the Alps makes classification of the mountains and subregions difficult, but a general classification is that of the Eastern Alps and Western Alps with the divide between the two occurring in eastern Switzerland according to geologist Stefan Schmid, near the Splügen Pass; the highest peaks of the Western Alps and Eastern Alps are Mont Blanc, at 4,810 m and Piz Bernina at 4,049 metres. The second-highest major
St. Michael's Church, Munich
St. Michael's is a Jesuit church in Munich, southern Germany, the largest Renaissance church north of the Alps; the style of the building had an enormous influence on Southern German early Baroque architecture. In 1556, Albert V, Duke of Bavaria granted the Society of Jesus permission to establish what is now Wilhelmsgymnasium in Munich, thus establishing the order's presence in the city; the collegiate church was only established during the reign of his son William V, Duke of Bavaria known as "the Pious". Who was a supporter of the Jesuits' Counter Reformation tenets; the church was consecrated in 1597, after fourteen years of construction. When the Jesuits were suppressed and banned from most Catholic territories in Europe, the church came into possession of the Bavarian Royal Family and the State of Bavaria, when Germany became a republic; the church was built by William V, Duke of Bavaria between 1583–97 as a spiritual center for the Counter Reformation. The foundation stone was laid in 1585.
In order to realise his ambitious plans for the church and the adjoining college, Duke William had 87 houses in the best location pulled down, ignoring the protests of the citizens. The church was erected in two stages. In the first stage, the church was built by the model of Il Gesù in Rome and given a barrel-vaulted roof by an unknown architect, the vault being the largest in the world apart from that of St Peter's Basilica in Rome, spanning more than 20 meters; when the church was built, there were doubts about the stability of the vaulting. But it was the tower. Duke William V so planned to build a much larger church; the second phase of construction continued until the consecration of the church in 1597. Friedrich Sustris built on to the undamaged nave a new quire and a transept and a magnificent facade; the church is 20.3 meters wide and 28.2 meters high. The facade is impressive and contains standing statues of Duke Wilhelm and earlier rulers of the Bavarian Wittelsbach dynasty, cast in bronze, in the form of a family tree.
Hubert Gerhard's large bronze statue between the two entrances shows the Archangel Michael fighting for the Faith and killing the Evil in the shape of a humanoid demon. The interior is a representation of the triumph of Roman Catholicism in Bavaria during the Counter-Reformation; the indented chancel arch as well as the short side aisles and the side chapels are designed as a triumphal arch to ancient model. A deep choir room adjoins the mighty nave; the stucco decoration of the nave represents the life of Jesus Christ. The altarpiece "Annunciation" was created by Peter Candid; the sculpture of the holy angel in the nave from Hubert Gerhard was intended for the tomb of William V, not completed. Having suffered severe damage during the Second World War, the church was restored in 1946–48. Between 1980 and 1983, the stucco-work was restored; the spire which lost its steepletop in World War II is situated further north next to the former convent. The church crypt contains the tomb of Eugène de Beauharnais.
A monument was erected by Bertel Thorwaldsen in 1830 in the church. Eugène was the son of Josephine de Beauharnais, Napoleon's wife and her first husband, general Alexandre de Beauharnais, he married a daughter of King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria in 1806 and was created Duke of Leuchtenberg in 1817. In the right transept, there is a cross monument of Giovanni da Bologna; the crypt contains among others the tombs of these members of the Wittelsbach dynasty: William V, Duke of Bavaria, Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, Charles II August, Duke of Zweibrücken King Ludwig II of Bavaria, King Otto of Bavaria, Ludwig's younger brother Prince Leopold of Bavaria, titular King of Greece. Archduchess Gisela of Austria, eldest surviving child of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria and Empress Elisabeth Saint Michael: Roman Catholic traditions and views Egert-Romanowska, Joanna. Germany. London: Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 0-7513-0888-9. Nohbauer, Hans. Munich City of the Arts. Munich: Hirmer Verlag. ISBN 3-7774-6250-0.
Photo spread of St Michael's Church/Michaelskirche 360° Panorama View