San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Pacific Beach, San Diego
Pacific Beach is a neighborhood in San Diego, bounded by La Jolla to the north, Mission Beach and Mission Bay to the south, Interstate 5 to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. While largely populated by young people and college students, because of rising property and rental costs the population is becoming older and more affluent. "P. B." as it is known as by local residents, is home to one of San Diego's more developed nightlife scenes, with a great variety of bars and clothing stores located along Garnet Avenue and Mission Boulevard. Pacific Beach's namesake stretches for miles from the Mission Bay jetty to the cliffs of La Jolla; the boardwalk called Ocean Front Walk/Ocean Boulevard, is a pedestrian walkway that runs 3.2 miles along the beach from the end of Law St. in the north down into Mission Beach, ending at the mouth of Mission Bay in the south. There are numerous local shops, bars and restaurants along the boardwalk, it is crowded with pedestrians, cyclists and shoppers. Adjacent to the boardwalk is the Crystal Pier, a public pier and hotel at the west end of Garnet Avenue.
The streets in Pacific Beach were renamed several times before receiving their current designations in 1900. The primary north-south street running parallel to the beach is Mission Blvd. with the streets named after late 19th century federal officials incrementing in alphabetical order as they move further from the coast: Bayard, Dawes, Fanuel, Haines, Jewell, Lamont, Noyes and Pendleton. Mission Boulevard was Allison Street, being the "A" street of the series; the east-west streets are named after precious stones. Starting at the north end of Mission Blvd. and heading south, the streets are: Agate Turquoise Sapphire Tourmaline - see Tourmaline Surfing Park Opal Loring Wilbur Beryl Law Chalcedony Missouri Diamond Emerald Felspar - an alternate spelling of "Feldspar" that has fallen out of use Garnet - pronounced locally with the second syllable accented, unlike the pronunciation of the stone Hornblend - spelled differently from the mineral hornblende Grand Thomas Reed Oliver Pacific Beach Drive Pacific Beach was developed during the boom years of 1886-1888 by D. C.
Reed, A. G. Gassen, Charles W. Pauley, R. A. Thomas, O. S. Hubbell, it was Hubbell who "cleared away the grainfields, pitched a tent, mapped out the lots, hired an auctioneer and started to work". To attract people, they built a race track and the San Diego College of Letters, neither of which survive today. A railway connected Pacific Beach with downtown San Diego, was extended to La Jolla; as with many Californian cities, the history of its development can be traced back to the completion of a cross-country railroad in the late 1880s. In 1902, lots sold for between $350–700 for ocean-front property and by 1950, the population of Pacific Beach reached 30,000 and the average home sold for $12,000. Nonetheless, a small number of farms remained. Today, homes can sell for millions; the United States Navy operated an anti-aircraft training center at Pacific Beach during World War II. During the 1960s, development continued to increase with the city’s investment in Mission Bay Park, including the developments of the Islandia, Vacation Village and Hilton Hotels.
In 1964 Sea World opened, located only a few miles from Pacific Beach. The original name of this feature was "Bay Point" and today one may still find a USGS bench mark and associated RM with that name there; the "Bay Point Formation" is the name of a local rock strata described there. Today, Pacific Beach is home to a younger crowd, including college students, single professionals, families; the restaurant and nightlife culture has grown extensively, with Garnet Avenue becoming the major hub for places to eat and shop, includes a range of bars, restaurants and coffee houses. Pacific Beach public schools are part of the San Diego Unified School District, they include Mission Bay Senior High School, Pacific Beach Middle School, Pacific Beach Elementary, Kate Sessions Elementary, Barnard Elementary, Crown Point Elementary. In addition to bordering the Pacific Ocean and Mission Bay Park, Pacific Beach includes Kate Sessions Park and the Pacific Beach Recreation Center. Fanuel Street Park is a popular bay-front park with playground equipment suitable for toddler and school-age children.
Rose Creek, which flows through Pacific Beach before emptying into Mission Bay, provides open space and a rich wetland area. The nonprofit Pacific Beach Town Council organizes community events; the Pacific Beach Planning Group advises the city on other issues. The Pacific Beach and Mission Bay Visitor Center provides information on the Pacific Beach Town Council, special events, lodging and Pacific Beach history. Service clubs include Kiwanis, Lions Club, Girl Scouts, Pacific Beach Woman's Club, Surf Club, Friends of the PB Library, PB Garden Club, Toastmasters. Pacific Beach is serviced in print by the daily San Diego Union Tribune and the weekly Beach & Bay Press. Pacific Beach is one of the main centers of nightlife in San Diego. Garnet Avenue, between Ingraham Street and Mission Boulevard, is where many bars and restaurants are located; the nightlife in Pacific Beach caters to a younger crowd than the nightlife in downtown San Diego. Frank Bompensiero, mobster Donna Frye, former city council representative and mayoral candidate Skip Frye, professional surfer Adam Gnade, musician-novelist Tony Gwynn, Jr. former outfielder in the MLB Robert Hays, known for role in Airplane Pauly Shore, former MTV host Eddie Vedder, musician Dinesh D’Souz
San Carlos, San Diego
San Carlos is a neighborhood in the eastern area of San Diego, California. It borders the neighborhoods of Del Cerro and Allied Gardens, the city of La Mesa, Mission Trails Regional Park; the neighborhood extends to Cowles Mountain at the north. San Carlos is geographically defined by its proximity to Mission Trails Regional Park and to the man-made reservoir Lake Murray; the area consists of single-family homes. The area was developed by Carlos Tavares, after whom it was named, it was founded in 1770. San Carlos is represented by Councilmember Scott Sherman; the neighborhood is served by the San Diego Unified School District. It contains Daillard Elementary School, Gage Elementary School, Green Elementary School, Benchley/Weinberger Elementary School, Lewis Middle School, Pershing Middle School, Patrick Henry High School, which serves all three neighboring communities of San Carlos, Allied Gardens, Del Cerro. Community centers include the city-owned San Carlos Recreation Center, which opened in 1970.
There is a owned park known as Del Cerro Park and Pool. Mission Times Courier, community newspaper delivered to and covering San Carlos news. San Diego County Place Names A to Z - Leland Fetzer City of San Diego San Diego Source New To San Diego San Carlos Area Council Twitter page San Carlos Area Council Facebook page