Polop de la Marina, or Polop, is a municipality in the comarca of Marina Baixa, Valencian Community, Spain. Town Hall of Polop de la Marina Royal Archives of the Kingdom of Valencia Castle of Polop
Ceratonia siliqua, known as carob, St John's bread, locust bean, locust-tree, or carob bush is a flowering evergreen tree or shrub in the pea family, Fabaceae. It is cultivated for its edible pods, as an ornamental tree in gardens and landscapes; the carob tree is native to the Mediterranean region, including Southern Europe, Northern Africa, the larger Mediterranean islands, the Levant and Middle-East of Western Asia into Iran, the Canary Islands and Macaronesia in the Atlantic Ocean. The ripe and sometimes toasted pod is ground into carob powder, sometimes used to replace cocoa powder. Carob bars, an alternative to chocolate bars, as well as carob treats, are available in health food stores. Carob pods are sweet, not bitter, contain no theobromine or caffeine; the carat, a unit of mass for gemstones, a measurement of purity for gold, takes its name from the Greek word for a carob seed, via the Arabic word, qīrāṭ. The word "carob" comes from Middle French carobe, which borrowed it from Arabic خَرُّوبٌ perhaps from Akkadian language kharubu or Aramaic kharubha, related to Hebrew harubh.
Ceratonia siliqua, the scientific name of the carob tree, derives from the Greek kerátiοn κεράτιον'fruit of the carob, Latin siliqua'pod, carob'. The unit "carat", used for weighing precious metal and stones comes from κεράτιον, as alluding to an ancient practice of weighing gold and gemstones against the seeds of the carob tree by people in the Middle East; the system was standardized, one carat was fixed at 0.2 grams. In late Roman times, the pure gold coin known as the solidus weighed 24 carat seeds; as a result, the carat became a measure of purity for gold. Thus, 24-carat gold means; the carob tree grows up to 15 m tall. The crown is broad and semispherical, supported by a thick trunk with rough brown bark and sturdy branches, its leaves are 10 to 20 cm long, alternate and may or may not have a terminal leaflet. It is frost-tolerant to 20 °F. Most carob trees are dioecious and some are hermaphroditic, so male trees do not produce fruit; when the trees blossom in autumn, the flowers are small and numerous, spirally arranged along the inflorescence axis in catkin-like racemes borne on spurs from old wood and on the trunk.
The male flowers smell like human semen, an odor, caused in part by amines. The fruit is a legume, elongated, straight, or curved, thickened at the sutures; the pods take a full year to ripen. When the sweet ripe pods fall to the ground, they are eaten by various mammals, such as swine, thereby dispersing the hard inner seed in the excrement; the seeds of the carob tree contain leucodelphinidin, a colourless flavanol precursor related to leucoanthocyanidins. Although cultivated extensively, carob can still be found growing wild in eastern Mediterranean regions, has become naturalized in the west; the tree is typical in the southern Portuguese region of the Algarve, where the tree is called alfarrobeira, the fruit alfarroba. It is seen in southern Spain and Valencia, Malta, on the Italian islands of Sicily and Sardinia, in Southern Croatia, in eastern Bulgaria, in Southern Greece, Cyprus, as well as on many Greek islands such as Crete and Samos; the common Greek name is χαρουπιά, or ξυλοκερατιά.
In Turkey, it is known as "goat's horn". The various trees known as algarrobo in Latin America belong to a different subfamily, Mimosoideae of the Fabaceae, they were named algarrobo after the carob tree by early Spanish settlers because they produce pods with sweet pulp. The carob genus, belongs to the legume family, is believed to be an archaic remnant of a part of this family now considered extinct, it grows well in warm temperate and subtropical areas, tolerates hot and humid coastal areas. As a xerophyte, carob is well adapted to the conditions of the Mediterranean region with just 250 to 500 millimetres of rainfall per year. Carob trees can survive long periods of drought, but to grow fruit, they need 500 to 550 millimetres of rainfall per year, they prefer well-drained, sandy loams and are intolerant of waterlogging, but the deep root systems can adapt to a wide variety of soil conditions and are salt-tolerant. After being irrigated with saline water in the summer, carob trees could recover during winter rainfalls.
In some experiments, young carob trees were capable of basic physiological functions under high salt conditions. Not all legume species can develop a symbiotic relationship with rhizobia to make use of atmospheric nitrogen, it remains unclear if carob trees have this ability: Some findings suggest that it is not able to form root nodules with rhizobia, while in another more recent study, trees have been identified with nodules containing bacteria believed to be from the genus Rhizobium. However, a study measuring the 15N-signal in the tissue of th
Benidorm is a city and municipality in the province of Alicante in eastern Spain, on the Mediterranean coast. Benidorm has been a tourist destination within Spain since 1925, when its port was extended and the first hotels were built. However, the real "boom" of Benidorm as a coastal resort did not happen until the 1950s, when it became a famous summer destination for people coming from inland Spain Madrid. Today it is known for its hotel industry and skyscrapers and receives as many or slightly more foreign tourists as Spanish ones. According to the 2014 census, Benidorm has a permanent population of 69,010 inhabitants, making it the fifth most populous town in the Alicante province, it is thought there were settlements in the Benidorm area as far back as 3000 BC, including evidence of Roman and Punic remains. However, settlements in the area were small and it was not until the arrival of the Moors that the local population began to grow; the Christian King James I of Aragon reconquered the region in 1245 and Benidorm first became known in 1325, when Admiral Bernat de Sarrià of Polop awarded it a town charter as a way of removing the Moors and allowing Christians to inhabit the area.
Benidorm's history for the next few centuries was plagued by attacks from the sea by Ottoman and Barbary pirates. The 17th century saw conditions improve for Benidorm and its people, most notably with the construction of an advanced irrigation system in 1666 to channel water to the region. By the 18th century Benidorm fishermen had sought after all over Spain and beyond. Tuna was their main catch and they perfected the ancient almadraba technique dating from Islamic times; the success of the fishing industry, together with improved local agriculture, helped to fuel a strong local economy. Coastal traffic increased too, bringing more wealth to the region with the town becoming a base for sea captains and the building of their vessels. In 1952 Benidorm's fishing industry went into decline. Today the town is Europe's and Spain's biggest holiday resort and responsible for a significant chunk of Spain's large tourist industry, with five million tourist arrivals per year. After giving the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party majorities or pluralities in elections from the restoration of democracy in 1977, Benidorm has favoured the right wing People's Party since the general elections of 1993.
The PP gained control of the local council at the 1995 local elections and won 14 of the 25 council seats in the 1999 and 2003 elections. The 2007 election gave them a one-seat majority over the PSOE, but disagreements in the PP group led to a motion of censure being passed against the PP mayor in September 2009, he was replaced by the socialist Agustín Navarro. As of the 2015 local elections, the political composition on the local council was the following: The town is divided into five parts: Poniente and Levante, each fronted by a beach of the same name. Between the two beaches lies a rocky promontory and the port; the old city occupies the promontory and the area inland, while most of the hotels occupy the more developed sections inland from the two beaches. A few miles from shore is an uninhabited island which provides a dramatic centrepiece to the seascape. In 1954 Pedro Zaragoza Orts, the young Mayor of Benidorm, created the Plan General de Ordenación that ensured, via a complex construction formula, every building would have an area of leisure land, guaranteeing a future free of the excesses of cramped construction seen in other areas of Spain.
It is the only city in Spain. Most of the streets in the city are named after places such as Avenida de Uruguay, Avenida del Mediterráneo, Calle Pekín, etc. Avenida del Mediterráneo is a wide avenue that links the old town with Rincón. Avenida Europa crosses Levante at right angles linking the western city limits with the Levante beach. Benidorm is connected to the FGV railway line between Dénia; the section to Alicante is now converted to tram operation and trams run at least every half an hour between Benidorm and Alicante. Trains run hourly from Benidorm to Dénia. Benidorm has a hot semi arid climate with mild winters and hot summers; the city receives more than 300 mm in precipitation per year and the wettest season is the mid-late Autumn, which prevents it from being classified as Mediterranean. It enjoys more than 3,000 hours of sunshine per year and the average annual temperature is around 19.0 °C. The maximum temperatures during winter range from 15 to 22 °C, while the lows range from 6 to 12 °C.
The temperature oscillation is small, being smaller during summers, during the summer the maximum temperatures range from 28 to 32 °C while the lows range from 20 to 24 °C. In all of the summer months the city minimum temperatures at night remain above 20 °C, a phenomenon referred to as "tropical night" by Spanish meteorologists. Benidorm is popular with tourists from the UK, Germany and the Netherlands. Benidorm's initial growth in popularity can be attributed to the package holiday explosion, continues year round, due to the night-life based around the central concentration of bars and clubs; the large number of free cabaret acts that start a
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, not all of which are related. Most of the 60 species of eagle are from Africa. Outside this area, just 14 species can be found—2 in North America, 9 in Central and South America, 3 in Australia. Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey, with heavy beaks; the smallest eagles, such as the booted eagle, comparable in size to a common buzzard or red-tailed hawk, have longer and more evenly broad wings, more direct, faster flight – despite the reduced size of aerodynamic feathers. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures; the smallest species of eagle is the South Nicobar serpent eagle, at 40 cm. The largest species are discussed below. Like all birds of prey, eagles have large, hooked beaks for ripping flesh from their prey, muscular legs, powerful talons; the beak is heavier than that of most other birds of prey. Eagles' eyes are powerful.
It is estimated that the martial eagle, whose eye is more than twice as long as a human eye, has a visual acuity 3.0 to 3.6 times that of humans. This acuity enables eagles to spot potential prey from a long distance; this keen eyesight is attributed to their large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction of the incoming light. The female of all known species of eagles is larger than the male. Eagles build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick kills its younger sibling once it has hatched; the dominant chick tends to be a female. The parents take no action to stop the killing. Due to the size and power of many eagle species, they are ranked at the top of the food chain as apex predators in the avian world; the type of prey varies by genus. The Haliaeetus and Ichthyophaga eagles prefer to capture fish, though the species in the former capture various animals other water birds, are powerful kleptoparasites of other birds.
The snake and serpent eagles of the genera Circaetus and Spilornis predominantly prey on the great diversity of snakes found in the tropics of Africa and Asia. The eagles of the genus Aquila are the top birds of prey in open habitats, taking any medium-sized vertebrate they can catch. Where Aquila eagles are absent, other eagles, such as the buteonine black-chested buzzard-eagle of South America, may assume the position of top raptorial predator in open areas. Many other eagles, including the species-rich genus Spizaetus, live predominantly in woodlands and forest; these eagles target various arboreal or ground-dwelling mammals and birds, which are unsuspectingly ambushed in such dense, knotty environments. Hunting techniques differ among the species and genera, with some individual eagles having engaged in quite varied techniques based their environment and prey at any given time. Most eagles grab prey without landing and take flight with it, so the prey can be carried to a perch and torn apart.
The bald eagle is noted for having flown with the heaviest load verified to be carried by any flying bird, since one eagle flew with a 6.8 kg mule deer fawn. However, a few eagles may target prey heavier than themselves. Golden and crowned eagles have killed ungulates weighing up to 30 kg and a martial eagle killed a 37 kg duiker, 7–8 times heavier than the preying eagle. Authors on birds David Allen Sibley, Pete Dunne, Clay Sutton described the behavioral difference between hunting eagles and other birds of prey thus: They have at least one singular characteristic, it has been observed. All hawks seem to have this habit, from the smallest kestrel to the largest Ferruginous – but not the Eagles. Among the eagles are some of the largest birds of prey: only the condors and some of the Old World vultures are markedly larger, it is debated which should be considered the largest species of eagle. They could be measured variously in body mass, or wingspan. Different lifestyle needs among various eagles result in variable measurements from species to species.
For example, many forest-dwelling eagles, including the large harpy eagle, have short wingspans, a feature necessary for being able to maneuver in quick, short bursts through densely forested habitats. Eagles in the genus Aquila, though found strictly in open country, are superlative soarers, have long wings for their size; these lists of the top five eagles are based on weight and wingspan, respectively. Unless otherwise noted by reference, the figures listed are the median reported for each measurement in the guide Raptors of the World in which only measurements that could be verified by the authors were listed. Australasian Australia: wedge-tailed eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, little eagle. New Guinea: Papuan eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, pygmy eagle. Nearctic: golden eagle, bald eagle. Neotropical: Spizaetus, solitary eagles, harpy eagle, crested eagle, black-chested buzzard-eagle
A cave or cavern is a natural void in the ground a space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form by the weathering of rock and extend deep underground; the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, grottos, though speaking a cave is exogene, meaning it is deeper than its opening is wide, a rock shelter is endogene. Speleology is the science of study of all aspects of caves and the cave environment. Visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking; the formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis. Caves can range in size, are formed by various geological processes; these may involve a combination of chemical processes, erosion by water, tectonic forces, microorganisms and atmospheric influences. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, to determine the timescale of the geological events which formed and shaped present-day caves, it is estimated that a cave cannot exceed 3,000 metres in depth due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the lower limit of karst forming processes, coinciding with the base of the soluble carbonate rocks. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution. Caves can be classified in various other ways as well, including a contrast between active and relict: active caves have water flowing through them. Types of active caves include inflow caves, outflow caves, through caves. Solutional caves or karst caves are the most occurring caves; such caves form in rock, soluble. Rock is dissolved by natural acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, faults and comparable features. Over time cracks enlarge to become caves and cave systems; the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3 and occurring organic acids; the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage.
Limestone caves are adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation. These include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns; these secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems. The portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded. Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave, they were formed by H2S gas rising from below. This gas mixes with groundwater and forms H2SO4; the acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, by acidic water percolating from the surface. Caves formed at the same time. Lava tubes are the most common primary caves; as lava flows downhill, its surface solidifies. Hot liquid lava continues to flow under that crust, if most of it flows out, a hollow tube remains; such caves can be found in the Canary Islands, Jeju-do, the basaltic plains of Eastern Idaho, in other places.
Kazumura Cave near Hilo, Hawaii is a remarkably deep lava tube. Lava caves are not limited to lava tubes. Other caves formed through volcanic activity include rifts, lava molds, open vertical conduits, blisters, among others. Sea caves are found along coasts around the world. A special case is littoral caves, which are formed by wave action in zones of weakness in sea cliffs; these weaknesses are faults, but they may be dykes or bedding-plane contacts. Some wave-cut caves are now above sea level because of uplift. Elsewhere, in places such as Thailand's Phang Nga Bay, solutional caves have been flooded by the sea and are now subject to littoral erosion. Sea caves are around 5 to 50 metres in length, but may exceed 300 metres. Corrasional or erosional caves are those that form by erosion by flowing streams carrying rocks and other sediments; these can form in any type including hard rocks such as granite. There must be some zone of weakness to guide the water, such as a fault or joint. A subtype of the erosional cave is the aeolian cave, carved by wind-born sediments.
Many caves formed by solutional processes undergo a subsequent phase of erosional or vadose enlargement where active streams or rivers pass through them. Glacier caves are formed by flowing water within and under glaciers; the cavities are influenced by the slow flow of the ice, which tends to collapse the caves again. Glacier caves are sometimes misidentified as "ice caves", though this latter term is properly reserved for bedrock caves that contain year-round ice formations. Fracture caves are formed when layers of more soluble minerals, such as gypsum, dissolve out from between layers of less soluble rock; these rocks fracture and collapse in blocks of stone. Talus caves are formed by the openings among large boulders that have fallen down into a random heap at the bases of cliffs; these unstable deposits are called talus or scree, may be subject to frequent rockfalls and landslides. Anchialine ca
A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit, consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds. In horticultural usage, the term ` fruit tree' is limited to those. Types of fruits are described and defined elsewhere, but would include "fruit" in a culinary sense, as well as some nut-bearing trees, such as walnuts; the scientific study and the cultivation of fruits is called pomology, which divides fruits into groups based on plant morphology and anatomy. Some of those groups are: Pome fruits, which include apples and pears, stone fruits, which include peaches/nectarines, apricots and cherries. Abiu Almond Amla Apple Apricot Avocado Bael Ber Carambola Cashew Cherry Citrus Coconut Crab Apple Damson Durian Elderberry Fig Grapefruit Guava Jackfruit Jujube Lemon Lime Loquat Lychee Mango Medlar Morello cherry Mulberry Olive Orange Pawpaw, both the tropical Carica papaya and the North American Asimina triloba Peach and nectarine Pear Pecan Persimmon Plum Pomelo Quince Pomegranate Rambutan Sapodilla Soursop Sugar-apple Sweet chestnut Tamarillo Ugli fruit Walnut Fruit tree forms Fruit tree pollination Fruit tree propagation List of fruits Multipurpose tree Orchard Pruning fruit trees Drupe Pennsylvania tree fruit production guide.
Beniardà is a municipality in the comarca of Marina Baixa in the Valencian Community, Spain. The economy of Beniardà is based on agriculture; the most important monument in the town is the Catholic church of Sant Joan Baptista, built in the 16th century