1989 Loma Prieta earthquake
The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred in Northern California on October 17 at 5,04 p. m. local time. With a moment magnitude of 6.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX, no surface faulting occurred, though a large number of other ground failures and landslides were present, especially in the Summit area of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Due to the coverage of the 1989 World Series, it became the first major earthquake in the United States that was broadcast live on national television. Andrew Lawson, a geologist from the University of California, had named the fault after the San Andreas Lake and led an investigation into that event. The San Andreas Fault ruptured for a length of 290 mi during the 1906 shock, several long term forecasts for a large shock along the San Andreas Fault in that area had been made public prior to 1989 but the earthquake that transpired was not what had been anticipated. The 1989 Loma Prieta event originated on an undiscovered oblique-slip reverse fault that is located adjacent to the San Andreas Fault, since many forecasts had been presented for the region near Loma Prieta, seismologists were not taken by surprise by the October 1989 event.
Two moderate shocks, referred to as the Lake Elsman earthquakes by the USGS, occurred in the Santa Cruz Mountains region in June 1988, each events aftershock sequence and effect on stress drop was closely examined, and their study indicated that the shocks affected the mainshocks rupture process. The June 27,1988, shock occurred with an intensity of VI. Its effects included broken windows in Los Gatos, and other damage in Holy City. Farther away from the Santa Cruz Mountains, pieces of concrete fell from a structure at the Sunnyvale Town Center. More moderate damage resulted from the August 8,1989, shock when chimneys were toppled in Cupertino, Los Gatos, other damage included cracked walls and foundations and broken underground pipes. At the office of the Los Gatos City Manager, a window that was cracked had broken in the earlier shock. Also in Los Gatos, one man died when he exited a building through a window, the Loma Prieta earthquake was named for Loma Prieta Peak in the Santa Cruz Mountains, which lies just to the east of the mainshock epicenter.
At sites with rocky terrain, the duration was shorter and the shaking was much less intense, the strong motion records allowed for the causative fault to be determined – the rupture was related to the San Andreas Fault System. While a Mercalli Intensity of VIII covered a large swath of territory relatively close to the further to the north. At more than 44 miles distant, the San Francisco Bay Area recorded peak horizontal accelerations that were as high as 0. 26g, in a general way, the location of aftershocks of the event delineated the extent of the faulting, which extended about 24 miles in length. Because the rupture took place bilaterally, the duration of strong shaking was about half of what it would have been had it ruptured in one direction only, the duration of a typical M6.9 shock with a comparable rupture length would have been about twice as long. Gregory Beroza, a seismologist with Stanford University, made several distinctions regarding the 1906 and 1989 events, near Loma Prieta, the 1906 rupture was more shallow, had more strike-slip, and occurred on a fault that was near vertical
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Crissy Field, a former U. S. Army airfield, is now part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area in San Francisco, United States. Historically part of the Presidio of San Francisco, Crissy Field closed as an airfield after 1974, under Army control, the site was affected by dumping of hazardous materials. The National Park Service took control of the area in 1994 and cleaned it up, while most buildings have been preserved as they were in the 1920s, some have been transformed into offices, retail space, and residences. The land Crissy Field resides on is an ancient 130-acre salt marsh, prior to European settlement, the Ohlone people used the area for harvesting shellfish and fish. They lived in camps in the area, leaving behind shell middens in the archaeological record. The Spanish arrived in 1776 and called the area El Presidio and they began to use the area for livestock grazing and agriculture. The 127-acre marsh site was filled in during the 1870s and this alteration was finished in time for the 1915 Panama Pacific International Exposition.
The U. S. Army took control of the Presidio in 1846, after filling in the marshlands, the Army covered over it and created an aerodrome. In June 1919 the Army assigned Colonel Henry H, arnold of the Air Service as Air Officer, Western Department, and directed him to convene a board of four officers to select the site. The board chose the former exposition site as much for its sheltered beach to protect seaplane operations as the fact that the infield of its racetrack was already in use as an aviation field. Although the wartime appropriations were reduced by the end of the war, the east-west clay and sand landing field was kidney shaped with the outline of the racetrack still visible. The western end of the field featured hangars, workshops and a garage for the army, the bluff overlooking the field had the row of officers quarters. Arnold led the effort to name the facility Crissy Field in memory of Major Dana H. Crissy, the base commander of Mather Field, California. The first unit assigned to the field, the 91st Observation Squadron, arrived from Mather in August, the first Western aerial forest fire patrols took place from Crissy Field.
The first successful dawn-to-dusk transcontinental flight across the United States ended at Crissy Field in June 1924. That same year, the armys first aerial circumnavigation of the world stopped at Crissy Field, and Lowell H. Smith, who was stationed at the field, led the flyers upon their return. In 1925, two Navy flying boats led by Commander John Rodgers took off from Crissy Field, marking the first attempt to fly from the continental United States to Hawaii. The flight was expected to take 26-hours, but it took twelve days when the PN-9 ran out of short of land
Tom Ammiano is an American politician and LGBT rights activist from San Francisco, California. Ammiano, a member of the California Legislative LGBT Caucus, served as a member of the California State Assembly from 2008 to November 30,2014. He had previously been a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and had mounted a bid for mayor of San Francisco in 1999. He was succeeded as Californias Assemblyman for District 17 by San Francisco Board of Supervisors President David Chiu on December 1,2014, Ammiano grew up in Montclair, New Jersey, part of a working-class family of Italian Americans. He attended Immaculate Conception High School, Ammiano attended Seton Hall University, earning a bachelors degree in communication in 1963. He moved to San Francisco in 1963, and earned a degree in special education from San Francisco State University in 1965. Ammiano was opposed to the Vietnam War and from 1966 to 1968 was an English teacher in a town in South Vietnam. After returning to San Francisco, Ammiano was a teacher at Buena Vista Elementary School in the Mission.
In 1975, he was one of the founders of a gay teachers organization which successfully pushed the board to prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation. Ammiano came out publicly as a gay man in a conference that year. In 1980, Ammiano began to perform stand-up comedy, in 1977, with activists Hank Wilson and Harvey Milk, co-founded No on 6 against the Briggs Initiative, which would have banned any gay person from teaching in California. The movement achieved success the year, in 1978. In 1980 and 1988, Ammiano ran for the San Francisco Board of Education and he was subsequently elected its vice-president in 1991, and president in 1992. As president of the Board of Education, Ammiano was successful in his efforts to include a gay and this made San Francisco the first city in the nation to provide universal healthcare access. Ammiano was the architect of the citys Domestic Partners Ordinance. It requires companies which do business with the City and County of San Francisco to provide the same benefits.
In the San Francisco mayoral race of 1999, Ammiano mounted a successful campaign in the November election. There is a documentary about the 1999 mayoral election, titled See How They Run, Ammiano introduced Marijuana Control and Education Act, to the California State Assembly
San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the U. S. state of California. It is surrounded by a region known as the San Francisco Bay Area, dominated by the large cities San Francisco, Oakland. San Francisco Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California and it connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate strait. However, this group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on February 2,2013, the bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles, depending on which sub-bays, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement. The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles wide east-to-west and it is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. Later and inlets were filled in, reducing the Bays size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bays size, despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space.
As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands, from the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The idea was, and remains, there are five large islands in San Francisco Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut in 1901 and it is now predominantly a bedroom community. Angel Island was known as Ellis Island West because it served as the point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the federal penitentiary.
The federal prison on Alcatraz Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site, despite its name, Mare Island in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island. During the last ice age, the now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills
Lombard Street (San Francisco)
Lombard Street is an east–west street in San Francisco, California that is famous for a steep, one-block section with eight hairpin turns. Stretching from The Presidio east to The Embarcadero, most of the western segment is a major thoroughfare designated as part of U. S. Route 101. The famous one-block section, claimed as the most crooked street in the world, is located along the segment in the Russian Hill neighborhood. The street was named after Lombard Street in Philadelphia by San Francisco surveyor Jasper OFarrell, Lombard Streets west end is at Presidio Boulevard inside The Presidio, it heads east through the Cow Hollow neighborhood. For twelve blocks, between Broderick Street and Van Ness Avenue, it is a road that is co-signed as U. S. Route 101. Lombard Street continues through the Russian Hill neighborhood and to the Telegraph Hill neighborhood, at Telegraph Hill it turns south, becoming Telegraph Hill Boulevard to Pioneer Park and Coit Tower. Lombard Street starts again at Winthrop Street and ends at The Embarcadero as a collector road, Lombard Street is known for the one-way block on Russian Hill between Hyde and Leavenworth Streets, where eight sharp turns are said to make it the most crooked street in the world.
The design, first suggested by property owner Carl Henry and built in 1922, was intended to reduce the hills natural 27% grade and it is a hazard to pedestrians, who are accustomed to shallow inclines, up to 4. 86° because of wheel chair navigability concerns. The crooked block is perhaps 600 feet long, is one-way and is paved with red bricks, the sign at the top recommends 5 mph. The Powell-Hyde cable car stops at the top of the block on Hyde Street, past residents of Lombard Street include Rowena Meeks Abdy, an early California painter who worked in the style of Impressionism. As The Crookedest Street in the World, like Lombard Street it has eight turns but over a shorter distance. Media related to Lombard Street at Wikimedia Commons Tourist Trapped, The Crookedest Street In The World, SFGate Culture Blog Lombard Street on San Francisco To Do Lombard Street, SF GuideLines
Land reclamation, usually known as reclamation, and known as land fill, is the process of creating new land from ocean, riverbeds, or lake beds. The land reclaimed is known as ground or land fill. In a number of jurisdictions, including parts of the United States. In Alberta, for example, reclamation is defined by the government as The process of reconverting disturbed land to its former or other productive uses. In Oceania it is referred to as land rehabilitation. Land reclamation can be achieved with a number of different methods, the most simple method involves simply filling the area with large amounts of heavy rock and/or cement, filling with clay and dirt until the desired height is reached. The process is called infilling and the used to fill the space is generically called infill. Draining of submerged wetlands is often used to land for agricultural use. Deep cement mixing is used typically in situations in which the material displaced by either dredging or draining may be contaminated, the creation of new land was for the need of human activities.
Notable examples include, Much of the coastlines of Mumbai, India and it took over 150 years to join the original seven islands of Mumbai. Much of the coastlines of Mainland China, Hong Kong, North Korea and it is estimated that nearly 65% of tidal flats around the Yellow Sea have been reclaimed. Inland lowlands in the Yangtze valley, including the areas of important cities like Shanghai, Much of the coastline of Karachi, Pakistan. A part of the Hamad International Airport in Qatar, around 36 square kilometres, the entire island of The Pearl-Qatar situated in West Bay, Qatar. The city-state of Singapore, where land is in supply, is famous for its efforts on land reclamation. The Palm Islands, The World and hotel Burj al-Arab off Dubai in the United Arab Emirates The Yas Island in Abu Dhabi and it is one of the six divisions of Malé City. The Eko Atlantic in Lagos, mexico City, the chinampas are a famous example. Parts of Panama City urban and street development are based on reclaimed land, aeroparque Jorge Newbery, in Buenos Aires, Argentina One of the earliest large scale projects was the Beemster Polder in the Netherlands, realized in 1612 adding 70 square kilometres of land.
In Hong Kong the Praya Reclamation Scheme added 20 to 24 hectares of land in 1890 during the phase of construction
Mark Leno is an American politician who is currently serving in the California State Senate. A Democrat, he represents the 11th Senate District, which includes San Francisco, before the 2010 redistricting, he represented the 3rd Senate District. A member of the California Legislative LGBT Caucus, Leno was the first openly gay man elected to the State Senate and he was previously one of the first two openly gay men to serve in the California State Assembly. Before being elected to the State Senate in 2008, Leno served in the California State Assembly, before his time in the Legislature, he served as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors between 1998 and 2002. Leno is the owner of Budget Signs Inc. a small business, Leno is the grandson of Russian Jewish immigrants. A native of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, he attended Nicolet High School and he was valedictorian of his graduating class at the American College in Jerusalem, where he earned his Bachelor of Arts degree. Leno spent two years in studies at Hebrew Union College in New York.
Afterward, he moved to San Francisco on the invitation of his sister and he lived his first four years in the Tenderloin before moving to the Noe Valley neighborhood. In 1978, Leno started Budget Signs as owner and operator, working with his life partner, Douglas Jackson, the business continued to grow and their involvement in community affairs steadily expanded. Jackson died from complications related to AIDS in 1990, prior to his election, his political background included raising money for candidates and causes such as AIDS services, the San Francisco LGBT Community Center, the U. S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, and the Democratic Party, Leno was appointed to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors by Willie Brown in April 1998. He was elected citywide to the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in November 1998, Lenos district included The Castro, Noe Valley, Glen Park, Diamond Heights, Twin Peaks, Duboce Triangle, and the westernmost part of the Mission District. He authored legislation to ban mercury thermometers, one of the first such proposals in the country, in 2000, as a supervisor, he supported Proposition L, the slow-growth measure and authored legislation to protect neighborhood business districts from big box retail.
He was a spokesman for the No on Proposition 22 campaign. In 2001, Leno successfully introduced an ordinance providing equal access to the health plan for transgender employees of San Francisco. He was elected to the California State Assembly in 2002, Leno was the chair of the Assemblys powerful Appropriations Committee, as well as the Select Committee on Childhood Obesity & Related Diabetes. In 2005, Leno authored AB849, a bill legalizing same-sex marriages that became the first bill of its kind to pass a legislative body in the United States, the bill passed both the Assembly and the State Senate, but was vetoed by Governor Schwarzenegger. In 2007, Leno introduced AB43, the Religious Freedom and Civil Marriage Protection Act and this bill passed the Assembly and Senate, but was again vetoed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger
San Francisco Police Department
The San Francisco Police Department is the city police department of the City and County of San Francisco, California. The departments motto is the same as that of the city and county, Oro en paz, fierro en guerra, archaic Spanish for Gold in peace, iron in war. The SFPD should not be confused with the San Francisco Sheriffs Department and it is the 11th largest police department in the United States. The SFPD began operations on August 13,1849, during the Gold Rush under the command of Captain Malachi Fallon, at the time, Chief Fallon had a force of one deputy captain, three sergeants and thirty officers. In 1851, Albert Bernard de Russailh wrote about the nascent San Francisco police force, As for the police, the police force is largely made up of ex-bandits, and naturally the members are interested above all in saving their old friends from punishment. Policemen here are quite as much to be feared as the robbers and you pay them well to watch over your house, and they set it on fire. In short, I think that all the people concerned with justice or the police are in league with the criminals, the city is in a hopeless chaos, and many years must pass before order can be established.
In a country where so many races are mingled, a severe and inflexible justice is desirable, on October 28,1853, the Board of Aldermen passed Ordinance No. 466, which provided for the reorganization of the police department, sections one and two provided as follows, The People of the City of San Francisco do ordain as follows, Sec.1. The Police Department of the City of San Francisco, shall be composed of a day and night police, consisting of 56 men, each to be recommended by at least ten tax-paying citizens. There shall be one Captain and one assistant Captain of Police, who shall be elected in joint convention of the Board of Aldermen and assistant Aldermen. The remainder of the force, viz.54 men, shall be appointed as follows, By the Mayor,2, by the City Marshal,2, by the City Recorder,2, in July 1856, the Consolidation Act went into effect. This act abolished the office of City Marshal and created in its stead the office of Chief of Police, the first Chief of Police elected in 1856 was James F.
Curtis a former member of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance. The SFPD is known for being one of the forces for modern law enforcement. In early August 1975, the SFPD went on strike over a pay dispute, the city quickly obtained a court order declaring the strike illegal and enjoining the SFPD back to work. The court messenger delivering the order was met with violence and the SFPD continued to strike, only managers and African-American officers remained on duty, with 45 officers and 3 fire trucks responsible for a city population of 700,000. Supervisor Dianne Feinstein pleaded Mayor Joseph Alioto to ask Governor Jerry Brown to call out the National Guard to patrol the streets, when enraged civilians confronted SFPD officers at the picket lines, the officers arrested them. Again, the SFPD ignored the court order, on August 20 a bomb detonated at the Mayors home with a sign reading Dont Threaten Us left on his lawn
San Francisco Unified School District
San Francisco Unified School District, established in 1851, is the only public school district within the City and County of San Francisco, and the first in the state of California. Under the management of the San Francisco Board of Education, the district more than 55,500 students in more than 160 institutions. SFUSD utilizes an intra-district school choice system and requires students and parents to submit a selection application, every year in the fall, the SFUSD hosts a Public School Enrollment Fair to provide families access to information about all the schools in the district. SFUSD has the second highest Academic Performance Index among the seven largest California school districts in California, newsweek’s national ranking of Best High Schools in America named seven SFUSD high schools among the top five percent in the country in 2007. In 2005, two SFUSD schools were recognized by the government as No Child Left Behind Blue-Ribbon Schools. SFUSD previously practiced a race-based admissions system, in 1983 the NAACP sued the school district and won a consent decree that mandated that no more than 45% of any racial group may make up the percentage of students at a single school.
At the time and black students were the largest demographic groups in the school district, the decree was intended to benefit black children. When it was discovered that Hispanic children had low test scores, in a five-year period ending in 1999, Asian and Latino students were the largest demographic groups in the SFUSD. On April 15,1998, the Chinese-American group asked a federal court to end the admissions practice. The system required ethnic Chinese students to higher scores than other ethnic groups in order to be admitted to Lowell High School. Waldemar Rojas, the superintendent, wanted to keep the decree because the district had received $37 million in desegregation funds, the NAACP had defended the decree. White parents who were against the racial quotas had a tendency to leave San Francisco. S, District judge, had planned to officially announce the news of the settlement the following day. The district planned to implement a diversity index in which race was one factor, Orrick ordered the district to resubmit the plan without race as a factor or to resubmit the plan under the settlement that had been reached with the Chinese parents.
In January 2000 the district agreed to race as a factor of consideration for admission. In 2007 the U. S. Supreme Court had ruled that race may not be a factor for a K-12 school. As of 2007 SFUSD admission factors include race-neutral aspects, such as the status of a students family. Lyanne Melendez of KGO-TV wrote in 2007 but the local courts, while that campus was undergoing upgrades, Bryant was moved to the old Buena Vista Elementary site. After the renovations were completed SF International High School took over the York Street building, dr. George Washington Carver Elementary César Chávez Elementary John Yehall Chin Elementary Chinese Education Center Elementary School, established in 1969
Golden Gate Bridge
The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate strait, the one-mile-wide, one-point-seven-mile-long channel between San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The bridge is one of the most internationally recognized symbols of San Francisco, and it has been declared one of the Wonders of the Modern World by the American Society of Civil Engineers. The Frommers travel guide describes the Golden Gate Bridge as possibly the most beautiful, certainly the most photographed and it opened in 1937 and was, until 1964, the longest suspension bridge main span in the world, at 4,200 feet. Before the bridge was built, the only practical short route between San Francisco and what is now Marin County was by boat across a section of San Francisco Bay. A ferry service began as early as 1820, with a scheduled service beginning in the 1840s for the purpose of transporting water to San Francisco. Once for railroad passengers and customers only, Southern Pacifics automobile ferries became very profitable, the trip from the San Francisco Ferry Building took 27 minutes.
Many wanted to build a bridge to connect San Francisco to Marin County, San Francisco was the largest American city still served primarily by ferry boats. Because it did not have a permanent link with communities around the bay, experts said that ferocious winds and blinding fogs would prevent construction and operation. San Franciscos City Engineer estimated the cost at $100 million, which would have been $2.12 billion in 2009 and he asked bridge engineers whether it could be built for less. One who responded, Joseph Strauss, was an engineer and poet who had, for his graduate thesis. At the time, Strauss had completed some 400 drawbridges—most of which were inland—and nothing on the scale of the new project. Strausss initial drawings were for a massive cantilever on each side of the strait, connected by a central suspension segment, Local authorities agreed to proceed only on the assurance that Strauss would alter the design and accept input from several consulting project experts. A suspension-bridge design was considered the most practical, because of recent advances in metallurgy, Strauss spent more than a decade drumming up support in Northern California.
The bridge faced opposition, including litigation, from many sources, the Department of War was concerned that the bridge would interfere with ship traffic. The navy feared that a collision or sabotage to the bridge could block the entrance to one of its main harbors. Unions demanded guarantees that local workers would be favored for construction jobs, in May 1924, Colonel Herbert Deakyne held the second hearing on the Bridge on behalf of the Secretary of War in a request to use federal land for construction. Another ally was the automobile industry, which supported the development of roads. The bridges name was first used when the project was discussed in 1917 by M. M