Indus Valley Civilisation
The Indus Valley Civilisation was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, in mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilisations of the region comprising North Africa, West Asia and South Asia, of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area stretching from northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, into western- and northwestern India, it flourished in the basins of the Indus River, which flows through the length of Pakistan, along a system of perennial monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar-Hakra river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan. The civilisation's cities were noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, clusters of large non-residential buildings, new techniques in handicraft and metallurgy; the large cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa likely grew to containing between 30,000 and 60,000 individuals, the civilisation itself during its florescence may have contained between one and five million individuals.
Gradual drying of the region's soil during the 3rd millennium BCE may have been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the civilisation, but also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, to scatter its population eastward. The Indus civilisation is known as the Harappan Civilisation, after its type site, the first of its sites to be excavated early in the 20th century in what was the Punjab province of British India and now is Pakistan; the discovery of Harappa and soon afterwards Mohenjo-Daro was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India during the British Raj. There were however earlier and cultures called Early Harappan and Late Harappan in the same area. By 2002, over 1,000 Mature Harappan cities and settlements had been reported, of which just under a hundred had been excavated, there are only five major urban sites: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Ganeriwala in Cholistan and Rakhigarhi; the early Harappan cultures were preceded by local Neolithic agricultural villages, from which the river plains were populated.
The Harappan language is not directly attested, its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language family is favoured by a section of scholars; the Indus Valley Civilisation is named after the Indus river system in whose alluvial plains the early sites of the civilisation were identified and excavated. Following a tradition in archaeology, the civilisation is sometimes referred to as the Harappan, after its type site, the first site to be excavated in the 1920s. A section of scholars use the terms "Sarasvati culture", the "Sarasvati Civilisation", the "Indus-Sarasvati Civilisation" or the "Sindhu-Saraswati Civilisation", because they consider the Ghaggar-Hakra river to be the same as the Sarasvati, a river mentioned several times in the Rig Veda, a collection of ancient Sanskrit hymns composed in the second millennium BCE. However, recent geophysical research suggests that unlike the Sarasvati, whose descriptions in the Rig Veda are those of a snow-fed river, the Ghaggar-Hakra was a system of perennial monsoon-fed rivers, which became seasonal around the time that the civilisation diminished 4,000 years ago.
In addition, proponents of the Sarasvati nomenclature see a connection between the decline of the Indus civilisation and the rise of the Vedic civilisation on the Gangetic plain. The Indus civilization was contemporary with the other riverine civilisations of the ancient world: Egypt along the Nile, Mesopotamia in the lands watered by the Euphrates and the Tigris, China in the drainage basin of the Yellow River. By the time of its mature phase, the civilisation had spread over an area larger than the others, which included a core of 1,500 km up the alluvial plane of the Indus and its tributaries. In addition, there was a region with disparate flora and habitats, up to ten times as large, shaped culturally and economically by the Indus. Around 6500 BCE, agriculture emerged on the margins of the Indus alluvium. In the following millennia, settled life made inroads into the Indus plains, setting the stage for the growth of rural and urban human settlements; the more organized sedentary life in turn led to a net increase in the birth rate.
The large urban centres of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa likely grew to containing between 30,000 and 60,000 individuals, during the civilization's florescence, the population of the subcontinent grew to between 4–6 million people. During this period the death rate increased as well, for close living conditions of humans and domesticated animals led to an increase in contagious diseases. According to one estimate, the population of the Indus civilization at its peak may have been between one and five million; the Indus Valley Civilisation extended from Pakistan's Balochistan in the west to India's western Uttar Pradesh in the east, from northeastern Afghanistan in the north to India's Gujarat state in the south. The largest number
Dredging is the operation of removing material from one part of the water environment and relocating it to another. In all but a few situations the excavation is undertaken by a specialist floating plant, known as a dredger. Dredging is carried out in many different locations and for many different purposes, but the main objectives are to recover material that has some value or use, or to create a greater depth of water. Dredging is the form of excavation carried out underwater or underwater, in shallow waters or ocean waters, it keeps waterways and ports navigable, assists coastal protection, land reclamation and coastal redevelopment, by gathering up bottom sediments and transporting it elsewhere. Dredging can be done to recover materials of commercial value. Dredging is a four-part process: loosening the material, bringing the material to the surface and disposal; the material can be brought to the surface by mechanical means. The extract can be disposed of locally or transported by barge or in a liquid suspension in kilometre long pipelines.
Disposal can be to infill sites, or the material can be used constructively to replenish eroded sand, lost to coastal erosion, or constructively create sea-walls, building land or whole new landforms such as viable islands in coral atolls. Ancient authors refer to habour dredging; the seven arms of the Nile were channelled and wharfs built at the time of the pyramids, there was extensive harbour building in the eastern Mediterranean from 1000 BC and the disturbed sediment layers gives evidence of dredging. At Marseille, dredging phases are recorded from the third century BC onwards, the most extensive during the first century AD; the remains of three dredging boats have been unearthed. Dredging machines were used during the construction of the Suez Canal. During the renaissance da Vinci drew a design for a drag dredger. Maintenance: dredging to deepen or maintain navigable waterways or channels which are threatened to become silted with the passage of time, due to sedimented sand and mud making them too shallow for navigation.
This is carried out with a trailing suction hopper dredge. Most dredging is for this purpose, it may be done to maintain the holding capacity of reservoirs or lakes. Land reclamation: dredging to mine sand, clay or rock from the seabed and using it to construct new land elsewhere; this is performed by a cutter-suction dredge or trailing suction hopper dredge. The material may be used for flood or erosion control. Capital dredging: dredging carried out to create a new harbour, berth or waterway, or to deepen existing facilities in order to allow larger ships access; because capital works involve hard material or high-volume works, the work is done using a cutter suction dredge or large trailing suction hopper dredge. Preparatory: dredging work and excavation for future bridges, piers or docksor wharves, This is to build the foundations. Winning construction materials: dredging sand and gravels from offshore licensed areas for use in construction industry, principally for use in concrete; this specialist industry is focused in NW Europe, it uses specialized trailing suction hopper dredgers self discharging the dry cargo ashore.
Contaminant remediation: to reclaim areas affected by chemical spills, storm water surges, other soil contaminations, including silt from sewage sludge and from decayed matter, like wilted plants. Disposal becomes a proportionally large factor in these operations. Flood prevention: dredging increases the channel depth and therefore increase a channel's capacity for carrying water. Fishing dredging is a technique for catching certain species of edible crabs. In Louisiana and other American states, with salt water estuaries that can sustain bottom oyster beds, oysters are raised and harvested. A heavy rectangular metal scoop is towed astern of a moving boat with a chain bridle attached to a cable; this drags along the bottom scooping up oysters. It is periodically winched aboard and the catch is sorted and bagged for shipment. Harvesting materials: dredging sediment for elements like gold, diamonds or other valuable trace substances. Hobbyists examine their dredged matter to pick out items of potential value, similar to the hobby of metal detecting.
Beach nourishment: this is mining sand offshore and placing on a beach to replace sand eroded by storms or wave action. This enhances the recreational and protective function of the beach, which are eroded by human activity; this is performed by a cutter-suction dredge or trailing suction hopper dredge. Peat extraction: dredging poles or dredge hauls were used on the back of small boats to manually dredge the beds of peat-moor waterways; the extracted peat was used as a fuel. This tradition is now less obsolete; the tools are now changed. Removing rubbish and debris: done in combination with maintenance dredging, this process removes non-natural matter from the bottoms of rivers and canals and harbours. Law enforcement agencies sometimes need to use a'drag' to recover evidence or corpses from beneath the water. Anti-eutrophication: A kind of contaminant remediation, dredging is an expensive option for the remediation of eutrophied water bodies. However, as artificially elevated phosphorus levels in the sediment aggravate the eutrophication process, controlled sed
Stratigraphy is a key concept to modern archaeological theory and practice. Modern excavation techniques are based on stratigraphic principles; the concept derives from the geological use of the idea that sedimentation takes place according to uniform principles. When archaeological finds are below the surface of the ground, the identification of the context of each find is vital in enabling the archaeologist to draw conclusions about the site and about the nature and date of its occupation, it is the archaeologist's role to attempt to discover what contexts exist and how they came to be created. Archaeological stratification or sequence is the dynamic superimposition of single units of stratigraphy, or contexts. Contexts are single events or actions that leave discrete, detectable traces in the archaeological sequence or stratigraphy, they can be deposits, structures, or "zero thickness surfaciques", better known as "cuts". Cuts represent actions that remove other solid contexts such as fills and walls.
An example would be a ditch "cut" through earlier deposits. Stratigraphic relationships are the relationships created between contexts in time, representing the chronological order in which they were created. One example would be the back-fill of said ditch; the temporal relationship of "the fill" context to the ditch "cut" context is such that "the fill" occurred in the sequence. A relationship, in the sequence is sometimes referred to as "higher" in the sequence, a relationship, earlier, "lower", though this does not refer to the physical location of the context, it is more useful to think of "higher" as it relates to the context's position in a Harris matrix, a two-dimensional representation of a site's formation in space and time. Archaeological stratigraphy is based on a series of axiomatic principles or "laws", they are derived from the principles of stratigraphy in geology but have been adapted to reflect the different nature of archaeological deposits. Harris notes two principles that were recognised by archaeologists by the 1970s: The principle of superposition establishes that within a series of layers and interfacial features, as created, the upper units of stratification are younger and the lower are older, for each must have been deposited on, or created by the removal of, a pre-existing mass of archaeological stratification.
The principle that layers can be no older than the age of the most recent artefact discovered within them. This is the basis for the relative dating of layers using artefact typologies, it is analogous to the geological principle of faunal succession, although Harris argued that it was not applicable to archaeology. He proposed three additional principles: The principle of original horizontality states that any archaeological layer deposited in an unconsolidated form will tend towards a horizontal deposition. Strata which are found with tilted surfaces were so deposited, or lie in conformity with the contours of a pre-existing basin of deposition; the principle of lateral continuity states that any archaeological deposit, as laid down, will be bounded by the edge of the basin of deposition, or will thin down to a feather edge. Therefore, if any edge of the deposit is exposed in a vertical plane view, a part of its original extent must have been removed by excavation or erosion: its continuity must be sought, or its absence explained.
The principle of stratigraphic succession states that any given unit of archaeological stratification exists within the stratigraphic sequence from its position between the undermost of all higher units and the uppermost of all lower units and with which it has a physical contact. Understanding a site in modern archaeology is a process of grouping single contexts together in larger groups by virtue of their relationships; the terminology of these larger clusters varies depending on the practitioner, but the terms interface, sub-group, group are common. An example of a sub-group could be the three contexts. Sub-groups can be clustered together with other sub-groups by virtue of their stratigraphic relationship to form groups, which in turn form "phases." A sub-group burial could cluster with other sub-group burials to form a cemetery, which in turn could be grouped with a building, such as a church, to produce a "phase". Phase implies a nearly contemporaneous Archaeological horizon, representing "what you would see if you went back to time X".
The production of phase interpretations is the first goal of stratigraphic interpretation and excavation. Archaeologists investigating a site may wish to date the activity rather than artifacts on site by dating the individual contexts which represents events; some degree of dating objects by their position in the sequence can be made with known datable elements of the archaeological record or other assumed datable contexts deduced by a regressive form of relative dating which in turn can fix events represented by contexts to some range in time. For example, the date of formation of a context, sealed between two datable layers will fall between the dates of the two layers sealing it; however the date of contexts fall in a range of possibilities so using them to date others is not a straightforward process. Take the hypothetical section fig A. Here we can see 12 contexts, each numbered with a unique context number and whose sequence is represented in the Harris matrix in fig B. A horizontal layer Masonry wall remnant Backfill of the wall construction trench A hor
In historic and modern usage, a hearth is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace, with or without an oven, used for heating and also used for cooking food. For centuries, the hearth was such an integral part of a home its central and most important feature, that the concept has been generalized to refer to a homeplace or household, as in the terms "hearth and home" and "keep the home fires burning". In a medieval hall, the hearth stood in the middle of the hall, with the smoke rising through the room to a smoke hole in the roof; such hearths were moved to the side of the room and provided with a chimney. In fireplace design, the hearth is the part of the fireplace where the fire burns consisting of masonry at floor level or higher, underneath the fireplace mantel; the word hearth derives from an Indo-European root, *ker-, referring to burning and fire. In archaeology, a hearth is a firepit or other fireplace feature of any period. Hearths are common features of many eras going back to prehistoric campsites and may be either lined with a wide range of materials, such as stone or left unlined.
They were used for cooking and the processing of some stone, wood and floral resources. Site formation processes—e.g. Farming or excavation—deform or disperse hearth features, making them difficult to identify without careful study. Lined hearths are identified by the presence of fire-cracked rock created when the heat from the fires inside the hearths chemically altered and cracked the stone. Present are fragmented fish and animal bones, carbonized shell, charcoal and other waste products, all embedded in a sequence of soil, deposited atop the hearth. Unlined hearths, which are less identified, may include these materials; because of the organic nature of most of these items, they can be used to pinpoint the date the hearth was last used via the process of radiocarbon dating. Although carbon dates can be negatively affected if the users of the hearth burned old wood or coal, the process is quite reliable; this was the most common way to cook, to heat interior spaces in cool seasons. In the Byzantine Empire a tax on hearths known as kapnikon was first explicitly mentioned for the reign of Nikephorus I although its context implies that it was then old and established and it should be taken back to the 7th century AD.
Kapnikon was a tax raised on households without exceptions for the poor. In England, a tax on hearths was introduced on 19 May 1662. Householders were required to pay a charge of two shillings per annum for each hearth, with half the payment due at Michaelmas and half at Lady Day. Exemptions to the tax were granted, to those in receipt of poor relief, those whose houses were worth less than 20 shillings a year and those who paid neither church nor poor rates. Exempt were charitable institutions such as schools and almshouses, industrial hearths with the exception of smiths' forges and bakers' ovens; the returns were lodged with the Clerk of the Peace between 1662 and 1688. A revision of the Act in 1664 made the tax payable by all; the tax was abolished by William III in 1689 and the last collection was for Lady Day of that year. It was abolished in Scotland in 1690. Hearth tax records are important to local historians as they provide an indication of the size of each assessed house at the time.
The numbers of hearths are proportional to the size of the house. The assessments can be used to indicate the numbers and local distribution of larger and smaller houses. Not every room had a hearth, not all houses of the same size had the same number of hearths, so they are not an exact measure of house size. Roehampton University has an ongoing project which places hearth tax data in a national framework by providing a series of standard bands of wealth applicable to each county and city. Published lists are available of many returns and the original documents are in the Public Record Office; the most informative returns, many of which have been published, occur between 1662–1666 and 1669–1674. In Greek mythology, Hestia is the goddess of the hearth, while in Roman mythology Vesta has the same role. In ancient Persia, according to Zoroastrian traditions, every house was expected to have a hearth for offering sacrifices and prayers. Hearth is a term for a kindred, or local worship group, in the neopagan religion Ásatrú.
Cook stove Forge Brazier Firebox Hall house Kitchen Fireplace Firepit Buttumak Hibachi Agungi Vesta Goddess of the hearth
Murli Manohar Joshi
Murli Manohar Joshi is an Indian politician, a leading politician of the Bharatiya Janata Party of which he was the President between 1991 and 1993, the current Member of Parliament for Kanpur. He became the Union Human Resources Development minister in the National Democratic Alliance government, he is best known for his views on hindu social politics and for his humanistic policies based on integral humanism. Joshi was awarded Padma Vibhushan, the second-highest civilian award, in 2017 by the Government of India. Joshi was born on 5 January 1934, hailing from the Kumaon Hills region of Almora northern India which today form a part of the state of Uttarakhand. Joshi had his early education in District Bijnore and Almora, he completed his B. Sc. from Meerut College and M. Sc. from Allahabad University. Here one of his teachers was Professor Rajendra Singh, who became the RSS Sanghchalak, he did his doctorate from Allahabad University. The subject of his doctoral thesis was spectroscopy, he published a research paper in Physics in Hindi, a first of its kind.
After completing his PhD, Joshi started teaching Physics at Allahabad University. Joshi came in contact with the RSS in Delhi at a young age and took part in the Cow Protection Movement in 1953–54, in the Kumbh Kisan Andolan of UP in 1955, demanding halving of land revenue assessment. During the Emergency period in India, Joshi was in jail from 26 June 1975 until the Lok Sabha elections in 1977, he was elected Member of Parliament from Almora. When the Janata Party came to power forming the first non-Congress government in Indian history, Joshi was elected General Secretary of the Janata Parliamentary Party. After the fall of the government, his party came out of Janata Party in 1980, formed the Bharatiya Janata Party or the BJP. Joshi first looked after the Central Office as a General Secretary and became Party Treasurer; as General Secretary of BJP, he was directly in charge of Bihar and North-Eastern States. When BJP formed a government in India under Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Joshi served as the Human Resource Development Minister in the cabinet.
Joshi is known to have been influenced by the life and work of Babasaheb Ambedkar, Mahatma Jyotiba Phule and Deendayal Upadhyaya. Joshi was a three-term M. P. from Allahabad before he was defeated in the Lok Sabha elections of May, 2004. He won election to the 15th Lok Sabha from Varanasi as a BJP candidate, he served as the home minister for 13 days government in 1996. Joshi was appointed as Chairman of the Manifesto Preparation Board of the BJP in 2009, he was honored as "Proud Past Alumni" of Allahabad University by Allahabad University Alumni Association. He was a sitting MP from Varanasi and he vacated that seat for Narendra Modi in 2014 Lok Sabha Elections, he contested from Kanpur and won from the constituency by a margin of 2.23 lac votes. In 2015, Cobrapost alleged many leaders like Murli Manohar Joshi and C. P. Thakur alongside former Prime Minister and Congress leader Chandra Shekhar associated with Ranvir Sena in Bihar Naxalites massacres Joshi was accused of having played a pivotal role in the Babri masjid demolition and the ensuing countrywide riots, based on the speeches made by him.
In April 2017, the Supreme Court of India reinstated the criminal conspiracy charges against Murli Manohar Joshi. Padma Vibhushan http://drmurlimjoshi.blogspot.com/ Murli Manohar Joshi's blog BJP profile of M. M. Joshi
D. P. Agrawal
D. P. Agrawal is a historian of Indian science and technology and author, he has published works on Indian archaeology, the history of science, palaeoclimate. Dharma Pal Agrawal was born on 15 March 1933 at United Provinces of British India, he has worked with the Archaeological Survey of India, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research and Physical Research Laboratory, all of which are All-India institutions. His researches were done in the fields of palaeoenvironment, prehistoric archaeology, radiocarbon & TL dating, archaeometallurgy, India’s contributions to the world of science and technology. At the Physical Research Laboratory, he was a Senior Professor and Area Chairman of the Quaternary Paleo-Climate Study Area, a large multi-disciplinary research group, he has been a visiting professor at the University of Pennsylvania and at the International Research Center at Kyoto, Agrawal has made significant contributions to the fields of paleoenvironment, pre-historic archaeology, radiocarbon dating, the archaeology of metallurgy, the history of science and technology in India.
He has edited the journal Man and Environment for a number of years, served on the advisory board of journals World Archaeology and Le anthropologie. He is a fellow of the National Academy of Sciences, and a member of the National Commission on the History of Science. During his academic career he has published about 250 papers on different topics. After retirement from the Physical Research Laboratory in 1993, he has been working as the Honorary Director of the Lok Vigyan Kendra in Almora, where he coordinates research on "traditional knowledge systems," codifying the accumulated folk knowledge on the crops, medicinal plants and biodiversity, he is the chief editor of a multi-volume international project on the history of science and technology. BooksThe Copper Bronze Age in India, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1971. Prehistoric Chronology and Radiocarbon Dating in India Munshiram Manoharlal, 1974. ISBN 8121503167. Protohistoric Archaeology of India, U. P. Granth Akademi, Lucknow, 1975. Essays in Indian Protohistory.
B. R. Publishers, 1978. ISBN 8170180430; the Archaeology of India. London: Curzon Press, 1981. Man and Environment in India through Ages, New Delhi: Books and Books, 1992. Dating the Human Past, Poona: Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies, 1995. Central Himalayas: An Archaeological and Cultural Synthesis. Aryan Books International, 1998. ISBN 8173051321. Ancient Metal Technology and Archaeology of South Asia: A Pan-Asian Perspective. Aryan Books International, 2000. ISBN 8173051771. South Asian Prehistory: A Multidisciplinary Study, Aryan Books International, 2002. ISBN 8173052360. Bronze and Iron Ages in South Asia, Aryan Books International, 2003. ISBN 8173052522; the Indus Civilization: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Aryan Books International, 2007. ISBN 8173053103. Edited worksPalaeoclimatic and Palaeoenvironmental Changes in Asia.. New Delhi: Indian National Science Academy, 1988. Radiocarbon and Indian Archaeology. Bombay: Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1973. Ecology and Archaeology of Western India.
New Delhi: Concept Publishers, 1977. Climate and Geology of Kashmir and Central India: The Last 4 Million years. T. T. Publishers, 1985. Traditional Knowledge and Archaeology. Aryan Books International, 2007. ISBN 8173053340; the Harappan Technology and its Legacy, Rupa and Co, 2009. ISBN 8129115328; the 1971 book Copper Bronze Age in India reports an integrated study of the Copper-Bronze Age carried out at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, covering its chronology and ecology. Some publications online Interview: Dr D P Agrawal.