United States Coast Guard
The United States Coast Guard is the coastal defense and maritime law enforcement branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services. The Coast Guard is a maritime, multi-mission service unique among the U. S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission and a federal regulatory agency mission as part of its mission set. It operates under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security during peacetime, can be transferred to the U. S. Department of the Navy by the U. S. President at any time, or by the U. S. Congress during times of war; this has happened twice: in 1917, during World War I, in 1941, during World War II. Created by Congress on 4 August 1790 at the request of Alexander Hamilton as the Revenue-Marine, it is the oldest continuous seagoing service of the United States; as Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton headed the Revenue-Marine, whose original purpose was collecting customs duties in the nation's seaports. By the 1860s, the service was known as the U.
S. Revenue Cutter Service and the term Revenue-Marine fell into disuse; the modern Coast Guard was formed by a merger of the Revenue Cutter Service and the U. S. Life-Saving Service on 28 January 1915, under the U. S. Department of the Treasury; as one of the country's five armed services, the Coast Guard has been involved in every U. S. war from 1790 to the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan. The Coast Guard has 40,992 men and women on active duty, 7,000 reservists, 31,000 auxiliarists, 8,577 full-time civilian employees, for a total workforce of 87,569; the Coast Guard maintains an extensive fleet of 243 coastal and ocean-going patrol ships, tenders and icebreakers called "cutters", 1650 smaller boats, as well as an extensive aviation division consisting of 201 helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. While the U. S. Coast Guard is the smallest of the U. S. military service branches in terms of membership, the U. S. Coast Guard by itself is the world's 12th largest naval force; the Coast Guard carries out three basic roles, which are further subdivided into eleven statutory missions.
The three roles are: Maritime safety Maritime security Maritime stewardshipWith a decentralized organization and much responsibility placed on the most junior personnel, the Coast Guard is lauded for its quick responsiveness and adaptability in a broad range of emergencies. In a 2005 article in Time magazine following Hurricane Katrina, the author wrote, "the Coast Guard's most valuable contribution to may be as a model of flexibility, most of all, spirit." Wil Milam, a rescue swimmer from Alaska told the magazine, "In the Navy, it was all about the mission. Practicing for war, training for war. In the Coast Guard, it was, take care of our people and the mission will take care of itself." The eleven statutory missions as defined by law are divided into homeland security missions and non-homeland security missions: Ice operations, including the International Ice Patrol Living marine resources Marine environmental protection Marine safety Aids to navigation Search and rescue Defense readiness Maritime law enforcement Migrant interdiction Ports and coastal security Drug interdiction See National Search and Rescue Committee See Joint Rescue Coordination CentersWhile the U.
S. Coast Guard Search and Rescue is not the oldest search and rescue organization in the world, it is one of the Coast Guard's best-known operations; the National Search and Rescue Plan designates the Coast Guard as the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations, the United States Air Force as the federal agency responsible for inland SAR. Both agencies maintain rescue coordination centers to coordinate this effort, have responsibility for both military and civilian search and rescue; the two services jointly provide instructor staff for the National Search and Rescue School that trains SAR mission planners and coordinators. Located on Governors Island, New York, the school is now located at Coast Guard Training Center Yorktown at Yorktown, Virginia. Operated by the Coast Guard, the National Response Center is the sole U. S. Government point of contact for reporting all oil, radiological and etiological spills and discharges into the environment, anywhere in the United States and its territories.
In addition to gathering and distributing spill/incident information for Federal On Scene Coordinators and serving as the communications and operations center for the National Response Team, the NRC maintains agreements with a variety of federal entities to make additional notifications regarding incidents meeting established trigger criteria. The NRC takes Maritime Suspicious Activity and Security Breach Reports. Details on the NRC organization and specific responsibilities can be found in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan; the Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement database system is managed and used by the Coast Guard for tracking pollution and safety incidents in the nation's ports. The National Maritime Center is the merchant mariner credentialing authority for the USCG under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security. To ensure a safe and environmentally sound marine transportation system, the mission of the NMC is to issue credentials to qualified mariners in the United States maritime jurisdiction.
The five uniformed services that make up the U. S. Armed Forces are defined in Title 10 of the U. S. Code: The term "armed forces" means the Army, Air Force, Marine Corps, Coast Guard; the Coast Guard is further defined by Title 14 of the United States Code: The Coast Guar
Marine engineering includes the engineering of boats, oil rigs and any other marine vessel or structure, as well as oceanographic engineering or ocean engineering. Marine engineering is the discipline of applying engineering sciences, including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, electronic engineering, computer science, to the development, design and maintenance of watercraft propulsion and on-board systems and oceanographic technology, it includes but is not limited to power and propulsion plants, piping and control systems for marine vehicles of any kind, such as surface ships and submarines. Archimedes is traditionally regarded as the first marine engineer, having developed a number of marine engineering systems in antiquity. Modern marine engineering dates back to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. In 1712 Thomas Newcomen, a blacksmith, created a steam powered engine to pump water out of mines. In 1807 Robert Fulton used a steam engine to propel a vessel through the water.
Fulton's ship used the engine to power a small wooden paddle wheel as its propulsion system. The integration of steam engines into ships was the start of the marine engineering profession. Paddle wheel ships were the front runner of the industry for the next thirty years till the next type of propulsion came around. Only twelve years after Fulton’s Clermont had her first voyage, the Savannah marked the first sea voyage from America to Europe. Around 50 years the steam powered paddle wheels had a peak with the creation of the Great Eastern, as big as one of the cargo ships of today, 700 feet in length, weighing 22,000 tons; the Great Eastern was destined for failure. Since the 1800s there have been many improvements to the design of propellers; the maritime industry holds 90% of all international trade. Marine engineers work on more than just engines in ships. Marine engineers are responsible for building and maintaining offshore oil rigs; these oil rigs were first made by Henry L. Williams in 1896.
Naval architects are concerned with the overall design of the ship and its propulsion through the water. Mechanical engineers design the main propulsion plant, the powering and mechanization aspects of the ship functions such as steering, cargo handling, ventilation, air conditioning interior and exterior communication, other related requirements. Electrical power generation and electrical power distribution systems are designed by their suppliers. Oceanographic engineering is concerned with mechanical and electronic, computing technology deployed to support oceanography, falls under the umbrella of marine engineering in Britain, where it is covered by the same professional organisation, the IMarEST. Civil engineering for an offshore environment, the design and construction of fixed and floating marine structures, such as oil platforms and offshore wind farms is called offshore engineering. In the same way that civil engineers design to accommodate wind loads on building and bridges, maritime engineers design to accommodate a ship being flexed or a platform being struck by waves millions of times in its life.
A naval architect, like an airplane designer, is concerned with stability. The naval architect's job is different, insofar as a ship operates in two fluids simultaneously: water and air. Engineers face the challenge of balancing cargo as the mass of the ship increase and the center of gravity shifts higher as additional containers are stacked vertically. In addition, the weight of fuel presents a problem as the pitch of the ship cause the weight to shift with the liquid causing an imbalance; this offset is counteracted by water inside larger ballast tanks. Engineers are faced with the task of tracking the fuel and ballast water of a ship; the chemical environment faced by ships and offshore structures is far harsher than nearly anywhere on land, save chemical plants. Marine engineers are concerned with surface protection and preventing galvanic corrosion in every project. Corrosion can be inhibited through cathodic protection by utilizing pieces of metal known as sacrificial anodes. A piece of metal such as zinc is used as the sacrificial anode as it becomes the anode in the chemical reaction.
This causes the metal to corrode and not the ship’s hull. Another way to prevent corrosion is by sending a controlled amount of low DC current to the ship’s hull to prevent the process of electro-chemical corrosion; this changes the electrical charge of the ship’s hull to prevent electro-chemical corrosion. Anti-fouling is the process of eliminating obstructive organisms from essential components of seawater systems. Marine organisms grow and attach to the surfaces of the outboard suction inlets used to obtain water for cooling systems. Electro-chlorination involves running high electrical current through sea water; the combination of current and sea water alters the chemical composition to create sodium hypochlorite to purge any bio-matter. An electrolytic method of anti-fowling involves running electrical current through two anodes; these anodes consist of copper and aluminum. The copper anode releases its ion into the water creating an environment, too toxic for bio-matter; the second metal, coats the inside of the pipes to help prevent corrosion.
Other forms of marine growth such as mussels and algae may attach themselves to the bottom of a ship's hull. This causes the ship to have a less hydrodynamic shape since it would not be uniform and smooth around the hull; this creates the problem of less fuel efficiency as it slo
Australian Maritime Safety Authority
Australian Maritime Safety Authority is an Australian statutory authority established in 1990 under the Australian Maritime Safety Authority Act 1990 and governed by the Commonwealth Authorities and Companies Act 1997. It is responsible for the regulation and safety oversight of Australia's shipping fleet and management of Australia's international maritime obligations. AMSA is funded through levies on the shipping industry; the authority has a jurisdiction over Australia's exclusive economic zone which covers an area of 11,000,000 square kilometres. AMSA maintains Australia's shipping registries: the general and the international shipping registers. AMSA is an agency within the Department of Transport. Directors are appointed by the minister. Other international treaties which AMSA administers include the Navigation Act 2012 and the Protection of the Sea Act 1983. Organised sea rescue in Australia was well established during the second world war. Precursor international arrangements included usage of a range of warning and communication systems.
In the 2010-2011 financial year, AMSA recorded expenses of just over $146 million, with revenue at just under $159 million, creating a surplus of more than $10 million. Marine safety activities of AMSA include: the provision and maintenance of a network of marine aids to navigation, for example, lighthouses. AMSA aims to protect the marine environment by administering programs to prevent and respond to the threat of ship-sourced marine pollution, it is responsible for administering MARPOL 73/78, an international marine environmental convention designed to minimize pollution of the seas. AMSA can instigate prosecutions itself, but works with states and territories during investigations and enforcement activities such as vessel inspections. A recent major AMSA project involved the rewrite of the Navigation Act 1912, the agency's governing statute; the Council of Australian Governments in 2011 directed AMSA to work co-operatively with the States and Territories to create a national system for domestic commercial vessels, including any changes to Commonwealth and Territory laws and administrative arrangements of the parties that are necessary to facilitate the reform.
The new legislation came into effect in 2013, the transition to the new system was completed in July 2018. The Authority publishes a range of materials in relation to maritime safety; as of 2011 its maritime survival manual Survival at Sea: A Training and Instruction Manual is in its 6th edition. Australian aerial patrol Coast Guards of Australia Official website
International Maritime Organization
The International Maritime Organization, known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping. The IMO was established following agreement at a UN conference held in Geneva in 1948 and the IMO came into existence ten years meeting for the first time in 1959. Headquartered in London, United Kingdom, the IMO has 174 member states and three associate members; the IMO's primary purpose is to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping and its remit today includes safety, environmental concerns, legal matters, technical co-operation, maritime security and the efficiency of shipping. IMO is governed by an assembly of members and is financially administered by a council of members elected from the assembly; the work of IMO is conducted through five committees and these are supported by technical subcommittees. Other UN organisations may observe the proceedings of the IMO.
Observer status is granted to qualified non-governmental organisations. IMO is supported by a permanent secretariat of employees who are representative of the organisation's members; the secretariat is composed of a Secretary-General, periodically elected by the assembly, various divisions such as those for marine safety, environmental protection and a conference section. Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization was formed in order to bring the regulation of the safety of shipping into an international framework, for which the creation of the United Nations provided an opportunity. Hitherto such international conventions had been initiated piecemeal, notably the Safety of Life at Sea Convention, first adopted in 1914 following the Titanic disaster. IMCO's first task was to update that convention; when IMCO began its operations in 1959 certain other pre-existing conventions were brought under its aegis, most notable the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by Oil 1954.
The first meetings of the newly formed IMCO were held in London in 1959. Throughout its existence IMCO renamed the IMO in 1982, has continued to produce new and updated conventions across a wide range of maritime issues covering not only safety of life and marine pollution but encompassing safe navigation and rescue, wreck removal, tonnage measurement and compensation, ship recycling, the training and certification of seafarers, piracy. More SOLAS has been amended to bring an increased focus on maritime security through the International Ship and Port Facility Security Code; the IMO has increased its focus on smoke emissions from ships. In January 1959, IMO began to promote the 1954 OILPOL Convention. Under the guidance of IMO, the convention was amended in 1962, 1969, 1971; as oil trade and industry developed, many people in the industry began to recognise a need for further improvements in regards to oil pollution prevention at sea. This became apparent in 1967, when the tanker Torrey Canyon spilled 120,000 tons of crude oil when it ran aground entering the English ChannelThe Torrey Canyon grounding was the largest oil pollution incident recorded up to that time.
This incident prompted a series of new conventions. IMO held an emergency session of its Council to deal with the need to readdress regulations pertaining to maritime pollution. In 1969, the IMO Assembly decided to host an international gathering in 1973 dedicated to this issue; the goal at hand was to develop an international agreement for controlling general environmental contamination by ships when out at sea. During the next few years IMO brought to the forefront a series of measures designed to prevent large ship accidents and to minimise their effects, it detailed how to deal with the environmental threat caused by routine ship duties such as the cleaning of oil cargo tanks or the disposal of engine room wastes. By tonnage, the aforementioned was a bigger problem than accidental pollution; the most significant thing to come out of this conference was the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973. It covers not only accidental and operational oil pollution but different types of pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage and air pollution.
The original MARPOL was signed on 17 February 1973, but did not come into force due to lack of ratifications. The current convention is a combination of the 1978 Protocol, it entered into force on 2 October 1983. As of May 2013, 152 states, representing 99.2 per cent of the world's shipping tonnage, are involved in the convention. In 1983 the IMO established the World Maritime University in Sweden; the IMO headquarters are located in a large purpose-built building facing the River Thames on the Albert Embankment, in Lambeth, London. The organisation moved into its new headquarters in late 1982, with the building being opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 17 May 1983; the architects of the building were Douglass Worby & Robinson. The front of the building is dominated by a seven-metre high, ten-tonne bronze sculpture of the bow of a ship, with a lone seafarer maintaining a look-out; the previous headquarters of IMO were at 101 Piccadilly, prior to that at 22 Berners Street in Fitzrovia and in Chancery Lane.
To become a member of the IMO, a state ratifies a multilateral treaty known as the Convention on the International Maritime Organization. As of 2018, there are 173 member states of
Naval architecture, or naval engineering, along with automotive engineering and aerospace engineering, is an engineering discipline branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electronic and safety engineering as applied to the engineering design process, shipbuilding and operation of marine vessels and structures. Naval architecture involves basic and applied research, development, design evaluation and calculations during all stages of the life of a marine vehicle. Preliminary design of the vessel, its detailed design, trials and maintenance, launching and dry-docking are the main activities involved. Ship design calculations are required for ships being modified. Naval architecture involves formulation of safety regulations and damage-control rules and the approval and certification of ship designs to meet statutory and non-statutory requirements; the word "vessel" includes every description of watercraft, including non-displacement craft, WIG craft and seaplanes, used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.
The principal elements of naval architecture are: Hydrostatics concerns the conditions to which the vessel is subjected while at rest in water and to its ability to remain afloat. This involves computing buoyancy and other hydrostatic properties such as trim and stability. Hydrodynamics concerns the flow of water around the ship's hull and stern, over bodies such as propeller blades or rudder, or through thruster tunnels. Resistance – resistance towards motion in water caused due to flow of water around the hull. Powering calculation is done based on this. Propulsion – to move the vessel through water using propellers, water jets, sails etc. Engine types are internal combustion; some vessels are electrically powered using solar energy. Ship motions – involves motions of the vessel in seaway and its responses in waves and wind. Controllability -- involves maintaining position and direction of the vessel. While atop a liquid surface a floating body has 6 degrees of freedom in its movements, these are categorized in either rotation or translation.
Fore and aft translation is termed surge. Transverse translation is termed sway. Vertical translation is termed heave. Rotation about a transverse axis is termed pitch. Rotation about a fore and aft axis is termed roll. Rotation about a vertical axis is termed yaw. Longitudinal stability for longitudinal inclinations, the stability depends upon the distance between the center of gravity and the longitudinal meta-center. In other words, the basis in which the ship maintains its center of gravity is its distance set apart from both the aft and forward section of the ship. While a body floats on a liquid surface it still encounters the force of gravity pushing down on it. In order to stay afloat and avoid sinking there is an opposed force acting against the body known as the hydrostatic pressures; the forces acting on the body must be of the same magnitude and same line of motion in order to maintain the body at equilibrium. This description of equilibrium is only present when a floating body is in still water, when other conditions are present the magnitude of which these forces shifts drastically creating the swaying motion of the body.
The buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the body, in other words, the mass of the body is equal to the mass of the water displaced by the body. This adds an upward force to the body by the amount of surface area times the area displaced in order to create an equilibrium between the surface of the body and the surface of the water; the stability of a ship under most conditions is able to overcome any form or restriction or resistance encountered in rough seas. Structures involves selection of material of construction, structural analysis of global and local strength of the vessel, vibration of the structural components and structural responses of the vessel during motions in seaway. Depending on the type of ship, the structure and design will vary in what material to use as well as how much of it; some ships are made from glass reinforced plastics but the vast majority are steel with some aluminium in the superstructure. The complete structure of the ship is designed with panels shaped in a rectangular form consisting of steel plating supported on four edges.
Combined in a large surface area the Grillages create the hull of the ship and bulkheads while still providing mutual support of the frames. Though the structure of the ship is sturdy enough to hold itself together the main force it has to overcome is longitudinal bending creating a strain against its hull, its structure must be designed so that the material is disposed as much forward and aft as possible; the principal longitudinal elements are the deck, shell plating, inner bottom all of which are in the form of grillages, additional longitudinal stretching to these. The dimensions of the ship are in order to create enough spacing between the stiffeners in prevention of buckling. Warships have used a longitudinal system of stiffening that many modern commercial vessels have adopted; this system was used in early merchant ships such as the SS Great Eastern, but shifted to transversely framed structure another concept in ship hull design that p
The master, or sailing master, was a historical rank for a naval officer trained in and responsible for the navigation of a sailing vessel. The rank can be equated to a professional seaman and specialist in navigation, rather than as a military commander. In the British Royal Navy, the master was a warrant officer who ranked with, but after, the lieutenants; the rank became a commissioned officer rank and was renamed navigating lieutenant in 1867. When the United States Navy was formed in 1794, master was listed as one of the warrant officer ranks and ranked between midshipmen and lieutenants; the rank was a commissioned officer rank from 1837 until it was replaced with the current rank of lieutenant, junior grade in 1883. In the Middle Ages, when'warships' were merchant vessels hired by the crown, the man in charge of the ship and its mariners, as with all ships and indeed most endeavours ashore, was termed the Master. From the time of the reforms of Henry VIII, the master was a warrant officer, appointed by the Council of the Marine who built and provisioned the Navy's ships.
The master was tasked with sailing the ship as directed by the captain, who fought the ship when an enemy was engaged. The captain had a commission from the Admiralty, who were in charge of the Navy's strategy and tactics; the master’s main duty was navigation, taking the ship’s position at least daily and setting the sails as appropriate for the required course and conditions. During combat, he was stationed on the quarterdeck, next to the captain; the master was responsible for fitting out the ship, making sure they had all the sailing supplies necessary for the voyage. The master was in charge of stowing the hold and ensuring the ship was not too weighted down to sail effectively; the master, through his subordinates and lowered the anchor and undocked the ship, inspected the ship daily for problems with the anchors, masts, ropes, or pulleys. Issues were brought to the attention of the master; the master was in charge of the entry of parts of the official log such as weather and expenditures.
Masters were promoted from the rank of quartermasters, or midshipmen. Masters were recruited from the merchant service. A prospective master had to pass an oral examination before a senior captain and three masters at Trinity House. After passing the examination, they would be eligible to receive a warrant from the Navy Board, but promotion was not automatic. Second master was a rating introduced in 1753 that indicated a deputy master on a first-, second- or third-rate ship-of-the-line. A second master was a master's mate who had passed his examination for master and was deemed worthy of being master of a vessel. Master's mates would act as second master of vessels too small to be allocated a warranted master. Second masters were paid more than master's mates, £5 5s per month. Second masters were given the first opportunity for master vacancies; the sailing master did not have an official officer uniform, which caused problems when they were captured because they had trouble convincing their captors they should be treated as officers and not ordinary sailors.
In 1787 the warrant officers of wardroom rank received an official uniform, but it did not distinguish them by rank. In 1807, along with pursers, received their own uniform. By the classic Age of Sail the Master in the Royal Navy had become the warrant officer trained in navigation, the senior warrant officer rank, the second most important officer aboard rated ships. In 1808, Masters were given similar status to commissioned officers, as warrant officers of wardroom rank; the master ate in the wardroom with the other officers, had a large cabin in the gunroom, had a smaller day cabin next to the captain's cabin on the quarterdeck for charts and navigation equipment. However, the number of sailing-masters halved from 140 to 74 between the years 1840–1860: because the pay and privileges were less than equivalent ranks in the military branch, because the master's responsibilities had been assumed by the executive officers. In 1843 the wardroom warrant officers were given commissioned status; the Admiralty, under the First Sea Lord the Duke of Somerset, began to phase out the title of master after 1862.
The ranks of staff commander and staff captain were introduced in 1864 respectively. By 1872 the number of navigating cadets had fallen to twelve, an Admiralty experiment in 1873 under the First Sea Lord George Goschen further merged the duties of navigating lieutenants and sailing masters with those of lieutenants and staff commanders. There were no more masters warranted after 1883, the last one retired in 1892. Although the actual rank of navigating lieutenant fell out of use about the same time, lieutenants who had passed their navigating exams were distinguished in the Navy List by an N in a circle by their name, by N† for those passed for first-class ships; the last staff commander disap
A sailor, mariner, or seafarer is a person who works aboard a watercraft as part of its crew, may work in any one in a number of different fields that are related to the operation and maintenance of a ship. The profession of the sailor is old, the term sailor has its etymological roots in a time when sailing ships were the main mode of transport at sea, but it now refers to the personnel of all watercraft regardless of the mode of transport, encompasses people who operate ships professionally or recreationally, be it for a military navy or civilian merchant navy. In a navy, there may be further distinctions: sailor may refer to any member of the navy if they are based on land. Seafarers hold a variety of professions and ranks, each of which carries unique responsibilities which are integral to the successful operation of an ocean-going vessel. A ship's crew can be divided into four main categories: the deck department, the engineering department, the steward's department, others. Officer positions in the deck department include but are not limited to: master and his chief and third officers.
The official classifications for unlicensed members of the deck department are able seaman and ordinary seaman. With some variation, the chief mate is most charged with the duties of cargo mate. Second Mates are charged with being the medical officer in case of medical emergency. All three mates each do four-hour afternoon shifts on the bridge, when underway at sea. A common deck crew for a ship includes: Captain / Master Chief Officer / Chief Mate Second Officer / Second Mate Third Officer / Third Mate Boatswain Able seamen Ordinary seamen Deck Cadet / unlicensed Trainee navigator / Midshipman A ship's engineering department consists of the members of a ship's crew that operates and maintains the propulsion and other systems on board the vessel. Marine engineering staff deal with the "hotel" facilities on board, notably the sewage, air conditioning and water systems. Engineering staff manage bulk fuel transfers, from a fuel-supply barge in port; when underway at sea, the second and third engineers will be occupied with oil transfers from storage tanks, to active working tanks.
Cleaning of oil purifiers is another regular task. Engineering staff are required to have training in firefighting and first aid. Additional duties include performing other nautical tasks. Engineers play a key role in cargo loading/discharging gear and safety systems, though the specific cargo discharge function remains the responsibility of deck officers and deck workers. A common engineering crew for a ship includes: Chief Engineer Second Engineer / First Assistant Engineer Third Engineer / Second Assistant Engineer Fourth Engineer / Third Assistant Engineer Motorman Oiler Entry-level rating Wiper Engine Cadet / unlicensed Trainee engineerUSA ships carry a qualified member of the engine department. Other possible positions include motorman, electrician, refrigeration engineer and tankerman. A typical steward's department for a cargo ship is a chief steward, a chief cook and a steward's assistant. All three positions are filled by unlicensed personnel; the chief steward directs and assigns personnel performing such functions as preparing and serving meals.
The chief steward plans menus. The steward may purchase stores and equipment. Galley roles may include baking. A chief steward's duties may overlap with those of the steward's assistant, the chief cook, other Steward's department crewmembers. A person has to have a Merchant Mariner's Document issued by the United States Coast Guard in the United States Merchant Marine in order to serve as a chief steward. All chief cooks who sail internationally are documented by their respective countries because of international conventions and agreements; the only time that steward department staff are charged with duties outside the steward department, is during the execution of the fire and boat drill. Various types of staff officer positions may exist on board a ship, including junior assistant purser, senior assistant purser, chief purser, medical doctor, professional nurse, marine physician assistant and hospital corpsman; these jobs are considered administrative positions and are therefore regulated by Certificates of Registry issued by the United States Coast Guard.
Pilots are merchant marine officers and are licensed by the Coast Guard. Mariners spend extended periods at sea. Most deep-sea mariners are hired for one or more voyages. There is no job security after that; the length of time between voyages varies by personal preference. The rate of unionization for these workers in the United States is about 36 percent, much higher than the average for all occupations. Merchant marine officers and seamen, both veterans and beginners, are hired for voyages through union hiring halls or directly by shipping companies. Hiring halls fill jobs by the length of time the person has been registered at the hall and by their union seniority. Hiring halls are found in major seaports. At sea, on larger vessels members of the deck department stand watch for 4 hours and are off for 8 hours, 7 days a week. Mariners work in all weather