Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
Metropolitan Museum of Art
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially the Met, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the edge of Central Park along Manhattans Museum Mile, is by area one of the worlds largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains a collection of art, architecture. On March 18,2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side, it extends the museums modern, the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, Byzantine and Islamic art. The museum is home to collections of musical instruments and accessories, as well as antique weapons. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870.
The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day and it opened on February 20,1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Oceanian, the museum is home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts traveling shows throughout the year. The director of the museum is Thomas P. Campbell, a long-time curator and it was announced on February 28th,2017 that Campbell will be stepping down as the Mets director and CEO, effective June. On March 1st,2017 the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss shall be the acting CEO until a replacement is found, Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East.
From a few tablets and seals, the Mets collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. The highlights of the include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures. The Mets Department of Arms and Armor is one of the museums most popular collections. Among the collections 14,000 objects are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, Rockefeller donated his more than 3, 000-piece collection to the museum. The Mets Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, the collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum, many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections
National Gallery of Canada
The National Gallery of Canada, located in the capital city of Ottawa, Ontario, is one of Canadas premier art galleries. The Gallery is now housed in a glass and granite building on Sussex Drive with a view of the Canadian Parliament buildings on Parliament Hill. The building was designed by Moshe Safdie and opened in 1988, the Gallerys former director Jean Sutherland Boggs was chosen especially by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau to oversee construction of the national gallery and museums. Marc Mayer was named the director, succeeding Pierre Théberge. In 1911, the Gallery moved to the Victoria Memorial Museum, in 1913, the first National Gallery Act was passed outlining the Gallerys mandate and resources. In 1962, the Gallery moved to the Lorne Building site, adjacent to the British High Commission, the building has since been demolished for a 17 storey office building that is to house the Federal Finance Department. The museum moved into its current building on Sussex Drive in 1988, in 1985, the newly created Canadian Museum of Contemporary Photography, formerly the Stills Photography Division of the National Film Board of Canada, was affiliated to the National Gallery.
The CMCPs mandate and staff moved to its new location in 1992, at 1 Rideau Canal, in 1998, the CMCPs administration was amalgamated to that of the National Gallerys. In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada chose the National Gallery as one of the top 500 buildings produced in Canada during the last millennium, although its focus is on Canadian art, it holds works by many noted American and European artists. It has a contemporary art collection with some of Andy Warhols most famous works. In 1990 the Gallery bought Barnett Newmans Voice of Fire for $1.8 million, since that time its value has appreciated sharply. In 2005, the Gallery acquired a painting by Italian Renaissance painter Francesco Salviati for $4.5 million and its most famous painting is likely The Death of General Wolfe by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West. In 2005, a sculpture of a giant spider, Louise Bourgeoiss Maman, was installed in the plaza in front of the Gallery. The Canadian collection, the most comprehensive in Canada, holds works by Louis-Philippe Hébert, Tom Thomson, the Gallery organizes its own exhibits which travel across Canada and beyond, and hosts shows from around the world, often co-sponsored with other national art galleries and museums.
The Gallerys collection has been built up through purchase and donations, much of the collection was donated, notably the British paintings donated by former Governor General Vincent Massey and that of the Southam family. The museum features Canadian and Inuit art and European painting, sculpture and drawings, modern and contemporary art and photographs. After the convent was demolished in 1972, the chapel was dismantled and reconstructed within the gallery as a work of art in 1988. Francis Bacon, Study for Portrait No.1 Hans Baldung, the Serpent and Death Pompeo Batoni, Vulcan at his forge
The Czech Republic, known as Czechia, is a nation state in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and it is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the territories of Bohemia, Moravia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire, after the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years War.
After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, reimposed Roman Catholicism, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup détat, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence, in 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed, on 6 March 1990, the Czech Socialistic Republic was renamed to the Czech Republic. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004, it is a member of the United Nations, the OECD, the OSCE, and it is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development, the Czech Republic ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, the traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum, which means home of the Boii. The current name comes from the endonym Čech, spelled Cžech until the reform in 1842. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, the etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning member of the people, thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk. The country has traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the southeast, and Czech Silesia in the northeast.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word geographical name in English, the name Czechia /ˈtʃɛkiə/ was recommended by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Czech Americans, known in the 19th and early 20th century as Bohemian Americans, are citizens of the United States who are of Czech descent. Czechs originate from the Czech lands, a term refers to the majority of the traditional lands of the Bohemian Crown, namely Bohemia, Moravia. These lands over time have been governed by a variety of states, including the Kingdom of Bohemia, the Austrian Empire, the Czechoslovak Republic, and the Czech Republic. Germans from the Czech lands who emigrated to the United States usually identified as German American, or, more specifically, as Americans of German Bohemian descent. According to the 2000 US census, there are 1,262,527 Americans of full or partial Czech descent, augustine Herman was the first documented Czech settler. He was a surveyor and skilled draftsman, successful planter and developer of new lands, a shrewd and enterprising merchant, Lord Baltimore was so pleased with the map that he rewarded Herman with a large estate, named by Herman Bohemia Manor, and the hereditary title Lord.
There was another Bohemian living in New Amsterdam at that time, Frederick Philipse and he was a successful merchant who, became the wealthiest person in the entire Dutch Province. Philipse was originally from Bohemia, from an aristocratic Protestant family who had to leave their land to save their lives. The first significant wave of Czech colonists was of the Moravian Brethren who began arriving on the American shores in the first half of the 18th century. Moravian Brethren were the followers of the teachings of the Czech religious reformer and martyr Jan Hus, Petr Chelčický and Bishop John Amos Comenius. They were true heirs of the ancient Unitas fratrum - Unity of the Brethren bohemicorum, because of the worsening political and religious situation in Saxony, the Moravian Brethren, as they began calling themselves, decided to emigrate to North America. They started coming in 1735, when they first settled in Savannah and they established a number of Moravian settlements, such as Bethlehem and Lititz in Pennsylvania and Salem in North Carolina.
Moravians made great contributions to the growth and development of the US, cultural contributions of Moravian Brethren from the Czech lands were distinctly notable in the realm of music. The trumpets and horns used by the Moravians in Georgia are the first evidence of Moravian instrumental music in America, in 1776, at the time of the Declaration of Independence, more than two thousand Moravian Brethren lived in the colonies. President Thomas Jefferson designated special lands to the missionaries to civilize the Indians, the free uncultivated land in America encouraged immigration throughout the nineteenth century, most of the immigrants were farmers and settled in the Midwestern states. The first major immigration of Czechs occurred in 1848 when the Czech Forty Eighters fled to the United States to escape the persecution by the Austrian Habsburgs. During the American Civil War, Czechs served in both the Confederate and Union army, but as with most immigrant groups, the majority fought for the Union, immigration resumed and reached a peak in 1907, when 13,554 Czechs entered the eastern ports.
Unlike previous immigration, new immigrants were predominantly Catholic, although some of the anticlericalism among Czechs in Europe did come to the United States, on the whole Czech Americans are much more likely to be practicing Catholics than Czechs in Europe
Cranbrook Educational Community
The Cranbrook Educational Community, an education and public museum complex in the US state of Michigan. A National Historic Landmark, it was founded in early 20th century by newspaper mogul George Gough Booth, the founders built Christ Church Cranbrook as a focal point in order to serve the educational complex, though the church is a separate entity under the Episcopal Diocese of Michigan. The sprawling,319 acre campus began as a 174-acre farm, the organization takes its name from Cranbrook, the birthplace of the founders father. Cranbrook is renowned for its architecture in the Arts and Crafts, the chief architect was Eliel Saarinen with Albert Kahn responsible for the Booth mansion,1908,1919. Sculptors Carl Milles and Marshall Fredericks spent many years in residence at Cranbrook, Cranbrook Schools today comprise a co-educational day and boarding college preparatory upper school, a middle school, and Brookside Lower School. The first school to open on the Cranbrook grounds was the Bloomfield Hills School in 1922, founded by George Booth, the Bloomfield Hills School was intended as the community school for local area children.
The Bloomfield Hills School ultimately evolved into Brookside School, Booth wanted the Cranbrook School to possess an architecture reminiscent of the finest British Boarding Schools, and retained Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen to design the campus. Cranbrooks initial phase of building was completed in 1928, over the years the Cranbrook School for Boys campus grew to include house Stevens Hall, Page Hall, and Coulter Hall. While primarily functioning as only residential spaces, Page Hall featured a lounge as well as a shooting range. Lerchen Gymnasium, Keppel Gymnasium, and Thompson oval were constructed on the campus, in the 1960s, Cranbrook School for Boys constructed a state-of-the-art Science Building named the Gordon Science Center. Realizing that young women would need a place of their own to learn, Booths wife, mr. Booth decided to let his wife supervise the project herself which she named the Kingswood School Cranbrook. Unlike her husband, Ellen encouraged Saarinen to come up with an interior design for the campus completely on his own.
Instead of the buildings that housed the Cranbrook School for Boys. It housed dormitories, a hall, classrooms, bowling alley, lounge/common areas. The education at Kingswood School Cranbrook was primarily viewed initially as a finishing school although that would change over time, in 1986, the Cranbrook School for Boys and Kingswood School Cranbrook entered a joint agreement renaming the new institution the Cranbrook Kingswood Upper School. The Cranbrook Academy of Art, one of the leading graduate schools of architecture, art. By 1984, the New York Times would say that the effect of Cranbrook and its graduates, surely more than any other institution, has a right to think of itself as synonymous with contemporary American design. The buildings were designed and the school first headed by Eliel Saarinen, the graduate program is unusual because there are no courses, all learning is self-directed under the guidance and supervision of the respective artist-in-residence
South Carolina /ˌsaʊθ kærəˈlaɪnə/ is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. The state is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the south and west by Georgia across the Savannah River, South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U. S. Constitution, doing so on May 23,1788. South Carolina became the first state to vote to secede from the Union on December 20,1860, after the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on June 25,1868. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and the 23rd most populous U. S. state and its GDP as of 2013 was $183.6 billion, with an annual growth rate of 3. 13%. The capital and largest city is Columbia with a 2013 population of 133,358, South Carolina is named in honor of King Charles I of England, under whose reign the English colony was first formed, with Carolus being Latin for Charles. There is evidence of activity in the area about 12000 years ago. Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee and the Yamasee, further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba.
These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their food source. The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, about a dozen separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn and beans. Travelling inland as much as 50 miles mostly by canoe, they wintered on the plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts. The names of these survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island. The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area, in 1521, founding San Miguel de Gualdape, established with 500 settlers, it was abandoned within a year by 150 survivors. In 1562 French settlers established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island, three years the Spanish built a fort on the same site, but withdrew following hostilities with the English navy. In 1629, King Charles I of England established the Province of Carolina an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia, in the 1670s, English planters from the Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston.
Settlers built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, settlers came from all over Europe. Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720, another cash crop was the Indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas. Meanwhile, in Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by farmers and traders. Colonists overthrew the rule, seeing more direct representation
Ezekiel W. Cullen Building
It is named in honor of Ezekiel Wimberly Cullen, a former congressman of the Republic of Texas, and grandfather of building financier Hugh Roy Cullen. The building was designed by Texas architect Alfred C, Finn in the Art Deco style, and opened in 1950. It is located in the Cullen Family Plaza of the University of Houston campus in Houston, the construction of the Ezekiel W. Cullen Building was announced by the university on March 21,1945. The main donor to the project was philanthropist and university chairman Hugh Roy Cullen, the elder Cullen had served as a leader of the Republic of Texas as a congressman and as a justice of the Supreme Court of the Republic. While in the Third Congress of the republic as chairman of the committee, he sponsored the Cullen Act. The act effectively lay the basis for a state public school system. The university hired native Houston architect Alfred C, in order to give the building a classical look, Finn designed the building with long wings and regularly spaced pilasters.
The building officially opened on Halloween of 1950, the building includes Three portrait reliefs in gilded bronze of the Cullen family by sculptor Mario Korbel dedicated in 1952. Several years later, the building home to the first public television station. The station commenced broadcasting on May 25,1953, from the floor of the E. Cullen Building. KUHT moved to studios on Cullen Boulevard in 1964, in 1959, a fire broke out in the E. Cullen Building, which caused severe interior and exterior damage to the building. University of Houston building profile Cullen Performance Hall site
Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic. Bohemia was a duchy of Great Moravia, an independent principality, a kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire, and subsequently a part of the Habsburg Monarchy, after World War I and the establishment of an independent Czechoslovak state, Bohemia became a part of Czechoslovakia. Between 1938 and 1945, border regions with sizeable German-speaking minorities of all three Czech lands were joined to Nazi Germany as the Sudetenland, in 1990, the name was changed to the Czech Republic, which become a separate state in 1993 with the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Until 1948, Bohemia was a unit of Czechoslovakia as one of its lands. Bohemia was bordered in the south by Upper and Lower Austria, in the west by Bavaria and in the north by Saxony and Lusatia, in the northeast by Silesia, and in the east by Moravia. In the 2nd century BC, the Romans were competing for dominance in northern Italy, the Romans defeated the Boii at the Battle of Placentia and the Battle of Mutina.
After this, many of the Boii retreated north across the Alps, much Roman authors refer to the area they had once occupied as Boiohaemum. The earliest mention was by Tacitus Germania 28, and mentions of the name are in Strabo. The name appears to include the tribal name Boi- plus the Germanic element *haimaz home and this Boiohaemum was apparently isolated to the area where King Marobods kingdom was centred, within the Hercynian forest. The Czech name Čechy is derived from the name of the Slavic ethnic group, the Czechs, like neighbouring Bavaria, is named after the Boii, who were a large Celtic nation known to the Romans for their migrations and settlement in northern Italy and other places. Another part of the nation moved west with the Helvetii into southern France, to the south, over the Danube, the Romans extended their empire, and to the southeast in Hungaria, were Sarmatian peoples. In the area of modern Bohemia the Marcomanni and other Suebic groups were led by their king Marobodus and he took advantage of the natural defenses provided by its mountains and forests.
In late classical times and the early Middle Ages, two new Suebic groupings appeared to the west of Bohemia in southern Germany, the Alemanni, many Suebic tribes from the Bohemian region took part in such movements westwards, even settling as far away as Spain and Portugal. With them were tribes who had pushed from the east, such as the Vandals, other groups pushed southwards towards Pannonia. These are precursors of todays Czechs, though the amount of Slavic immigration is a subject of debate. The Slavic influx was divided into two or three waves, the first wave came from the southeast and east, when the Germanic Lombards left Bohemia. Soon after, from the 630s to 660s, the territory was taken by Samos tribal confederation and his death marked the end of the old Slavonic confederation, the second attempt to establish such a Slavonic union after Carantania in Carinthia. Other sources divide the population of Bohemia at this time into the Merehani, Beheimare, Christianity first appeared in the early 9th century, but only became dominant much later, in the 10th or 11th century
University of Havana
The University of Havana or UH is a university located in the Vedado district of Havana, the capital of the Republic of Cuba. Founded on January 5,1728, the university is the oldest in Cuba, originally a religious institution, today the University of Havana has 15 faculties at its Havana campus and distance learning centers throughout Cuba. It was first called Real y Pontificia Universidad de San Gerónimo de la Habana, during those times, universities needed a royal or papal authorization in order to be created and thus the names Real y Pontificia. The two men who gave that authorization to the university were Pope Innocent XIII and King Philip V of Spain, in 1842, the university changed its status to become a secular and literary institution. Its name became Real y Literaria Universidad de La Habana and later, when Cuba was a free republic, the university had first been established in San Juan de Letrán before it was transferred on May 1,1902 to a hill in the Vedado area of Havana. The interiors of the building were decorated by Armando Menocal y Menocal, the seven frescos represent Medicine, Art, Liberal Arts and Law.
At the main university there is a bronze statue of Alma Mater that was created in 1919 by artist Mario Korbel. The model for the face was lovely 16-year-old Feliciana Chana Villalón, the daughter of José Ramón Villalón y Sánchez. Chana married Juan Manuel Menocal, who went on to become the Dean of the Business School, Juan Manuel Menocal was a professor at the law school when Fidel Castro was a student there in the 1940s. Maria Rosa Menocal, former Director of the Whitney Humanities Center at Yale, was the granddaughter of Chana, the main library Rubén Martínez Villena was established in 1936. After the government was taken over by Fulgencio Batista in 1952, Batista closed the University in 1956. From January 1,1959, the date on which Fidel Castro seized power in Cuba, until January 1,1962, in 2002, Rutgers University–Camden and the University of Havana signed a Memorandum of Understanding to formalize research and exchange opportunities for students and faculty. The MOU was re-signed in October 2016 with the addition of encompassing all of Rutgers, the University of Havana is made up of 16 faculties and 14 research centers in a variety of fields, including economics, social science and humanities.
In total, up to 25 specialties are taught at the university, now, it has about 60,000 degree students in regular classes. The strongest of all these organisations was the FEU created by Julio Antonio Mella and it was a major participant in the overthrowing of Cuban President Gerardo Machado. The FEU initiated the general strike of 1933, resulting in the imprisonment of many of its members. Batista managed to escape, and many student assailants died in the action, during the months that followed, the police executed many of the students that led the failed coup. President Batista ordered the university to be closed, and it remained so until Batista fled the country, the Castro administration re-opened the university in 1959 and put an end to student demonstrations and political affiliations
University of Texas at Austin
Founded in 1881 as The University of Texas, its campus is in Austin, Texas—approximately 1 mile from the Texas State Capitol. The institution has the nations seventh-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty, UT Austin was inducted into the American Association of Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. It is a center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $550 million for the 2014–2015 school year. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory, among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Emmy Award, the Turing Award, and the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards. UT Austin student athletes compete as the Texas Longhorns and are members of the Big 12 Conference and its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The first mention of a university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas.
Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish education in the arts and sciences. On April 18,1838, An Act to Establish the University of Texas was referred to a committee of the Texas Congress. On January 26,1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land towards the establishment of a publicly funded university, in addition,40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated College Hill. In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States, the states Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11,1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B,102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the states first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the universitys endowment, Texas secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants, the more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general education in the state. The legislature additionally appropriated $256,272.57 to repay the funds taken from the university in 1860 to pay for frontier defense, the 1883 grant of land increased the land in the Permanent University Fund to almost 2.2 million acres. Under the Act of 1858, the university was entitled to just over 1,000 acres of land for every mile of railroad built in the state. On March 30,1881, the legislature set forth the structure and organization. By popular election on September 6,1881, Austin was chosen as the site, having come in second in the election was designated the location of the medical department. On November 17,1882, on the original College Hill, smite the earth, smite the rocks with the rod of knowledge and fountains of unstinted wealth will gush forth