Kidnapping of Aldo Moro
The kidnapping of Aldo Moro referred in Italy as Moro Case, was a seminal event in Italian political history. On the morning of 16 March 1978, the day on which the new cabinet led by Giulio Andreotti was supposed to have undergone a confidence vote in the Italian Parliament, the car of Aldo Moro, former prime minister and president of Christian Democracy, was assaulted by a group of Red Brigades terrorists in Via Fani in Rome. Firing automatic weapons, the terrorists killed Moro's bodyguards, kidnapped him. On 9 May 1978 Moro's body was found in the trunk of a Renault 4 in Via Caetani after 55 days of imprisonment, during which Moro was submitted to a political trial by the so-called "people's court" set up by the Brigate Rosse and the Italian government was asked for an exchange of prisoners. Despite the common interpretation, the car location in Via Caetani was not halfway between, but was close to both, the locations of the national offices of DC and of the Italian Communist Party in Rome.
The terrorists had prepared the ambush by parking two cars in Via Mario Fani which, once moved, would prevent Moro's cars from escaping. According to the official reconstruction at the subsequent trials, eleven people participated in the assault. However, several doubts have been cast on the terrorists' declarations on which the official accounts were based, about the exact identity of the ambush team's members; the presence of Moro himself in Via Fani during the ambush has been questioned after revelations in the 1990s. At 8:45 the Red Brigades members took their positions at the end of Via Fani, a downhill street in the northern quarter of Rome. An unknown number, from at least two to the whole team, were wearing Alitalia airline crew uniforms. Since not all team members knew each other, the uniforms were needed to avoid friendly fire. In the upper part of the road, on the right-hand side, Mario Moretti was inside a Fiat 128 with a fake diplomatic license plate. Alvaro Lojacono and Alessio Casimirri were in another Fiat 128 some meters ahead of him.
On the opposite side there was a third Fiat 128, with Barbara Balzerani inside, facing the supposed direction from which Moro would arrive. Bruno Seghetti occupied a Fiat 132, near the crossroads where the street ended. Moro left his house a few minutes before 9:00, he was sitting in a blue Fiat 130 driven by Domenico Ricci. Another carabiniere, marshal Oreste Leonardi, sat beside him. Leonardi was the head of the bodyguard team; the Fiat 130 was followed by a white Alfetta with the remaining bodyguards: Francesco Zizzi, Giulio Rivera and Raffaele Iozzino. The ambush began when the two cars entered Via Fani and the terrorists were alerted by a lookout, Rita Algranati. Moretti's Fiat 128 cut the road in front of Moro's car, which bumped into the rear of Moretti's car and remained blocked between it and the bodyguards' Alfetta. Leonardi was thwarted by a Mini Minor parked at the crossroad. Moro's cars were trapped from behind by Lojacono's 128. At this point four armed terrorists jumped out from the bushes at the sides of the street, firing machine pistols.
The judiciary investigations identified them as Valerio Morucci, Raffaele Fiore, Prospero Gallinari and Franco Bonisoli. The action has shown an analogy to a similar one by the German far-left formation RAF. One unidentified witness declared that a German voice was heard during the ambush, which led to a presumption of the presence of RAF militiamen in the ambush.91 bullets were fired of which 45 hit the bodyguards, who were all killed. 49 shots came from a single weapon, a FNAB-43 submachine gun, 22 from another of the same model. The remaining 20 shots came from other weapons which included a Beretta M12. Ricci and Leonardi, who were sitting in the front seat of the first car, were killed first. Moro was kidnapped and forced into the Fiat 132, next to his car. At the same time the terrorists killed the other three policemen, dispatching each of them with a single shot in the neck; the only policeman, able to shoot back was Iozzino, but he was hit in the head by Bonisoli. The blue Fiat 132 was found at 9:40 AM in Via Licinio Calvo with some blood stains inside.
The other cars used for the ambush were found in the following days in the same road. On 16 March the escort in Via Fani was not carrying weapons, which were instead kept in the trunks of the cars. Leonardi always talked about it. "These people shouldn't have weapons. They should know, they should carry them properly. Keep them within reach; the radio should be operational, but it doesn't work." For months it had been going on like this. Marshal Leonardi and lance corporal Ricci did not expect an ambush, because their weapons were placed in the bag and one of the two holsters was in a plastic liner." The last sentence was denied by the widow of Marshal Leonardi, stating that her husband "recently went around armed because he had noticed that a car was following him." The action was claimed by the BR in a phone call to ANSA. At 10:00 Pietro Ingrao, president of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, stopped the sessi
Years of Lead (Italy)
The Years of Lead is a term used for a period of social and political turmoil in Italy that lasted from the late 1960s until the late 1980s, marked by a wave of both left-wing and right-wing incidents of political terrorism. The Years of Lead are considered to have begun with the Hot Autumn strikes starting in 1969; the term's origin came as a reference to the number of shootings during the period, or a popular 1981 German film Marianne and Juliane, released in Italy as Anni di piombo, which centered on the lives of two members of the West German militant far-left group Red Army Faction which had gained notoriety during the same period. There was widespread social conflict and unprecedented acts of terrorism carried out by both right- and left-wing paramilitary groups. An attempt to endorse the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement by the Tambroni Cabinet led to rioting and was short-lived. Widespread labor unrest and the collaboration of countercultural student activist groups with working class factory workers and pro-labor radical leftist organizations such as Potere Operaio and Lotta Continua culminated in the so-called "Hot Autumn" of 1969, a massive series of strikes in factories and industrial centers in Northern Italy.
Student strikes and labor strikes led by workers, left-sympathizing laborers, or Marxist activists, became common deteriorating into clashes between the police and demonstrators composed of workers, students and left-wing militants. The Christian Democrats were instrumental in the Italian Socialist Party gaining power in the 1960s and they created a coalition; the assassination of the Christian Democrat leader Aldo Moro in 1978 ended the strategy of historic compromise between the DC and the Italian Communist Party. The assassination was carried out by the Red Brigades led by Mario Moretti. Between 1968 and 1988, 428 murders were attributed to political violence in the form of bombings and street warfare between rival militant factions. Public protests shook Italy during 1969, with the autonomist student movement being active, leading to the occupation of the Fiat automobile factory in Milan. On 19 November 1969, Antonio Annarumma, a Milanese policeman, was killed during a riot by far-left demonstrators.
He was the first civil servant to die in the wave of violence. The Monument to Victor Emmanuel II, the Banca Nazionale del Lavoro in Rome and the Banca Commerciale Italiana and the Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura in Milan were bombed in December. Local police arrested 80 or so suspects from left-wing groups, including Giuseppe Pinelli, an anarchist blamed for the bombing, Pietro Valpreda, their guilt was denied by left-wing members by members of the student movement prominent in Milan's universities, as they believed that the bombing was carried out by fascists. Following the death of Giuseppe Pinelli, who mysteriously died on 15 December while in police custody, the radical left-wing newspaper Lotta Continua started a campaign accusing police officer Luigi Calabresi of Pinelli's murder. In 1975, Calabresi and other police officials were acquitted by judge Gerardo D'Ambrosio who decided that Pinelli's fall from a window had been caused by his being taken ill and losing his balance. Meanwhile, the anarchist Valpreda and five others were jailed for the bombing.
They were released after three years of preventive detention. Two neo-fascists, Franco Freda and Giovanni Ventura, were arrested accused of being the organizers of the massacre. In the 1990s, new investigations into the Piazza Fontana bombing, citing new witnesses testimony, implicated Freda and Ventura again. However, the pair cannot be put on trial again because of double jeopardy, as they were acquitted of the crime in 1987; the Red Brigades, the most prominent far-left terrorist organization, conducted a secret internal investigation that paralleled the official inquiry. They ordered that the inquiry remain secret, because of the unfavorable light that it could shed on other terrorist organizations; the inquiry was discovered after a shootout between the Red Brigade and the Carabinieri at Robbiano di Mediglia in October 1974. The cover-up was exposed in 2000 by Giovanni Pellegrino, at the time President of the Commissione Stragi; the Red Brigades were founded in August 1970 by Renato Curcio and Margherita Cagol, who had met as students at the University of Trento and married, Alberto Franceschini.
While the Trento group around Curcio had its main roots in the Sociology Department of the Catholic University, the Reggio Emilia group included former members of the FGCI expelled from the parent party for their extremist views. Another group of militants came from the Sit-Siemens factories in Milan; the first action of the RB was burning the car of Giuseppe Leoni on 17 September 1970, in the context of the labour unrest within the factory. In December, a neo-fascist coup, dubbed the Golpe Borghese, was planned by young far-right fanatics, elderly veterans of Italian Social Republic
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
Renato Curcio is the former leader of the Italian far-left militant organization, the Red Brigades. Born of an extramarital affair between Renato Zampa and Yolanda Curcio, Curcio was born at Monterotondo, in the province of Rome, his early years were a difficult time for him and his mother, a housemaid, whose itinerant positions with families required long separations. In April 1945, Curcio's beloved uncle, Armando, a Fiat auto worker, was murdered in a Fascist ambush; the death of Uncle Armando caused Curcio to develop a hatred towards the Nazi-Fascists, with Curcio on record saying: "There come to my mind memories from long ago. Uncle Armando, who carried me piggyback on his shoulders, his clear eyes, always smiling, which looked far ahead towards a society of equal men. And I loved him like a father, and I have picked up the rifle that only death at the hands of Nazi-Fascist assassins had ripped from him."A poor student, Curcio failed several subjects in his first year of high school and had to repeat the year.
He resumed vocational training classes until moving to Milan to live with his mother. He enrolled in the Ferrini Institute in Albenga. During this period he was active in youth organization "Giovane nazione", described by some observers as nazi-maoist. On completing his degree in 1962, he won a scholarship to study at the new and innovative Institute of Sociology at the University of Trento, where he became absorbed in existential philosophy. During the mid-1960s, he gravitated toward radical politics and Marxism as a byproduct of his interest in existentialism and the self. By the late 1960s, he had become Marxist theoretician. In addition to Marxism, Curcio studied the philosophies of Lenin and Mao, further influencing his leftist ideology. In 1967, Curcio would create a "counter-university" at the University of Trento, which focused on teaching courses that were the polar opposite from what was being taught at the university, including anti-capitalism and Maoist thought. According to Alessandro Silj, three political events transformed him from a radical to an activist: two bloody demonstrations at Trento and a massacre by police of farm laborers in 1968.
During the 1967-69 period, Curcio was involved in two Marxist university groups: the Movement for a Negative University and the publication Lavoro Politico. Embittered by his expulsion from the radical Red Line faction of Lavoro Politico in August 1969, Curcio decided to drop out of Trento and forget his degree though he had passed his final examinations. Prior to transferring his bases of activities to Milan, Curcio married, in a mixed ceremony, Margherita Cagol, a Trentine sociology major, fellow radical, daughter of a pent and worker group. Curcio and Cagol began publishing a revolutionary journal in 1967, entitled "Political Work", which set up the ideological foundation for a number of groups, including the Metropolitan Political Collective. A more militant faction of the CPM, led by Curcio and Cagol, splintered off in 1967 and formed the Red Brigades, intended to participate politically while conducting clandestine military operations. However, after getting arrested in February 1971 for occupying a vacant house, the Curcios and the most militant members of the Proletarian Left went underground and organized the Red Brigades and spent the next three years, from 1972 to 1975, engaging in a series of bombings and kidnappings of prominent figures.
One of these assassination victims was the Chief Inspector of Turin's anti-terrorism task force. Curcio was arrested for his involvement with the Red Brigades in 1976, but the assassinations and kidnappings continued during his incarceration, casting a suspicion about whether or not Curcio was the actual leader of the group. In February 1975, Cagol and a small commando group from the Red Brigades broke Curcio out of a poorly secured prison without having to use any violence. In June 1975, just months after Cagol broke Curcio out of prison, a shootout occurred at a safehouse between the Red Brigades and the Caribinieri forces, resulting in Cagol being shot twice and dying; the death of his wife forced Curcio into a deep depression, one that caused sloppiness in his work.</ref>. Curcio was again captured by the authorities in January 1976, tried and imprisoned; the assassinations and kidnappings continued during his incarceration, creating a suspicion about whether or not Curcio was the actual leader of the group.
After Curcio's incarceration in 1976, the Red Brigades began changing its identity, with its members becoming younger and more militant. This increased militarization of the group led to a sharp uptick in the number of attacks and assassinations between the years of 1976 and 1978, culminating in the assassination of Italian Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1978. In 1990, while still incarcerated, Curcio started a publishing company, along with Steffano Petrella and Nicola Valentino, called Sensibili alle Foglie, or Sensitive to the Leaves. In April 1993 he was allowed to spend the day outside the jail in order to work as writer in 1998 he was freed. To date, Curcio has not expressed remorse for the activity of the Red Brigades. In August 2007, French actress Fanny Ardant expressed her "admiration" for the Red Brigades leader as a "hero", adding she "considered the Red Brigades phenomenon to be moving and passionate". For her comments the actress was sued in the Italian courts by Piero Mazzola, the son of an Italian policeman killed by the Red Brigades.
Portions of this article were taken from a report of th
Aldo Romeo Luigi Moro was an Italian statesman and a prominent member of the Christian Democracy party. He served as 38th Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968, from 1974 to 1976, he was one of Italy's longest-serving post-war Prime Ministers, holding power for a combined total of more than six years. Due to his accommodation with the Communist leader Enrico Berlinguer, known as the Historic Compromise, Moro is considered one of the most prominent fathers of the Italian centre-left and one of the greatest and most popular leaders in the history of the Italian Republic. Moro was considered an intellectual and a patient mediator in the internal life of his party, he was killed after 55 days of captivity. Aldo Moro was born in the Apulia region, into a family from Ugento, his father was a school inspector. At age of 4, he moved with his family to Milan, but they soon moved back to Apulia, where he gained a classical high school degree at Archita lyceum in Taranto; until 1939, he studied Law at the University of Bari, an institution where he was to hold the post of ordinary professor of Philosophy of Law and Colonial Policy and of Criminal Law.
In 1935, he joined the Italian Catholic Federation of University Students of Bari. In 1939, under approval of Giovanni Battista Montini whom he had befriended, Moro was chosen as president of the association. During his university years, Italy was ruled by the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, Moro took part in students competitions known as Lictors of Culture and Art organised by local fascist students' organisation, the University Fascist Groups. In 1943, along with other Catholic students, he founded the periodical La Rassegna, published until 1945. In July 1943, Moro contributed, along with Mario Ferrari Aggradi, Paolo Emilio Taviani, Guido Gonella, Giuseppe Capograssi, Ferruccio Pergolesi, Vittore Branca, Giorgio La Pira, Giuseppe Medici and Andreotti, to the creation of the Code of Camaldoli, a document planning of economic policy drawn up by members of the Italian Catholic forces; the Code served as guideline for economic policy of the future Christian Democrats. In 1945, he married Eleonora Chiavarelli, with whom he had four children: Maria Fida, Agnese and Giovanni.
In 1963 Moro was transferred to La Sapienza University of Rome, as a professor of the Institutions of Law and Criminal Procedure. Aldo Moro developed his interest in politics between 1943 and 1945, he seemed to be interested in the social-democratic component of the Italian Socialist Party, but he started cooperating with other Christian democratic politician in opposition to the fascist regime. During this years he met Mario Scelba, Giovanni Gronchi and Amintore Fanfani. On 19 March 1943 the group reunited in the house of Giuseppe Spataro formed the Christian Democracy. In the DC, he joined the left-wing faction led by Giuseppe Dossetti. In 1945 he became director of the magazine Studium and president of the Graduated Movement of the Catholic Action, a widespread Roman Catholic lay association. In 1946, he was nominated vice-president of the Christian Democracy and elected member of the Constitutional Assembly, where he took part in the work to redact the Italian Constitution. In 1948 he was elected to the Italian Chamber of Deputies and nominated vice-minister of Foreign Affairs in the De Gasperi V Cabinet, from 23 May 1948 to 27 January 1950.
After Dossetti's retirement in 1952, Moro founded, along with Antonio Segni, Emilio Colombo and Mariano Rumor, the Democratic Initiative faction, led by his old friend Fanfani. In 1953, Moro was re-elected to the Chamber of Deputies, where he held the position of chairman of the DC parliamentary group. In 1955 was appointed as Minister of Grace and Justice in the cabinet led by Antonio Segni. In the following year he resulted among the most voted during the party's congress. In May 1957 he was appointed Italian Minister of Education in the government of Adone Zoli and was confirmed by Fanfani in June 1958, he remained in office until February 1959, during his tenure he introduced the study of civic education in schools. In March 1959, after Fanfani's resignation as Prime Minister a new congress was called; the leaders of the Democratic Initiative faction reunited themselves in the convent of Dorothea of Caesarea, where they abandoned the leftist policies promoted by Fanfani and founded the Dorotei faction.
In the party's National Council, Moro was elected Secretary of DC and was confirmed in the October's congress held in Florence. After the government led by Fernando Tambroni in 1960, supported by the decisive votes of the neo-fascist Italian Social Movement, the renovated alliance between Moro as secretary and Fanfani as Prime Minister, led the subsequent National Congress, held in Naples in 1962 to approve with a large majority a line of collaboration with the Italian Socialist Party; the 1963 general election was characterized by a lack of consensus for the DC. Some rightist electors abandoned the DC for the Italian Liberal Party, asking for a centre-right government and rece
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012