Protestant Cemetery, Rome
The Cimitero Acattolico of Rome referred to as the Cimitero dei protestanti or Cimitero degli Inglesi, is a public cemetery in the rione of Testaccio in Rome. It is near Porta San Paolo and adjacent to the Pyramid of Cestius, a small-scale Egyptian-style pyramid built in 30 BC as a tomb and incorporated into the section of the Aurelian Walls that borders the cemetery, it has Mediterranean cypress and other trees, a grassy meadow. It is the final resting place of non-Catholics including but not exclusive to Protestants or British people; the earliest known burial is that of a University of Oxford student named Langton in 1738. The English poets John Keats and Percy Bysshe Shelley are buried there. Keats died in Rome of tuberculosis at the age of 25, is buried in the cemetery, his epitaph, which does not mention him by name, is by his friends Joseph Severn and Charles Armitage Brown, reads: This grave contains all, mortal, of a young English poet, who on his death bed, in the bitterness of his heart, at the malicious power of his enemies, desired these words to be engraven on his tombstone: Here lies one whose name was writ in water.
Shelley, who did not know how to swim, drowned in 1822 while sailing in his yacht off the Italian Riviera. When his body washed up upon the shore, a copy of Keats' poetry was discovered in his pocket - doubled back - as though it had been put away in a hurry, he was cremated on the beach near Viareggio by his friends, the poet Lord Byron and the English adventurer Edward John Trelawny. His ashes were sent to the British consulate in Rome, who had them interred in the Protestant Cemetery some months later. Shelley's heart survived cremation and was snatched out of the flames by Trelawny, who subsequently gave it to Shelley's widow, Mary; when Mary Shelley died, the heart was found in her desk wrapped in the manuscript of "Adonais," the elegy Shelley had written the year before upon the death of Keats, in which the poet urges the traveller, "Go thou to Rome...". Shelley and Mary's three-year-old son William was buried in the Protestant Cemetery. Shelley's heart was buried, encased in silver, in 1889, with the son who survived him, Sir Percy Florence Shelley, but his gravestone in the Protestant Cemetery is inscribed: Cor cordium, followed by a quotation from Shakespeare's The Tempest: Nothing of him that doth fade,But doth suffer a sea change,Into something rich and strange.
Arthur Aitken, British military commander Walther Amelung, German classical archaeologist Hendrik Christian Andersen, friend of Henry James R. M. Ballantyne, Scottish novelist John Bell, Scottish surgeon and anatomist Dario Bellezza, Italian poet and playwright Karl Julius Beloch, German classical and economic historian Martin Boyd, Australian novelist and autobiographer Pietro Boyesen, Danish photographer Karl Briullov, Russian painter Giorgio Bulgari, Italian businessman, grandson of Sotirios Bulgari, the founder of Bulgari Asmus Jacob Carstens, Danish-German painter Jesse Benedict Carter, American Classical scholar Enrico Coleman and orchid-lover Gregory Corso, American beat generation poet Richard Henry Dana, Jr. American author of Two Years Before the Mast Luce d'Eramo, Italian writer Frances Minto Elliot, English writer Robert K. Evans, United States Army Brigadier General Robert Finch, English antiquary and connoisseur of the arts Arnoldo Foà, Italian actor Karl Philipp Fohr, German painter Maria Pia Fusco, Italian screenwriter and journalist Carlo Emilio Gadda, Italian novelist John Gibson, Welsh sculptor, student of Canova August von Goethe, son of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
B. Piranesi Hans von Marées, German painter George Perkins Marsh, American Minister to Italy 1861–1882, author of Man and Nature Richard Mason, British author of The World of Suzy Wong Malwida von Meysenbug, German author Hugh Andrew Johnstone Munro, British classical scholar Ernest Nash, German-American scholar, archaeological photographer E. Herbert Norman, Canadian diplomat and historian D'Arcy Osborne, 12t
Italian Socialist Party
The Italian Socialist Party was a socialist and social-democratic political party in Italy. Founded in Genoa in 1892, the PSI dominated the Italian left until after World War II, when it was eclipsed in status by the Italian Communist Party; the Socialists came to special prominence in the 1980s, when their leader Bettino Craxi, who had severed the residual ties with the Soviet Union and re-branded the party as liberal-socialist, served as Prime Minister. The PSI was disbanded in 1994 as a result of the Tangentopoli scandals. Prior to World War I, future dictator Benito Mussolini was a member of the PSI; the Italian Socialist Party was founded in 1892 as the Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani by delegates of several workers' associations and parties, notably including the Italian Labour Party and the Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party. It was part of a wave of new socialist parties at the end of the 19th century and had to endure persecution by the Italian government during its early years. While in Sicily the Fasci Siciliani were spreading, the Italian Workers' Party was celebrating on September 8, 1893 its second congress in Reggio Emilia and decided to adopt the name of Italian Socialist Party.
At the start of the 20th century, the PSI chose not to oppose the governments led by five-time Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti. This conciliation with the existing governments and its improving electoral fortunes helped to establish the PSI as a mainstream Italian political party by the 1910s. Despite the party's improving electoral results, the PSI remained divided into two major branches, the Reformists and the Maximalists; the Reformists, led by Filippo Turati, were strong in the unions and the parliamentary group. The Maximalists, led by Costantino Lazzari, were affiliated with the London Bureau of socialist groups, an international association of left-wing socialist parties. In 1912, the Maximalists led by Benito Mussolini prevailed at the party convention and this led to the split of the Italian Reformist Socialist Party. In the 1919 general election, the PSI reached its highest result ever: 32.0% and 156 seats in the Chamber of Deputies. From 1912 to 1914, Mussolini headed up the Bolshevik wing of the Italian Socialist Party who purged moderate or reformist socialists.
World War I tore the party apart. The orthodox socialists were challenged by advocates of national syndicalism, who called for revolutionary war to liberate Italian-speaking territories from Austrian control and force the government by threat of violence to create a corporatist state; the national syndicalists intended to support Italian republicans in overthrowing the monarchy if such reforms were not made and if Italy did not enter the war. The dominant internationalist and pacifist wing of the party remained committed to avoiding what it called a "bourgeois war"; the PSI's refusal to support the war led to its national syndicalist faction either leaving or being purged from the party, such as Mussolini who had begun to show sympathy to the national syndicalist cause. A number of the national syndicalists expelled from the PSI joined Mussolini's Fascist Revolutionary movement in 1914 and in 1921 his newly named National Fascist Party. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the PSI aligned itself in support of the Communist Bolshevik movement in Russia and supported its call for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie.
From 1919 to the 1920s, the Socialists and the Fascists emerged as prominent rival movements in Italy's urban centres resorting to political violence in their clashes. In 1919, the Socialist Party of Turin formed the Red Army of Turin, accompanied by a proposal to organise a national confederation of Red Scouts and Cyclists; the left-wing of the party broke away in 1921 to form the Communist Party of Italy, a division from which the PSI never recovered and which had enormous consequences on Italian politics. In 1922, another split occurred when the reformist wing of the party, headed by Turati and Giacomo Matteotti, was expelled and formed the Unitary Socialist Party. In 1924, Matteotti was assassinated by Fascists and shortly afterwards a fascist dictatorship was established in Italy. In 1926, the PSI and all other political parties except the Fascist Party were banned; the party's leadership remained in exile during the Fascist years and in 1930 the PSU was re-integrated into the PSI. The party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1930 and 1940.
In the 1946 general election and the first after World War II, the PSI obtained 20.7% of the vote, narrowly ahead of the Italian Communist Party that gained 18.9%. In the 1948 general election, the US secretly convinced the British Labour Party to pressure social democrats to end all coalitions with communists, which fostered a split in PSI —Socialists led by Pietro Nenni chose to take part in the Popular Democratic Front along with the PCI, while social democrat Giuseppe Saragat launched the Italian Workers' Socialist Party; the PSI was weakened by the split and was far less organized than the PCI, therefore Communist candidates were far more competitive. As a result, the Socialist parliamentary delegation was cut by a half. Nonetheless, the PSI continued its alliance with the PCI until 1956, when Soviet repression in Hungary caused a major split between the two parties. Starting from 1963, the Socialists participated in the centre-left governments in alliance with Christian Democracy, the Italian Democratic Socialist Party and the Italian Republican Party.
These governments acceded to many of the demands of the PSI for social reform and laid the foundations for Italy's modern welfare state. During the 1960s and 1970s, the PSI lost much of its influence despite participati
The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
University of Milan
The University of Milan, known colloquially as UniMi or Statale, is a higher education institution in Milan, Italy. It is one of the largest universities in Europe, with about 60,000 students, a permanent teaching and research staff of about 2,000; the University of Milan has 9 schools and offers 134 undergraduate and graduate courses, 21 Doctoral Schools and 92 Specialization Schools. The University's research and teaching activities have developed over the years and have received important international recognitions; the University is the only Italian member of the League of European Research Universities, a group of twenty-one research-intensive European Universities. It ranks one of the best universities of Italy, both overall and in specific subject areas. One Nobel Prize in Physics, Riccardo Giacconi, as well as one Fields medalist, Enrico Bombieri, studied at the University; the University of Milan is the only Italian member of the League of European Research Universities, a group of twenty-one research-intensive European Universities, which it helped found.
The university ranks as Italy's best university in a number of areas. In the most recent ranking of Italian universities released by ANVUR in February 2017, Statale ranked first among Italian universities in the areas of political science, sociology and philosophy, it ranked among the top three in economics and statistics, earth science and antiquities. The university is ranked third in Italy by Center for World University Rankings and fourth in the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, it is ranked first in Italy by the Academic Ranking of World Universities while the Times Higher Education World University Rankings ranks it 6th to 9th. The University of Milan was founded in 1924 from the merger of two institutions that boasted a great tradition of medical and humanistic studies: the Accademia Scientifico-Letteraria, active since 1861, the Istituti Clinici di Perfezionamento, established in 1906. By 1928, the University had the fourth-highest number of enrolled students in Italy, after Naples and Padua.
Its premises are located in Città Studi, the university district built from 1915 onwards, where scientific schools have its headquarters, in several buildings in the historic city centre, which house the humanities schools. At the time of its foundation, there were four "traditional" schools – Law, Humanities and Mathematical, Physical and Natural Sciences. At the end of the Second World War, the old Ospedale dei Poveri building, known as "la Cà Granda", was assigned to the University; the building, one of the first Italian examples of civil architecture – commissioned in the 15th century by the Sforza family, the dukes of Milan – was damaged by the bombings of 1943. In 1958, after a complex series of reconstruction and renovation works, it became home to the University Rector's Office, the administrative offices and the schools of Law and Humanities. In the 1960s, due to the extension of compulsory school attendance and the subsequent liberalisation of access to higher education, the number of people entering Italian universities progressively increased and the University of Milan enrolled more than 60,000 students.
The University added at the same time increased its number of centres. Two new schools were established and Social and Political Sciences, which were based in Città Studi and in Via Conservatorio, in Milan city centre. Città Studi was the site of a new complex, intended for the biology departments, the work of architect Vico Magistretti. There was an increase in the number of agreements with the city's hospital facilities, where students from the School of Medicine receive their clinical training. In 1968, the University was occupying 127,000 m2. In 1989 there were 22 degree courses and 75,000 enrolled students, which increased to 90,000 by 1993. In view of this increase, the University began a process of streamlining and delocalising its facilities: from 1986 onwards, new centres began to appear in other areas of Milan in the Bicocca district, as well as in other parts of the region: in Como, Varese and Lodi. In 1998, the University split in two and the city's second public institution was founded: The University of Milan-Bicocca.
The University of Insubria was established in Varese, bringing together courses that were offered at Varese and Como by the Universities of Milan and Pavia. At the conclusion of this process, notwithstanding the reduction in the number of students, the University of Milan was still the largest institution in Lombardy and still one of the largest in the country; the 2001 law that transformed the education system opened a new phase of change. The University updated its range of courses, trying to adapt them to better suit the evolution of the social demand for education and the innovation of the production system: thus, the number of degree courses rose to 74 and there was a new increase in enrolments. There was an increase in the University's commitment to providing student services and in invest
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website