Cape Girardeau, Missouri
Cape Girardeau is a city in Cape Girardeau county in the U. S. state of Missouri. It is located 115 miles southeast of St. Louis and 175 miles north of Memphis; as of the 2017 United States Census Bureau estimates, the city's population was 39,151, making it the 17th-largest city in Missouri, the largest city in Southeast Missouri. An emerging college town, it is the home of Southeast Missouri State University; the city is named after Jean Baptiste de Girardot, who established a temporary trading post in the area around 1733. He was a French soldier stationed at Kaskaskia between 1704–1720 in the French colony of La Louisiane; the "Cape" in the city name referred to a rock promontory overlooking the Mississippi River. As early as 1765, a bend in the Mississippi River, about 60 miles south of the French village of Ste. Genevieve, had been referred to as Cape Girardot or Girardeau; the settlement of Girardeau is said to date from 1793 when the Spanish government, which had acquired Louisiana in 1764 following the French defeat in the Seven Years' War, granted Louis Lorimier, a French-Canadian, the right to establish a trading post.
This gave him a large tract of land surrounding his post. Lorimier was made commandant of the district and prospered from the returns on his land sales and trade with indigenous peoples, such as the Ozark Bluff Dwellers and the Mississippian people. In 1793, Baron Carondelet granted land near Cape Girardeau to the Black Bob Band of the Hathawekela Shawnee, who had migrated from across the Mississippi River; the Band became known as the Cape Girardeau Shawnee. They resisted removal to Indian Territory with the rest of the Shawnee tribe until 1833. In 1799, American settlers founded the first English school west of the Mississippi River in Cape Girardeau at a landmark called Mount Tabor, named by the settlers for the Biblical Mount Tabor; the town of Cape Girardeau was incorporated in 1808, prior to Missouri statehood. It was reincorporated as a city in 1843; the advent of the steamboat in 1835 and related river trade stimulated the development of Cape Girardeau as the biggest port on the Mississippi River between St. Louis and Memphis, Tennessee.
During the Civil War, the city was the site of the Battle of Cape Girardeau on April 26, 1863. The Union and Confederate armies engaged in a minor four-hour skirmish, each sustaining casualties believed to be in the low double-digits. For years travelers had to use ferries to cross the Mississippi River from Cape Girardeau. In September 1928 a bridge was completed between Illinois. Built to accommodate cars, it was 20 feet wide under standards of the time; the Old Federal Courthouse, located at Broadway and Fountain Streets and built in the late 1940s, was the subject of a U. S. Supreme Court case. In United States v. Carmack, 329 U. S. 230, the Court upheld the federal government's authority under the Condemnation Act of 1888 to seize land owned by a state or locality. In December 2003, the "Old Bridge" was succeeded by a new four-lane cable-stay bridge crossing the Mississippi River at Cape Girardeau, its official name is "The Bill Emerson Memorial Bridge.", honoring former U. S. Rep. Bill Emerson The two towers of the bridge reach a height of 91 meters.
The "Old Bridge" was demolished. The City of Cape Girardeau was recognized in January 2008 by First Lady Laura Bush as a Preserve America Community for its work in surveying and protecting historic buildings; the city is known to some as "The City of Roses" because of a 9-mile stretch of highway, once lined with dozens of rose bushes. Although there used to be many prominent rose gardens around the community, few of these gardens have been maintained; the city is known as "Cape Girardeau: Where the River Turns a Thousand Tales," due to the history of the town and the Mississippi River. Numerous murals commemorate the city's history; the largest is the Mississippi River Tales Mural, located on the city's downtown floodwall. Covering nearly 18,000 square feet, it spans the length of the downtown shopping district and features 24 panels. Behind the floodwall lies the Riverfront Park of Cape Girardeau Missouri, where riverboats dock and visitors can view the Mississippi River. There are 39 historic sites in Cape Girardeau that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
Of these, eight are historic districts, such as Cape Girardeau Commercial Historic District, listed in 2000 and includes multiple contributing properties. The growth of the town can be documented through Sanborn Maps, over 80 of which are available online. Other landmarks include the Confederate War Memorial. Among the city's older cemeteries are Apple Creek Cemetery, Salem Cemetery, and Old Lorimier Cemetery Cape Girardeau is located at 37°18′33″N 89°32′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 28.49 square miles, of which, 28.43 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. The "cape" that the city is named after no longer exists. A rock which remains from the existing cape can be seen on a promontory which overlooks the Mississippi River in Cape Rock Park. Cape Girardeau has a humid subtropical climate with four distinct seasons and is located in USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 6b. Winter brings a mix of rain and snow, with occasional heavy snowfall and icing.
The city has a January daily average of 33.1 °F and averages 14 days annually
Severe thunderstorm warning
A severe thunderstorm warning is issued by the National Weather Service when trained storm spotters or Doppler weather radar indicate that a thunderstorm is producing or will soon produce dangerously large hail or high winds, capable of causing significant damage. In the United States, severe thunderstorm warnings do not account for lightning, a significant hazard in any thunderstorm, or flooding caused by a thunderstorm's extreme rainfall. A similar warning is issued by Environment Canada's Meteorological Service of Canada from their offices in Vancouver, Toronto and Dartmouth. Skywarn issues the severe thunderstorm warnings for the United Kingdom. Just as in the United States, lightning does not warrant a severe thunderstorm warning. In Australia, severe thunderstorm warnings are issued by the Bureau of Meteorology for all Australian states. In the United States, the National Weather Service defines a severe thunderstorm as having large hail of at least 1 inch, surface wind speeds of 58 miles per hour or greater, and/or a tornado.
Prior to January 2010, the hail size for which a thunderstorm would be considered severe was 0.75 inches. In Canada, a severe thunderstorm is defined as having wind gusts of greater than 90 kilometres per hour, hail with a diameter of greater than 20 millimetres, rainfall of greater than 50 millimetres in an hour or greater than 75 millimetres in three hours, or tornadoes. In Australia, the Bureau of Meteorology issues severe thunderstorm warnings advising of damaging winds, heavy rainfall, large hail, flash flooding. Severe thunderstorm warnings are given as either a broad-based warning, covering expected impact in a weather reporting area, or as a detailed warning, when a thunderstorm is within weather-watch radar range and includes a map depicting any existing thunderstorms and the forecast direction of movement for up to 60 minutes. Similar official warnings are issued for tropical cyclones, severe weather including heatwaves and bushfires. A severe thunderstorm warning indicates. Severe thunderstorms can and do produce tornadoes without warning.
While not all severe thunderstorms produce tornadoes, they can produce serious straight line wind damage as severe as a tornado, which can cover a much wider area than a tornado does. If a tornado is detected on radar or is sighted visually, a tornado warning will be issued either in replacement of or concurrently to the existing severe thunderstorm warning, but not always, a severe thunderstorm watch or tornado watch will precede a warning. If a tornado warning is issued, based on Doppler weather radar, it means strong rotation has been detected within a thunderstorm. If a thunderstorm is producing only weak rotation, it will only yield hazardous weather warranting a severe thunderstorm warning. However, the public will be advised this type of rotation has been detected and that the storm in question should be watched in the near future for further intensification. In the United States, local NWS forecast offices those in the Great Plains or Southeastern U. S. sometimes include the wording "Severe thunderstorms can produce tornadoes with no advance warning..." or a similar reference in their severe thunderstorm warnings when there is a tornado threat or when a tornado watch is in effect.
Some storms in the Great Plains, may produce massive hailstones the size of baseballs or larger which may fall fast enough to kill a person by repeated blunt trauma. Weather Forecast Offices of the National Weather Service outline warnings for tornadoes and severe thunderstorms in polygonal shapes for their map-based weather hazard products, based on the projected path of a storm at the time of the warning's issuance as estimated by Doppler radar. Warnings were issued on a per-county basis before October 2007, they are now delineated on maps in polygon shapes and in text by a sections of counties, although entire counties are sometimes included if the total area of the division is small. Storm Prediction Center and other NWS products, as well as severe weather alert displays used by some U. S. television stations, highlight severe thunderstorm warnings with a yellow or orange polygon or filled county/parish outlines. Depending on the severity of the storm, some NWS offices may request activation of the Emergency Alert System at their discretion.
Examples of Severe Thunderstorm Warnings issued by the National Weather Service in the United States: WUUS54 KJAN 092210 SVRJAN MSC079-089-121-123-092315- /O. NEW. KJAN. SV. W.0216.140609T2210Z-140609T2315Z/ BULLETIN - EAS ACTIVATION REQUESTED SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNING NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE JACKSON MS 510 PM CDT MON JUN 9 2014 THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN JACKSON HAS ISSUED A * SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WARNING FOR... LEAKE COUNTY IN CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI... EAST CENTRAL MADISON COUNTY IN CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI... NORTHEASTERN RANKIN COUNTY IN CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI... NORTHWESTERN SCOTT COUNTY IN CENTRAL MISSISSIPPI... * UNTIL 615 PM CDT * AT 510 PM CDT... A SEVERE THUNDERSTORM WAS LOCATED NEAR PISGAH... AND MOVING NORTHEAST AT 35 MPH. HAZARD...60 MPH WIND GUSTS AND QUARTER SIZE HAIL. SOURCE... RADAR INDICATED. IMPACT... HAIL DAMAGE TO VEHICLES IS EXPECTED. EXPECT WIND DAMAGE TO ROOFS... SIDING AND TREES. * THE SEVERE
Carbondale is a city in Jackson County, United States, within the Southern Illinois region informally known as "Little Egypt." The city developed from 1853 because of the stimulation of railroad construction into the area. Today the major roadways of Illinois Route 13 and U. S. Route 51 intersect in the city; the city is 96 miles southeast of St. Louis, Missouri, on the northern edge of the Shawnee National Forest. Carbondale is the home of the main campus of Southern Illinois University; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 25,902, it is the state's 20th-most-populated city outside the Chicago Metropolitan Area. In addition, the city is the most populous in Southern Illinois outside the St. Louis Metro-East region, the most populous city in the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area; the CSA has the sixth-most-populous combined statistical area in Illinois. In August 1853, Daniel Harmon Brush, John Asgill Conner, Dr. William Richart bought a 360-acre parcel of land between two proposed railroad station sites and two county seats.
Brush named Carbondale for the large deposit of coal in the area. The first train through Carbondale arrived on Independence Day 1854, traveling north on the main line from Cairo, Illinois. By the time of the American Civil War, Carbondale had developed as a regional center for transportation and business, surrounded by agricultural development; this part of Illinois was known as "Little Egypt" because of the confluence of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, where the town of Cairo is located. The city has had a college since 1856 beginning with the Presbyterian founded Carbondale College, converted to an elementary school. Carbondale won the bid for the new state teacher training school for the region, Southern Illinois Normal University opened in 1874; this gave the town new industry, new citizens, a supplement to public schools. In 1947, the name was changed to Southern Illinois University, it has become the flagship of the Southern Illinois University system. This institution, now recognized as a national research university, has nearly 18,000 students enrolled and offers a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate specialties.
On April 29, 1866, one of the first formal Memorial Day observations following the Civil War was held at the city's Woodlawn Cemetery. Local resident, General John A. Logan, gave the principal address. Logan, as co-founder of the Civil War veteran's group the "Grand Army of the Republic, issued General Order #11 on March 3, 1868, calling for a national day of remembrance for Civil War dead; this order served as the basis for the creation of a formal Memorial Day. Logan called observance day "Decoration Day" and proposed it for May 30, to assure flowers would be in bloom nationwide. In the early 20th century, Carbondale was known as the "Athens of Egypt," due to the expansion of the college and university, the region's moniker of "Little Egypt." The phrase dates to at least 1903. By 1922, the Carbondale Free Press was using the phrase on its flag; the area was in totality during the solar eclipse of August 21, 2017, with Giant City State Park, just south of the city, experiencing the longest period of totality during the eclipse, earning it the nickname, "Eclipse Crossroads of America:.
It will be within the path of totality of the solar eclipse of April 8, 2024, making it one of only a handful of cities within the direct paths of both eclipses. Carbondale is located at 37°44′N 89°13′W, it is at 415 feet above sea level. Carbondale has been in totality path of one previous solar eclipse on August 21, 2017 and hosted the longest duration of totality with 2 minutes 41.6 seconds just to its south in Makanda Township, additionally will be in the path of another April 8, 2024. According to the 2010 census, Carbondale has a total area of 17.519 square miles, of which 17.09 square miles is land and 0.429 square miles is water. Carbondale lies with four distinct seasons; the monthly daily average temperature ranges from 32.4 °F in January to 78.1 °F in July. On average, there are 40 days of 90 °F + highs, 16 days where the high fails to rise above freezing, 2.3 nights of sub-0 °F per year. It has an average annual precipitation including an average 11 inches of snow. Extremes in temperature range from −25 °F on January 11, 1977 up to 113 °F on August 9, 1930.
Carbondale receives thunderstorms on an average of 50 days per year. In the spring, these storms can be severe, with high winds, damaging hail, tornadoes; as of the census of 2000, there were 25,597 people, 10,018 households, 3,493 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,152.0 people per square mile. There were 11,005 housing units at an average density of 925.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.08% White, 23.14% Black or African American, 0.22% Native American, 6.67% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.42% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.05% of the population. There were 9,981 households out of which 17.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 22.1% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.5% were non-families. 43.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or o
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States. With over six million residents, it is the 18th-most populous state of the Union; the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia; the state is the 21st-most extensive in area. In the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation; the Missouri River, after which the state is named, flows through the center of the state into the Mississippi River, which makes up Missouri's eastern border. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years; the Mississippian culture built mounds, before declining in the 14th century. When European explorers arrived in the 17th century they encountered the Osage and Missouria nations; the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764. After a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory.
Missouri was admitted as a slave state as part of the Missouri Compromise. Many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland. Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch; the Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, California Trail all began in Missouri. As a border state, Missouri's role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business. Today, the state is divided into the independent city of St. Louis. Missouri's culture blends elements from Southern United States; the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, St. Louis Blues developed in Missouri; the well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, lesser-known St. Louis-style barbecue, can be found across the state and beyond. Missouri is a major center of beer brewing.
Missouri wine is produced in Ozarks. Missouri's alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the state's major cities, popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, Table Rock Lake, Branson. Well-known Missourians include U. S. President Harry S. Truman, Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, Nelly; some of the largest companies based in the state include Cerner, Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, H&R Block, Wells Fargo Advisors, O'Reilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the "Mother of the West" and the "Cave State"; the state is named for the Missouri River, named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe. It is said that they were called the ouemessourita, meaning "those who have dugout canoes", by the Miami-Illinois language speakers; this appears to be folk etymology—the Illinois spoke an Algonquian language and the closest approximation that can be made in that of their close neighbors, the Ojibwe, is "You Ought to Go Downriver & Visit Those People."
This would be an odd occurrence, as the French who first explored and attempted to settle the Mississippi River got their translations during that time accurate giving things French names that were exact translations of the native tongue. Assuming Missouri were deriving from the Siouan language, it would translate as "It connects to the side of it," in reference to the river itself; this is not likely either, as this would be coming out as "Maya Sunni" Most though, the name Missouri comes from Chiwere, a Siouan language spoken by people who resided in the modern day states of Wisconsin, South Dakota, Missouri & Nebraska. The name "Missouri" has several different pronunciations among its present-day natives, the two most common being and. Further pronunciations exist in Missouri or elsewhere in the United States, involving the realization of the first syllable as either or. Any combination of these phonetic realizations may be observed coming from speakers of American English; the linguistic history was treated definitively by Donald M. Lance, who acknowledged that the question is sociologically complex, but that no pronunciation could be declared "correct", nor could any be defined as native or outsider, rural or urban, southern or northern, educated or otherwise.
Politicians employ multiple pronunciations during a single speech, to appeal to a greater number of listeners. Informal respellings of the state's name, such as "Missour-ee" or "Missour-uh", are used informally to phonetically distinguish pronunciations. There is no official state nickname. However, Missouri's unofficial nickname is the "Show Me State"; this phrase has several origins. One is popularly ascribed to a speech by Congressman Willard Vandiver in 1899, who declared that "I come from a state that raises corn and cotton and Democrats, frothy eloquence neither convinces nor satisfies me. I'm from Missouri, you have got to show me." This is in keeping with the saying "I'm from Missouri" which means "I'm skeptical of the matter and not convinced." However, according to researchers, the phrase "show me" was in use
Marion is a city in and the county seat of Williamson County, United States. The population was 17,193 at the 2010 census, it is part of a dispersed urban area. Today Marion serves as the largest retail trade center in Southern Illinois with its central location along Interstate 57 and Illinois Route 13, it is home to the Southern Illinois Miners baseball team. The city is part of the Marion-Herrin Micropolitan Area and is a part of the Carbondale-Marion-Herrin, Illinois Combined Statistical Area with 123,272 residents, the sixth most populous Combined statistical area in Illinois. Following the creation of Williamson County out of the south half of Franklin County by the Illinois General Assembly, three commissioners appointed by the lawmakers met at Bainbridge, Illinois, on August 19, 1839, for the purpose of locating a new county seat as close to the center of the county as possible; the next day, August 20, they laid out a town of 20 acres with a public square about one-quarter of a mile east of the county's center, but a point on top of a slight hill of 448 feet above sea level.
The site sat in a small open grassland known as Poor Prairie. For a name, they chose Marion to honor American Revolutionary War hero General Francis "Swamp Fox" Marion. William and Bethany Benson had entered the quarter-quarter section of land that contained the future site of Marion just the previous year on September 8, 1838, he had lived in the county at least since 1817, was the first settler to enter land in Poor Prairie. At the time the commissioners platted Marion, he had a small crop of corn and wheat growing over what became the public square; the Williamson County Court organized in Marion on October 1839, at the Benson log cabin. Overflow crowds had to use pumpkins for stools; the federal government established a post office at Marion on January 30, 1840, the legislature incorporated the community as a city on February 24, 1841. On May 29, 1982, one of the larger tornadoes in Illinois history, an F-4, hit the city of Marion and Williamson County. Ten people died and 200 people were injured after this tornado ripped across a 17-mile stretch.
The Shawnee Village apartment complex was destroyed, the Marion Ford-Mercury dealership sustained heavy damage. This tornado caused between $85 million and $100 million in damages. A memorial to the ten people who perished that day was erected on the Tower Square. Marion is in central Williamson County, with a narrow strip of city limits extending south beyond Creal Springs to the valley of Sugar Creek in Johnson County. Marion is 44 miles south of Mount Vernon, 57 miles north of Paducah, Kentucky. Carbondale is 17 miles to the west, Harrisburg is 22 miles to the east. According to the 2010 census, Marion has a total area of 16.217 square miles, of which 15.99 square miles is land and 0.227 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 16,035 people, 6,902 households, 4,341 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,250.2 people per square mile. There are 7,555 housing units at an average density of 589.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.89% White, 4.34% African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.83% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.44% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.60% of the population. There were 6,902 households out of which 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.0% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.1% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.86. In the city the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 20.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,364, the median income for a family was $39,275. Males had a median income of $31,520 versus $22,609 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,073. About 11.2% of families and 14.9% of the population were living below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under the age of 18 and 10.6% of those 65 and older.
The recent Great Recession impacted Marion in lower sales tax revenues for the city as well as the loss of a Circuit City distribution center, a proposed second distribution center for another major big box retailer that had never formally been named. Retail sales suffered as the recession dragged out. Collected sales tax grew 2.9 percent in 2008 compared with the year before, but growth slowed in 2009 with only a 0.7 percent increase. By 2010 the forward momentum ceased and sales tax collections dropped 1/10th of a percent. So far in 2011, January collections grew by 3/10ths of a percent and February improved by 2.4 percent. New building permits show evidence for an economic recovery. So far in 2011 builders have started four new homes, three triplex apartments, a $500,000 expansion at Timberline Fisheries, $600,000 for the new Speakeasy Liquors, a $560,000 new office and mechanical building for Clearwave Communications and the $4.7 million Holiday Inn Express. In addition, a new 4-story, 65-unit Comfort Inn broke ground in September.
Marion's location, at the crossroads of Illinois Route 13 and Interstate 57 make it a p
A cold front is the leading edge of a cooler mass of air, replacing at ground level a warmer mass of air, which lies within a sharp surface trough of low pressure. It forms in the wake of an extratropical cyclone, at the leading edge of its cold air advection pattern, known as the cyclone's dry conveyor belt circulation. Temperature differences across the boundary can exceed 30 °C from one side to the other; when enough moisture is present, rain can occur along the boundary. If there is significant instability along the boundary, a narrow line of thunderstorms can form along the frontal zone. If instability is less, a broad shield of rain can move in behind the front, which increases the temperature difference across the boundary. Cold fronts are stronger in weakest during the summer; the cooler and denser air wedges under the less-dense warmer air. This upward motion causes lowered pressure along the cold front and can cause the formation of a narrow line of showers and thunderstorms when enough moisture is present.
On weather maps, the surface position of the cold front is marked with the symbol of a blue line of triangles/spikes pointing in the direction of travel. A cold front's location is at the leading edge of the temperature drop off, which in an isotherm analysis would show up as the leading edge of the isotherm gradient, it lies within a sharp surface trough. Cold fronts can produce sharper changes in weather. Since cold air is denser than warm air, it replaces the warm air preceding the boundary. In the northern hemisphere, a cold front causes a shift of wind from southwest to northwest clockwise known as veering, in the southern hemisphere a shift from northwest to southwest. Cold fronts can be marked by these characteristics: *provided there is sufficient moisture. If the cold front is unstable, cumulonimbus clouds producing thunderstorms form along the front. Anvil cirrus clouds may spread a considerable distance downwind from the thunderstorms; the other cloud types associated with a cold front depend on atmospheric conditions such as air mass stability and wind shear.
As the front approaches, middle-étage gives way to altostratus and low-level stratocumulus with intermittent light precipitation if the warm airmass being displaced by the cold front is stable. With significant airmass instability, vertically developed cumulus or cumulonimbus with showers and thunderstorms will form along the front. After the passage of the cold front, the sky clears as high pressure builds in behind the system, although significant amounts of cumulus or stratocumulus in the form of long bands called cloud streets may persist if the air mass behind the front remains humid. Small and unchanging amounts of cumulus or cirrus clouds in an otherwise clear sky are indications of continuing fair weather as long as the barometric pressure remains comparatively high. A cold front brings a narrow band of precipitation that follows along the leading edge of the cold front; these bands of precipitation are very strong, can bring severe thunderstorms, snow squalls, and/or tornadoes. In the spring, these cold fronts can be strong, can bring strong winds when the pressure gradient is higher than normal.
During the winter months, cold fronts sometimes come through an area with little or no precipitation. Wider rain bands can occur behind cold fronts which tend to have more stratiform, less convective, precipitation; these rainstorms sometimes bring flooding, can move slowly when the storm steering it is strong and embedded within a meridional flow pattern. In the winter, cold fronts can bring cold spells, snow. In the spring or summer in temperate latitudes, hail may fall along with the rain. If moisture is not sufficient, such as when a system has moved across a mountain barrier, cold fronts can pass without cloudiness. Frontogenesis is the process of steepening the temperature gradient of a front. During this process the atmosphere reacts in an attempt to restore balance, the consequence is a circular motion along the front where air is being lifted up, along the cold front and dropping downward, behind the frontal boundary; this is the actual force of upward motion along a front, responsible for clouds and precipitation.
As the temperature gradient steepens during frontogenesis, the thermal wind becomes imbalanced. To maintain balance, the geostrophic wind aloft and below adjust, such that regions of divergence/convergence form. Mass continuity would require a vertical transport of air along the cold front where there is divergence. Although this circulation is described by a series of processes, they are occurring at the same time, observable along the front as a thermally direct circulation. There are several factors that influence the final shape and tilt of the circulation around the front determining the kind and location of clouds and precipitation. Cold fronts are the leading edge of cooler air masses, hence the name "cold front", they have stronger temperature changes during the middle of winter. Temperature changes associated with cold fronts can be as much as 50 °F; when cold fronts come through, there is a quick, yet strong gust of wind, that shows that the cold front is passing. In surface weather observations, a remark known as FROPA is coded.
The effects from a cold front can last from hours to days. The air behind the front is cooler than the air
Surface weather analysis
Surface weather analysis is a special type of weather map that provides a view of weather elements over a geographical area at a specified time based on information from ground-based weather stations. Weather maps are created by plotting or tracing the values of relevant quantities such as sea level pressure and cloud cover onto a geographical map to help find synoptic scale features such as weather fronts; the first weather maps in the 19th century were drawn well after the fact to help devise a theory on storm systems. After the advent of the telegraph, simultaneous surface weather observations became possible for the first time, beginning in the late 1840s, the Smithsonian Institution became the first organization to draw real-time surface analyses. Use of surface analyses began first in the United States. Use of the Norwegian cyclone model for frontal analysis began in the late 1910s across Europe, with its use spreading to the United States during World War II. Surface weather analyses have special symbols that show frontal systems, cloud cover, precipitation, or other important information.
For example, an H may represent high pressure, implying clear skies and warm weather. An L, on the other hand, may represent low pressure, which accompanies precipitation. Various symbols are used not just for frontal zones and other surface boundaries on weather maps, but to depict the present weather at various locations on the weather map. Areas of precipitation help determine the frontal location; the use of weather charts in a modern sense began in the middle portion of the 19th century in order to devise a theory on storm systems. The development of a telegraph network by 1845 made it possible to gather weather information from multiple distant locations enough to preserve its value for real-time applications; the Smithsonian Institution developed its network of observers over much of the central and eastern United States between the 1840s and 1860s. The U. S. Army Signal Corps inherited this network between 1870 and 1874 by an act of Congress, expanded it to the west coast soon afterwards.
The weather data was at first less useful as a result of the different times at which weather observations were made. The first attempts at time standardization took hold in Great Britain by 1855; the entire United States did not come under the influence of time zones until 1905, when Detroit established standard time. Other countries followed the lead of the United States in taking simultaneous weather observations, starting in 1873. Other countries began preparing surface analyses; the use of frontal zones on weather maps did not appear until the introduction of the Norwegian cyclone model in the late 1910s, despite Loomis' earlier attempt at a similar notion in 1841. Since the leading edge of air mass changes bore resemblance to the military fronts of World War I, the term "front" came into use to represent these lines. Despite the introduction of the Norwegian cyclone model just after World War I, the United States did not formally analyze fronts on surface analyses until late 1942, when the WBAN Analysis Center opened in downtown Washington, D.
C.. The effort to automate map plotting began in the United States in 1969, with the process complete in the 1970s. Hong Kong completed their process of automated surface plotting by 1987. By 1999, computer systems and software had become sophisticated enough to allow for the ability to underlay on the same workstation satellite imagery, radar imagery, model-derived fields such as atmospheric thickness and frontogenesis in combination with surface observations to make for the best possible surface analysis. In the United States, this development was achieved when Intergraph workstations were replaced by n-AWIPS workstations. By 2001, the various surface analyses done within the National Weather Service were combined into the Unified Surface Analysis, issued every six hours and combines the analyses of four different centers. Recent advances in both the fields of meteorology and geographic information systems have made it possible to devise finely tailored weather maps. Weather information can be matched to relevant geographical detail.
For instance, icing conditions can be mapped onto the road network. This will continue to lead to changes in the way surface analyses are created and displayed over the next several years; the pressureNET project is an ongoing attempt to gather surface pressure data using smartphones. When analyzing a weather map, a station model is plotted at each point of observation. Within the station model, the temperature, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, pressure tendency, ongoing weather are plotted; the circle in the middle represents cloud cover. Outside the United States and dewpoint are plotted in degrees Celsius; the wind barb points in the direction. Each full flag on the wind barb represents 10 knots of wind, each half flag represents 5 knots; when winds reach 50 knots, a filled in triangle is used for each 50 knots of wind. In the United States, rainfall plotted; the international standard rainfall measurement unit is the millimeter. Once a map has a field of station models plotted, the analyzing isobars, isallobars and isotachs are drawn.
The abstract weather symbols were devised to take up the least room possible on weather maps. A synoptic scale feature is one whose dimensions are large in scale, more than several hu