Jefferson County, Illinois
Jefferson County is a county located in the southern part of the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 38,827; the county seat is Mount Vernon. Jefferson County comprises IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is located in the southern portion known locally as "Little Egypt". The western border of the county adjoins the Greater St. Louis consolidated metropolitan statistical area, the Metro-East region, the St. Louis commuter region and market and viewing area; the first settler in Jefferson County is believed to have been Andrew Moore. In 1810, he settled near the southeast corner of the county, near where the Goshen Road emerges from the forest of Hamilton County into what is now known as Moore's Prairie. Moore arrived near Edwardsville, his migration was therefore retrograde, from the west toward the interior of the State. In 1814, Andrew Moore departed with his eight-year-old son for Jordan's settlement, a journey from which he never returned. A skull, believed to have been Moore's was found several years about two miles from his cabin.
Jordan's Settlement called Jordan's Fort, was southeast of modern Thompsonville, about twenty miles south of Moore's cabin. This episode occurred during the War of 1812 when many of the Indian tribes were allied with the British. In 1816, Carter Wilkey, Daniel Crenshaw and Robert Cook settled in Moore's Prairie. Daniel Crenshaw moved into Moore's cabin; this settlement is believed to be the first permanent settlement in the County. Jefferson County was organized in 1819, out of parts of White and Franklin Counties, it was named in honor of Thomas Jefferson, principal draftsman of the Northwest Ordinance, among other things. The baseline along the northern border of the County crosses the Third Principal Meridian at the northwest corner of the County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 584 square miles, of which 571 square miles is land and 13 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Mount Vernon have ranged from a low of 19 °F in January to a high of 88 °F in July, although a record low of −21 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1936.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.45 inches in January to 4.58 inches in May. Interstate 57 Interstate 64 U. S. Highway 51 Illinois Route 15 Illinois Route 37 Illinois Route 142 Illinois Route 148 Marion County - north Wayne County - northeast Hamilton County - southeast Franklin County - south Perry County - southwest Washington County - west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 38,827 people, 15,365 households, 10,140 families residing in the county; the population density was 68.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 16,954 housing units at an average density of 29.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 88.4% white, 8.4% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 24.3% were German, 15.8% were Irish, 13.6% were English, 10.2% were American. Of the 15,365 households, 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.0% were non-families, 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.92. The median age was 40.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,161 and the median income for a family was $51,262. Males had a median income of $41,193 versus $29,645 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,370. About 12.4% of families and 17.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.8% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. In 2015 the county police department announced that the words "In God We Trust" will be on police squad cars. Travis Allen is the current Sheriff of Jefferson County. Jefferson is politically a typical “anti-Yankee” Southern Illinois county. Opposition to the “Yankee” Republican Party and that party’s Civil War meant that Jefferson County voted solidly Democratic until Theodore Roosevelt carried the county in his 1904 landslide, it was to again vote Republican in the greater landslides of 1920 and 1928, but otherwise was Democratic until World War II.
Following the New Deal, Jasper became something of a bellwether county, voting for every winning Presidential candidate between 1928 and 2004 except in the Catholicism-influenced 1960 election, that of 1988, influenced by a major Midwestern drought. Disagreement with the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues since the 1990s has caused a powerful swing to the GOP in the past quarter-century: as is typical of the Upland South, Barack Obama in 2012 and Hillary Clinton did far worse than any previous Democrat. Mount Vernon Nason Opdyke Jefferson County is divided into sixteen townships: National Register of Historic Places listings in Jefferson County, Illinois
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Salem is a city in and the county seat of Marion County, United States. The population was 7,485 at the 2010 census. Salem is located at 38°38′N 88°57′W. According to the 2010 census, Salem has a total area of 7.097 square miles, of which 6.94 square miles is land and 0.157 square miles is water. Salem was a sundown town. "For decades" Salem "had signs on each main road going into town, telling the blacks, that they were not allowed in town after sundown." As of the census of 2000, there were 7,909 people, 3,249 households, 2,082 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,296.5 people per square mile. There were 3,473 housing units at an average density of 569.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.13% White, 0.72% African American, 0.30% Native American, 1.15% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.52% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.72% of the population. There were 3,249 households out of which 28.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.8% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.9% were non-families.
32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.91. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 26.1% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $34,339, the median income for a family was $42,070. Males had a median income of $31,811 versus $21,931 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,954. About 6.1% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. Public schools: Salem Community High School Salem Elementary School Selmaville Elementary SchoolCatholic schools: St. Theresa of Avila William Jennings Bryan, 41st US Secretary of State.
S. presidential candidate. City of Salem, Illinois Salem Chamber of Commerce Salem History Links
Clinton County Courthouse (Illinois)
The Clinton County Courthouse is a government building in Carlyle, the county seat of Clinton County, United States. Built in 1999, this new structure is the county's third courthouse; the major territorial road from Shawneetown to Kaskaskia was constructed in 1808, settlers soon began to take advantage of improved transportation by claiming lands near the road. Squatters began arriving in 1809, but the advance of civilization was retarded by the depredations of Indian bands, only after the end of the War of 1812 could settlement occur on a more widespread basis. Carlyle's foundation predated the war. Clinton County has never experienced a county seat war, as Carlyle has been the seat since the county's establishment in 1824. Clinton County's obscure first courthouse was used until the construction of a replacement in 1849; this was a two-story brick structure in the shape of the letter "I", with a three-bay central projection that included the main entrance and side rooms. Built of brick with corner pilasters, it was covered with a mansard roof supported by brackets under the eaves.
Its arches were placed over each of the windows, most of which were single, although the doorways sat under larger double windows, a triangular dormer window was placed in a small tower over the entrance. This building remained in use until 1997, after which Clinton County functioned without a courthouse for two years, its replacement, the current structure, was completed in 1999 under the direction of Phillips Swager Associates and Kuhlmann Design Group. A central glass section rises from ground to roof, broken only by the belt course between the second and third stories. Clinton County website Postcards of previous and current courthouses
Marion County, Illinois
Marion County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 39,437, its county seat is Salem. Marion County comprises the Centralia, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the St. Louis-St. Charles-Farmington, MO-IL Combined Statistical Area. Marion County was organized on 24 January 1823 from portions of Fayette counties, it was named in honor of Revolutionary War Gen. Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox". According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 576 square miles, of which 572 square miles is land and 3.7 square miles is water. The southwest corner of Marion County is the intersection of the Baseline with the Third Principal Meridian, the point of origin for the third survey of the Northwest Territory under the Land Ordinance of 1785; the origin is marked with a boulder south of Centralia just off U. S. 51. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Salem have ranged from a low of 18 °F in January to a high of 88 °F in July, although a record low of −23 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in August 1983.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.46 inches in January to 4.37 inches in May. Interstate 57 U. S. Route 50 U. S. Route 51 Illinois Route 37 Illinois Route 161 Fayette County - north Clay County - east Wayne County - southeast Jefferson County - south Washington County - southwest Clinton County - west As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 39,437 people, 16,148 households, 10,746 families residing in the county; the population density was 68.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 18,296 housing units at an average density of 32.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.1% white, 3.9% black or African American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.4% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.4% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 27.5% were German, 15.8% were Irish, 13.6% were English, 10.8% were American. Of the 16,148 households, 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.9% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families, 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 41.4 years. The median income for a household in the county was $38,974 and the median income for a family was $50,518. Males had a median income of $41,428 versus $28,042 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,493. About 12.2% of families and 16.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over. Centralia Kinmundy Salem Wamac Marion County is divided into seventeen townships: Initially a Democratic anti-Yankee county, Marion County has undergone two transitions. Between 1912 and 2004 it was a perfect bellwether apart from the Catholicism-influenced 1960 election when substantial anti-Catholic voting by its southern white population caused it to support Republican Richard Nixon. Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, strong opposition to the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues has transformed the county into a powerfully Republican one, with Hillary Clinton receiving a vote share over twelve percent smaller than any pre-2010 Democratic presidential nominee.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Marion County, Illinois
Calhoun County Courthouse (Illinois)
The Calhoun County Courthouse is a government building in Hardin, the county seat of Calhoun County, United States. Built in 1848 and expanded in the 20th century, it remains in use as the county's courthouse. Hardin County was formed in January 1825 out of the southern portion of Pike County; the county erected a log building, but it was small enough that officials had to rent owned buildings nearby. A permanent courthouse was constructed between 1830 and 1832 at a cost of $1,600; some county offices remained in other buildings, which enabled their records to survive an 1847 fire that destroyed the courthouse. The county commissioners took the opportunity to move the seat, choosing Hamburg as a temporary location and appointing an election to choose a permanent seat. While Hamburg was the seat, the county operated out of a residence. In 1847, the election was held, resulting in more votes for Childs' Landing than for Gilead and Hamburg combined. Hardin's first settler was William Terry; the site was known as "Terry's Landing" until 1835, when Benjamin Childs purchased the site, it became "Childs' Landing".
As late as 1847, it remained an unimportant location, but Benjamin Childs offered to donate land for a town and bricks for a courthouse were the seat moved to his landing. The new town was platted late in the year and named for the deceased John J. Hardin, its courthouse was completed in September 1848 at a price of $1,199, financed by the sale of Childs' donated land. Three windows pierced each side, with two doors on the gabled front end; the 1848 building remains Hardin's courthouse in the 21st century, although with significant changes. An early cupola was removed during a 1939 restoration, in 1978, county officials oversaw the construction of a modernist rear expansion; the older front part of the building has seen fewer changes than the rear, although some of the fenestration has been bricked up, a fire escape has been added to the northern side. Photographs from previous years
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c