John McDougal was an American politician who served as the second Governor of California from January 9, 1851 until January 8, 1852. He served as the first Lieutenant Governor of California, from 1849 to 1851. McDougal was born in Union, Ohio ca. 1818 to John McDougall, an Ohio state representative from 1813–1815, Margaret Stockton. The family produced four other sons: William Creighton McDougall, married to abolitionist Frances Harriet Whipple Green McDougall; the family moved to Indianapolis. In 1846 McDougal joined the Indiana Volunteer Infantry as a lieutenant in the 1st Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment and served in the Mexican–American War, he was soon elected as captain of Company H. He re-enlisted in the 5th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment. In 1848, after the Mexican–American War, McDougal moved to California, arriving in 1849 aboard SS California with his wife Jane and their daughter Sue, he worked as a miner and a merchant during the gold rush. Shortly after his arrival, he entered into the new territory's politics, attending the first constitutional convention in Monterey in 1849.
McDougal was one of the original signers of the Constitution of California. During the convention, McDougal was nominated for lieutenant governor, whereupon he remarked, "I reckon I'll take that. I don't believe anyone else will have it." After defeating five other contenders for the office, McDougal was sworn in as the state's first lieutenant governor in December 1849, along with Peter Burnett as the state's first governor. Due to widespread discontent with his administration by the California State Legislature and press, Burnett resigned from the governorship in early January 1851. McDougal assumed the post on January 9, he was inexperienced with any political office. In one of his first acts, McDougal signed legislation sponsored by state senator and former Mexican general Mariano Vallejo on February 4 to remove the capitol from its cramped quarters in San Jose forty miles north to Vallejo. In the first weeks of his governorship, McDougal was pressured by miners and residents in Mariposa County to intervene in a growing conflict known as the Mariposa War, with the local Miwok and Yokut tribes opposing encroachment on their land.
In late January, he authorized the creation of the 200-man Mariposa Battalion, a state militia unit, to tackle natives he believed were in open rebellion against the state government. In the ensuing conflict, which left over forty dead, the Mariposa Battalion became the first Whites to see Yosemite, while the local tribes ceased violent reprisals on the miner and trader population. While McDougal continued with the earlier policies of the Burnett administration in taking violent action against California Native Americans and supporting exclusion laws prohibiting African-Americans from entering California, he favored Chinese immigration to meet the state's labor shortage and settle undeveloped lands, declaring in his address to the State Legislature on January 7, 1852, that the Chinese "were one of the most worthy classes of our newly adopted citizens, to whom the climate and the character of California were peculiarly suited."McDougal's popularity peaked in the early days of his administration.
Known for his earthy personality, McDougal's demeanor connected well with Sierra Nevada miners and Mexican–American War veterans. However, recurring drinking, gambling with assembly and senate members, frequent quarrels over minor bureaucratic matters hurt his political career. McDougal's political mannerisms were a source of popular amusement. McDougal issued so many proclamations beginning, "I, John McDougal," that the Governor was soon known throughout the state as "I John". Towards the end of 1851, McDougal quarreled with the growing vigilante movement in San Francisco. In a gubernatorial proclamation, he condemned the movement's lynching of two criminals that year, citing its complete disregard of the city's municipal authorities. State law enforcement was still in its infancy and his proclamation was ignored. Bureaucratic frustration with San Francisco's vigilante movement would return again during the administration of Governor J. Neely Johnson five years later. During the 1851 state general elections, the Democratic Party refused to renominate McDougal as the party's choice for governor.
Instead, state Democrats nominated Assembly Speaker John Bigler as their party's nominee. McDougal left office on January 8, 1852, after completing the single two-year term left vacant by previous Governor Burnett. At the time, California governors served two-year terms, a limit that would not change until the governorship of Leland Stanford in the early 1860s. Just four days after leaving the state's highest office, McDougal was involved in a pistol duel with A. C. Russell, editor of The San Francisco Picayune. Russell's hand was injured in the duel. After attempting to start yet another duel with another individual who had insulted the ex-governor, McDougal was arrested by the San Francisco Police; as governor, McDougal had opposed state legislation that would have outlawed dueling, remarking duelers were not fit to live and would kill each other off. Never taken as a serious political candidate again, McDougal fell out of public view after 1852; the former governor turned to alcohol as he sank into deep depression.
According to some accounts, McDougal attempted suicide on several occasions. McDougal died in San Francisco on March 30, 1866, at the age of 48. Along with J. Neely Johnson, McDougal is one of the youngest governors to die
California Military Department
The California Military Department is an agency defined under the California Military and Veterans code § 50. It includes the Office of the Adjutant General, the California National Guard, the California State Military Reserve, the California Cadet Corps, the California Naval Militia; the California Military Department and the California National Guard are sometimes referred to interchangeably. This is incorrect. Unlike many states whose National Guards comprise their military forces, California has a state defense force that operates under the state's sole authority. According to CA Military & Veteran's Code §51, there are five distinct components to the California Military Department:"The Military Department includes the office of the Adjutant General, the California National Guard, the State Military Reserve, the California Cadet Corps, the Naval Militia." However, only three of these components are considered California's "Active Militia" according to California Military & Veterans Code § 120:"The militia of the State shall consist of the National Guard, State Military Reserve and the Naval Militia—which constitute the active militia—and the unorganized militia."
All able-bodied males between 18–45 years old who are not members of the California Military Department are by law the state's unorganized militia, subject to call of the Governor under CA Military & Veteran's Code § 128. The Adjutant General is the commander of all State of California military forces and is subordinate only to the Governor; the AG is: Chief of Staff to the Governor A member of the Governor's cabinet Vested with the duties and responsibilities of the Division of Military Affairs Head of the Military Department, responsible for its affairs, duties and property. In the 1850 law establishing the California Militia, the office of Adjutant General was separate from that of Quartermaster General. In 1852, the two offices were consolidated when William H. Richardson resigned and Quartermaster General William Chauncey Kibbe became Adjutant General. Adjutant Generals have included: Theron R. Perlee, April 12 - October 5, 1850 William H. Richardson, October 5, 1850 - May 2, 1852 William Chauncey Kibbe, May 2, 1852 - April 30, 1864 Robert Robinson, January 1, 1864 - May 1, 1864 George S. Evans, May 1, 1864 - May 1, 1868 James M. Allen, May 1, 1868 – Nov. 23, 1870 Thomas N. Cazneau, Nov. 23, 1870 – December 21, 1871 Lucius H. Foote, December 21, 1871 – December 13, 1875 Patrick F. Walsh, December 13, 1875 - January 9, 1880 Samuel W. Backus, January 9, 1880 - July 1, 1882 John F. Sheehan, July 1, 1892 - January 11, 1893 George B.
Crosby, January 11, 1883 – November 1, 1887 Richard H. Orton, November 1, 1887 – January 9, 1891 Charles Carroll Allen, January 9, 1891 – May 24, 1895 Andrew W. Bartlett, May 24, 1895 - December 23, 1898 Robert L. Peeler, December 23, 1898 - June 1, 1899 William H. Seamans, June 1, 1899 - January 3, 1902 George Stone, January 13, 1902 - February 15, 1904 Joseph B. Lauck, February 15, 1904 - January 7, 1911 Edwin A. Forbes, January 7, 1911 - June 18, 1915 Charles W. Thomas, Jr. June 19, 1915 - December 15, 1916 James J. Borree, December 16, 1916 - November 30, 1923 Richard E. Mittelstaedt, December 1, 1923 - January 5, 1931 Seth E. P. Howard, January 6, 1931 - June 26, 1935 Paul Arndt, June 27 - October 17, 1935 Harry H. Moorehead, October 18, 1935 - January 3, 1939 Patrick J. H. Farrell, January 4, 1939 - June 10, 1940 Richard E. Mittelstaedt, June 10, 1940 - March 3, 1941 Joseph O. Donovan, March 3, 1941 - July 10, 1942 Junnius Pierce, July 14, 1942 - January 13, 1943 Ray W. Hays, January 14, 1943 - November 30, 1944 Victor R. Hansen, December 27, 1944 - April 28, 1946 Curtis D. O'Sullivan, April 29, 1946 - July 15, 1951 Earl M. Jones, July 16, 1951 - December 31, 1960 Roderic L. Hill, January 1, 1961 - January 1, 1967 Glenn C.
Ames, March 22, 1967 - June 5, 1975 Frank J. Schober, June 6, 1975 - December 31, 1982 Willard A. Shank, January 3, 1983 - February 13, 1987 Robert C. Thrasher, February 14, 1987 - October 9, 1992 Robert W. Barrow, October 10 - December 31, 1992 Tandy K. Bozeman, January 1, 1993 - April 27, 1999 Paul D. Monroe, Jr. April 29, 1999 - March 2004 Thomas W. Eres, March 2004 - June 6, 2005 John Alexander, June 7 - August 1, 2005 William H. Wade II, September 1, 2005 - February 1, 2010 Mary J. Kight, February 2, 2010 - April 15, 2011 David Baldwin, April 16, 2011 - present The Office of the Adjutant General is enumerated in CA Military & Veteran's Code § 161 and consists of: The Adjutant General The Deputy Adjutant General Assistant Adjutant General, Army Assistant Adjutant General, Air Chief of Staff and Director, Joint Staff and others as prescribed by laws or regulations of the United States California Army National Guard California Air National GuardThe department's Sunburst Youth Academy is run by the California National Guard.
Established in 1846 the California State Military Reserve is the State Defense Force of California enumerated in 32USC109 and CMVC § 550. It provides California with a trained and organized military force in the event of a state security emergency when the National Guard is deployed; the CSMR is a military entity authorized both by Executive Order. The CSMR is the state’s authorized militia. Unlike the Civil Air Patrol or the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary, each CSMR member is subject to the Uniform Code of Military Justice per CMVC § 560; the CSMR comprises prior and non-prior servicepeople who volunteer their time and talents in further service to their state. The California Cadet Corps
American Indian Wars
The American Indian Wars is the collective name for the various armed conflicts fought by European governments and colonists, the United States and Canadian governments and American and Canadian settlers, against various American Indian and First Nation tribes. These conflicts occurred in North America from the time of the earliest colonial settlements in the 17th century until the 1920s; the various Indian Wars resulted from a wide variety of factors, including cultural clashes, land disputes, criminal acts committed on both sides. European powers and the colonies enlisted Indian tribes to help them conduct warfare against one another's colonial settlements. After the American Revolution, many conflicts were local to specific states or regions and involved disputes over land use; the British Royal Proclamation of 1763, included in the Constitution of Canada, prohibited white settlers from taking the lands of indigenous peoples in Canada without signing a treaty with them. It continues to be the law in Canada today, 11 Numbered Treaties, covering most of the First Nations lands, limited the number of such conflicts.
As white settlers spread westward across America after 1780, the size and intensity of armed conflicts increased between settlers and various cultures of Indians. The climax came in the War of 1812, which resulted in the defeat of major Indian coalitions in the Midwest and the South. Conflict with settlers became much less common and were resolved by treaty through sale or exchange of territory between the federal government and specific tribes; the Indian Removal Act of 1830 authorized the US government to enforce the Indian removal from east of the Mississippi River to the west, what the government considered the sparsely populated American frontier. The federal US policy of removal was refined in the West, as American settlers kept expanding their territories, to relocate Indian tribes to specially designated and federally protected reservations; the colonization of North America by the English, Spanish and Swedish was resisted by some Indian tribes and assisted by other tribes. Wars and other armed conflicts in the 17th and 18th centuries included: Beaver Wars between the Iroquois and the French, who allied with the Algonquians Anglo-Powhatan Wars, including the 1622 Jamestown Massacre, between English colonists and the Powhatan Confederacy in the Colony of Virginia Pequot War of 1636–38 between the Pequot tribe and colonists from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and Connecticut Colony Kieft's War in the Dutch territory of New Netherland between colonists and the Lenape people Peach Tree War, the large-scale attack by the Susquehannocks and allied tribes on several New Netherland settlements along the Hudson River Esopus Wars, conflicts between the Esopus tribe of Lenape Indians and colonial New Netherlanders in Ulster County, New York King Philip's War in New England between colonists and the Narragansett people Tuscarora War in the Province of North Carolina Yamasee War in the Province of South Carolina Dummer's War in northern New England and French Acadia Pontiac's War in the Great Lakes region Lord Dunmore's War in western Virginia In several instances, warfare in America was a reflection of European rivalries, with American Indian tribes splitting their alliances among the powers siding with their trading partners.
Various tribes fought on each side in King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Dummer's War, King George's War, the French and Indian War, allying with British or French colonists according to their own self interests. Indian tribes differed in their alliances during the American Revolution and the War of 1812; the Cherokees supported the British in the Revolutionary War and raided frontier American settlements in the hope of driving out the settlers, four Iroquois tribes fought against the Patriots. Other tribes fought for the American Patriots, such as the Oneida people and Tuscarora people of the Iroquois Confederacy in New York. British merchants and government agents began supplying weapons to Indians living in the United States following the Revolution in the hope that, if a war broke out, they would fight on the British side; the British further planned to set up an Indian nation in the Ohio-Wisconsin area to block further American expansion. The US protested and went to war in 1812. Most Indian tribes supported the British those allied with Tecumseh, but they were defeated by General William Henry Harrison.
The War of 1812 spread to Indian rivalries, as well. Many refugees from defeated tribes went over the border to Canada. During the early 19th century, the federal government was under pressure by settlers in many regions to expel Indians from their areas; the Indian Removal Act of 1830 offered Indians the choices of assimilating and giving up tribal membership, relocation to an Indian reservation with an exchange or payment for lands, or moving west. Some resisted most notably the Seminoles in a series of wars in Florida, they were never defeated. The United States gave up on the remainder, by living defensively deep in the swamps and Everglades. Others were moved to reservations west of the Mississippi River, most famously the Cherokee whose relocation was call
A trading post, trading station, or trading house was a place or establishment where the trading of goods took place. The preferred travel route to a trading post or between trading posts, was known as a trade route. Trading posts were places for people to meet and exchange the news of the world or the news from their home country in a time when not newspapers existed. European colonialism traces its roots to ancient Carthage. A trading settlement of Phoenician colonists, Carthage grew into a vast economic and political power throughout the Mediterranean, accumulating wealth and influence through its economic prowess. Numerous cities of importance once started their history as trading posts: Venice, New York City, Singapore, Hong Kong, Rotterdam, Kansas City, etc; the annexation of trading posts along ancient trade routes took place in the 16th and 17th century by European powers like the Dutch and English. It began with the capture of Ceuta by the Portuguese in 1415, they went on to establish further enclaves as they explored the coasts of Africa, Arabia and South East Asia in search of the source of the lucrative spice trade.
Trading posts were very common in the early settlements of Canada and the United States for the trade of such things as fur. They were used in many camps across the United States as places to buy snacks and souvenirs; the Hudson's Bay Company set up trading posts around Hudson Bay during the fur trade. Goods were traded for beaver pelts amongst the Native Americans. In the United States in the early 19th century, trading posts used by Native Americans were licensed by the federal government and called "factories". Tribes were to concede substantial territory to the United States in order to access the "factories" as happened at Fort Clark in the Treaty of Fort Clark in which the Osage Nation conceded most of Missouri in order to access the trading post. In the context of Scouting, trading post refers to a camp store where snacks, craft materials and general merchandise are sold. A "trading post" can be referred to as the place where securities listed on the New York Stock Exchange are traded.
In recent years, many people have developed their own trading posts such as the Front Range Trading Post in Lobsterfest Springs, CO. Trades include handmade and hand grown/raised items, baked goods and more. Cash is not accepted, only bartering is allowed. Trading Post Outreach program has been established since 1995, where founder Linette Crelly began to host "trading swaps" where parents of children could gather to "swap or exchange" clothing, infant items, toys; this idea blossomed and by 2004 had grown to become a 4,000 sq. ft. community care center in Springville, New York. Fur trade Factory Trading Post
Governor of California
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U. S. state of California. The California Governor is the chief executive of the state government and the commander-in-chief of the California National Guard and the California State Military Reserve. Established in the Constitution of California, the governor's responsibilities include making the annual State of the State address to the California State Legislature, submitting the budget, ensuring that state laws are enforced; the position was created in 1849, the year. The current governor of California is Democrat Gavin Newsom, inaugurated on January 7, 2019. Governors are elected by popular ballot and serve terms of four years, with a limit of two terms, if served after November 6, 1990. Governors take the following oath: I do solemnly swear that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California against all enemies foreign and domestic, that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of the State of California, that I take this obligation without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties upon which I am about to enter.
Governors take office on the first Monday after January 1 after their election. There are two methods available to remove a governor before the expiration of the gubernatorial term of office; the governor can be impeached for "misconduct in office" by the State Assembly and removed by a two-thirds vote of the State Senate. Petitions signed by California state voters equal in number to 12% of the last vote for the office of governor can launch a gubernatorial recall election; the voters can vote on whether or not to recall the incumbent governor, on the same ballot they can vote a potential replacement. If a majority of the voters in the election vote to recall the governor the person who gains a plurality of the votes in the replacement race will become governor; the 2003 California recall began with a petition drive that forced sitting Democratic Governor Gray Davis into a special recall election. It marked the first time in the history of California, he was subsequently voted out of office, becoming the second governor in the history of the United States to be recalled after Lynn Frazier of North Dakota in 1921.
He was replaced by Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger. The Lieutenant Governor of California is separately elected during the same election, not jointly as the running mate of the gubernatorial candidate. California has had a governor and a lieutenant governor of different parties 26 of the past 31 years; this becomes significant, since the California Constitution provides that all the powers of the governor fall to the lieutenant governor whenever the governor is not in the state of California, with the lieutenant governor signing or vetoing legislation, or making political appointments, whenever the governor leaves the state. The lieutenant governor is the president of the California State Senate. In practice, there is a gentlemen's agreement for the Lieutenant Governor not to perform more than perfunctory duties while the governor is away from the state; this agreement was violated when Mike Curb was in office, as he signed several executive orders at odds with the Brown administration when Brown was out of the state.
Court rulings have upheld the lieutenant governor's right to perform the duties and assume all of the prerogatives of governor while the governor is out of the state. Peter Burnett had 44 years, he left office in 1851 and died in 1895. Excluding governors who died in office, Robert Waterman had the shortest post-governorship, he died on a short three months and four days after the expiration of his term. Sworn in at the age of 30, J. Neely Johnson was the youngest governor from 1856 to 1858. Sworn in at the age of 72, Jerry Brown was the oldest governor from 2011 to 2019. Earl Warren was the only governor to serve more than two consecutive terms in office. Jerry Brown served as governor for eight years and returned to office 28 years to serve as governor for another eight years. Milton Latham served the shortest term in office of five days. Of the 38 governors who served in office, only eight were born in California: One was born in Santa Barbara. Five were born in San Francisco. One was born in Sacramento.
One was born in Los Angeles. Two governors were born outside the United States: John G. Downey was born in Ireland. Arnold Schwarzenegger was born in Austria. Only two governors have died in office: Washington Bartlett on September 12, 1887 James Rolph on June 2, 1934 Ronald Reagan had the longest life-span of any governor, 93 years. J. Neely Johnson had the shortest life-span of 47 years. Both governors who died in office, Washington Bartlett in 1887 and James Rolph in 1934, served as Mayor of San Francisco shortly before becoming governor. Two governors are related: Pat Brown was the father of twice-governor Jerry Brown. Five governors have resigned: Peter Burnett in 1851 "as a result of certain personal prejudices" in favor of slavery Milton Latham in 1860 to become a United States Senator Newton Booth in 1875 to become a United States Senator Hiram Johnson in 1917 to become a United States Senator Earl Warren in 1953 to be
The Miwok are members of four linguistically related Native American groups indigenous to what is now Northern California, who traditionally spoke one of the Miwok languages in the Utian family. The word Miwok means people in the Miwok language. Anthropologists divide the Miwok into four geographically and culturally diverse ethnic subgroups; these distinctions were not used among the Miwok before European contact. Plains and Sierra Miwok: from the western slope and foothills of the Sierra Nevada, the Sacramento Valley, San Joaquin Valley and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta Coast Miwok: from present day location of Marin County and southern Sonoma County Lake Miwok: from Clear Lake basin of Lake County Bay Miwok: from present-day location of Contra Costa County The United States Bureau of Indian Affairs recognizes eleven tribes of Miwok descent in California, they are as follows: Buena Vista Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians California Valley Miwok Tribe known as the Sheep Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Chicken Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria known as the Federated Coast Miwok Ione Band of Miwok Indians, of Ione, California Jackson Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians Middletown Rancheria Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians, Shingle Springs Rancheria Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria United Auburn Indian Community of Auburn Rancheria Wilton Rancheria Indian Tribe Miwok Tribe of the El Dorado Rancheria Nashville-Eldorado Miwok Tribe Colfax-Todds Valley Consolidated Tribe of the Colfax Rancheria Southern Sierra Miwuk Nation Calaveras Band of Mi-Wuk Indians Miwok of Buena Vista Rancheria River Valley Miwok Indians, formally known as Historical Families of Wilton Rancheria The predominant theory regarding the settlement of the Americas date the original migrations from Asia to around 20,000 years ago across the Bering Strait land bridge, but one anthropologist claims that the Miwok and some other northern California tribes descend from Siberians who arrived in California by sea around 3,000 years ago.
The Miwok lived in small bands without centralized political authority before contact with European Americans in 1769. They were otherwise hunter-gatherers; the Sierra Miwok harvested acorns from the California Black Oak. In fact, the modern-day extent of the California Black Oak forests in some areas of Yosemite National Park is due to cultivation by Miwok tribes, they burned understory vegetation to reduce the fraction of Ponderosa Pine. Nearly every other kind of edible vegetable matter was used as a food source, including bulbs and fungi. Animals were hunted depending on the species and the situation. Grasshoppers were a prized food source, as were mussels for those groups adjacent to the Stanislaus River; the Miwok ate meals according to appetite rather than at regular times. They stored food for consumption in flat-bottomed baskets. Miwok mythology and narratives tend to be similar to those of other natives of Northern California. Miwok had totem animals, identified with one of two moieties, which were in turn associated with land and water.
These totem animals were not thought of as literal ancestors of humans, but rather as predecessors. Miwok people played athletic games on a 110-yard playing field called poscoi a we’a. A unique game was played with young women. To soccer, the object was to put an elk hide ball through the goalpost; the girls were allowed to do anything, including kicking the ball and picking it up and running with it. The boys were only allowed to use their feet, but if a girl was holding it he could pick her up and carry her towards his goal. In 1770, there were an estimated 500 Lake Miwok, 1,500 Coast Miwok, 9,000 Plains and Sierra Miwok, totaling about 11,000 people, according to historian Alfred L. Kroeber, although this may be a serious undercount; the 1910 Census reported only 671 Miwok total, the 1930 Census, 491. See history of each Miwok group for more information. Today there are about 3,500 Miwok in total; the Star Wars films feature a fictional species of forest-dwelling creatures known as Ewoks, who are ostensibly named after the Miwok.
However, the historical Northern-California footprint of the Miwok people may have caused the Ewoks' name to be retconned to enhance the marketability of the 1983 film. The Miwok people are encountered in The Years of Rice and Salt. In an alternate history scenario depicted in the book they are the first group of Native Americans encountered by the first Chinese to discover the continent. Kule Loklo Saklan Lucy Telles Utian languages Access Genealogy: Indian Tribal records, Miwok Indian Tribe. Retrieved on 2006-08-01. Main source of "authenticated village" names and locations. Barrett, S. A. and Gifford, E. W. Miwok Material Culture: Indian Life of the Yosemite Region. Yosemite Association, Yosemite National Park, California, 1933. ISBN 0-939666-12-X Cook, Sherburne; the Conflict Between the California White Civilization. Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press, 1976. ISBN 0-520-03143-1. Kroeber, Alfred L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Washington, D. C: Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78..
Silliman, Stephen. Lost Laborers in Colonial California, Native Americans and the Archaeology of Rancho Petaluma. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press