Fresno is a town and municipality in the Tolima department of Colombia. It is located 142 kilometres from Ibagué, it was founded in 1574 by Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada. The population of the municipality was 30,750 as of the 2005 census. Official website History of Fresno
Natagaima is a town and municipality in the Tolima department of Colombia, on the shore of the Magdalena River, at 326 meters above sea level. The population of the municipality was 21,324 as of the 1993 census, its average temperature is 26 °C. Natagaima was founded in 1606 by Spanish conqueror Juan de Borja y Armendia; some believe the name of Natagaima comes from the words Nataga and Ima, while others state that the name was created because there was an Indian named Nataga, the chief of this region, married Queen Ima, ruler of the Tribal Chiefs of the center of Tolima. North: Coyaima and Prado, East: Dolores and Alpujarra, West: Ataco and Coyaima, South: Aipe. Distance from Ibagué: 118 km. 26,600 inhabitants reside in the 862 square kilometers of Natagaima. Its economy consists in agriculture, an activity induced by its hot weather; the main agricultural products are rice, cotton and sorghum. Besides agriculture, breeding of livestock occupies an important place in the economy of Natagaima, specially that of the Zebu species.
Other economical activities include saddlery. The people of Natagaima were submitted by Spanish Conqueror Juan the Borja, who gathered the survivors of this incursion and proceeded with the foundation of the town, it is said that Natagaima lies in a place different from his original location, was moved there by orders of the priest Ignacio Navarro in 1801. From 1863 to 1866 it was the capital of the Sovereign State of Tolima. Through a law emitted on February 21, 1963, it became a Municipality, starting its role on January 1, 1964, its territory was inhabited by the Pijao Indians, that were composed by the Natagaima and Coyaima communities, tough warriors who posed fierce resistance to the Spanish invasion, forcing the Spaniards to establish an extermination policy. Other local tribes were the Dujos and Babadujos, who continuously fought against the Natagaimas and Coyaimas, motivated by the overwhelming quantity of received attacks decided to support the Spaniards. Tamale, almojábana, yucca bread with oats, bizcochuelo, Chanfaina, Corn Chicha, Poporoi are the most important dishes of the zone.
Among many others, La caña, El contrabandista and El pasamanos, are famous songs that are danced during the festivities. Pacandé Mountain, The Painima Bath Zone, The Patá Bath Zone, The Anchique River, The Hipogeo Indian Cemetery, the Magdalena River crossing. San Antonio Hospital. 1 May Urban Mixed School Maria Auxiliadora Urban Mixed School Gabriel Rebeis Pizarro Urban Mixed School Gustavo Perdomo Ávila Urban Mixed School Francisco José de Caldas School Alfonzo Reyes Echandia School Luis Carlos Galan Sarmiento School Rural and Agricultural Development School Anchique Policarpa Salavarrieta Basic Education Institute La Palmita Rural Mixed School New Town Adult Centre Mariano Ospina Perez Institute Teófilo Forero and trade unionist Rafael Godoy, composer Cantalicio Rojas IndiaMeliyara
Herveo is a town and municipality in the Tolima department of Colombia. The population of the municipality was 10,292 as of the 1993 census
Melgar is a Colombian town in the Department of Tolima, 98 km southwest of Bogotá and 1 hour east of Ibagué, the capital city of Tolima. Melgar is located in the Sumapaz River Valley and borders the Department of Cundinamarca and Sumapaz River to the north, town of Icononzo to the east, the towns of Cunday at the south and Carmen de Apicala to the west; the town is home to a major military base called Tolemaida Air Base. Melgar is a popular weekend destination for Bogota residents. Temperature ranges between 28–35° Celsius, it is known in Colombia as the "City of the Swimming Pools" or the "Sea of Swimming Pools" because of its more than 5,000 swimming pools. It is a major inland resort, which the people of Bogotá visit on weekends to flee the capital's cold weather for the warm climate of the valley; the first settlement was called "Cualamana" change to "Villa de Nuestra Señora de Altagracia. In 1601 its name was changed given by Captain Juan Lopez de Herrera, it was the site of an ancient Amerindian village.
In the early 18th century the village was destroyed by a fire when the local religious celebrations were taking place. The village was rebuilt in 1789 by the Dominican community in the grounds owned by Cardenas Varastegui at the valley of the Sumapaz River. In the early days the place was called "Valle de Melgar". In 1824, the village was part of the Department of Cundinamrca, together with Tibacuy, Pasca and Cunday. In 1851 the population was 2,600 people and the economy was based on the production of quina. In 1855, it became part of Province of Neiva, together with Cunday and Carmen de Apicalá. By Melgar was producing coffee. By decree issued on November 13, 1871 Melgar was elevated to the status of town. Melgar became part of the Department of Tolima after its creation; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Am". Which is rare. Official Website Travel Guide Website Country style Hotels in Melgar
El Espinal, Tolima
El Espinal is a Colombian city located in the Department of Tolima, 146 km southwest from Bogotá. It is the second most important city of the department and is the rice capital of the center of the country, it is flanked by the Coello rivers. El Espinal is known for the manufacture of typical musical instruments and its cuisine is known for tamales and the suckling pig, which are the typical dishes of the region, it has a total length of 231 km², an urban area of 4.26 km², a rural area of 212.74 km². The town is the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Espinal. Despite its low elevation, El Espinal has a temperate climate with abundant rainfall from March to May and from October to November; the increased solar radiation during these months due to the position of the sun increases temperatures in the jungle and favors the formation of storms in the mountainous areas. In contrast, the more dry seasons of the year are from January from July to August. Frost occurs in rural areas, mist is rare, 10 days out of the year are foggy.
Historians report. El Espinal is located on the plains of the Upper Magdalena region at 1800 meters above sea level and surrounded by the Central and Eastern mountain ranges of the Colombian Andes, its economy is based on agriculture rice and other products such as cotton, soybean and tobacco among others. It includes enterprises from other sectors, including mills, which generate a high percentage of employment in the city
Coyaima is a town and municipality in the Tolima department of Colombia. The population of the municipality was 27,733 as of the 2005 census
The Magdalena River is the principal river of Colombia, flowing northward about 1,528 kilometres through the western half of the country. It takes its name from the biblical figure Mary Magdalene, it is navigable through much of its lower reaches, in spite of the shifting sand bars at the mouth of its delta, as far as Honda, at the downstream base of its rapids. It flows through the Magdalena River Valley, its drainage basin covers a surface of 273,000 square kilometres, 24% of the country's area and where 66% of its population lives. The headwaters of the Magdalena River are in the south of Colombia, where the Andean subranges Cordillera Central and Cordillera Oriental separate, in Huila Department; the river runs east of north in a great valley between the two cordilleras. It reaches the coastal plain at about nine degrees north runs west for about 100 km north again, reaching the Caribbean Sea at the city of Barranquilla in the zone known as Bocas de Ceniza; the Magdalena River basin, which includes the Cauca River and other tributaries, is rich in fish.
As of 2008, 213 fish species were known from the basin. Since several new species have been described from the basin such as five Hemibrycon in 2013, two Ancistrus in 2013 and a Farlowella in 2014. Among the more famous species in the basin are Caquetaia umbrifera, Ctenolucius hujeta, Geophagus steindachneri, Ichthyoelephas longirostris, Panaque cochliodon, Pimelodus blochii, Potamotrygon magdalenae, Prochilodus magdalenae, Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum and Salminus affinis. About 55% of the fish species in the basin are endemic, including four endemic genera: The catfish Centrochir and Eremophilus, the characids Carlastyanax and Genycharax. In general, the fish fauna shows connections with surrounding basins, notably Atrato and Maracaibo, but to a lesser extent Amazon–Orinoco; the most productive fishing areas in Colombia are in the basin, but there has been a drastic decrease in the annual harvest with a fall of about 90% between 1975 and 2008. The primary threats are habitat loss. Additional dams are being constructed, including El Quimbo and Ituango, which has caused some controversy.
As a result of the pollution, heavy metals have been detected in some commercially important fish in the river. As of 2002, 19 fish species in the river basin were recognized as threatened; the Magdalena River and its valley crosses a wide variety of ecosystems, like páramo in its headwaters, dry forest in the upper part of its valley, rainforest in its middle course, swamps and wetlands in its lower course. The spectacled caiman, green iguana and brown pelican are abundant in these ecosystems but other animal species like the West Indian manatee, Magdalena tinamou, Todd's parakeet, American crocodile, Colombian slider, Magdalena River turtle, Dahl's toad-headed turtle and red-footed tortoise are in danger of extinction. In addition, there is a possible risk posed by invasive hippopotamus. Imported by Pablo Escobar, these hippopotami became feral following his demise, have since expanded beyond their original home on Hacienda Napoles into nearby regions of the Magdalena River. Due to its geographical position in the north of South America, the Magdalena River was since precolumbian times a route towards the interior of today Colombia and Ecuador.
Several Carib speaking peoples such as the Panche and the Yariguí ascended through the western bank of the river, while its eastern portion was inhabited by the Muisca civilization, which called the river Yuma. The Spanish conquistadores who arrived to today's Colombia early in the 16th century used the river to push to the wild and mountainous inland after Rodrigo de Bastidas discovered and named the river on April 1, 1501. During the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the river was the only transport link communicating Bogotá with the Caribbean Sea port Cartagena de Indias and thus with Europe. In 1825, the Congress of Colombia awarded a concession to establish steam navigation in the Magdalena River to Juan Bernardo Elbers, but his company closed shortly after. By 1845, steamboats travelled on the river until 1961, when the last steamers ceased operation. Much of the film Love in the Time of Cholera takes place in the historic, walled city of Cartagena in Colombia; some screen shots showed the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta mountain range.
The General in His Labyrinth, by Gabriel García Márquez, is a fictionalized account of the final voyage of Simón Bolívar down the Magdalena River, where he revisits many cities and villages along the river