Trematode life cycle stages
Trematodes are parasitic flatworms of the class Trematoda parasitic flukes with two suckers: one ventral and the other oral. Trematodes are covered by a tegument, which protects the organism from the environment and provides secretory and absorptive functions; the life cycle of a typical trematode begins with an egg. Some trematode eggs hatch directly in the environment, while others are eaten and hatch within a host a mollusc; the hatchling is called a free-swimming, ciliated larva. Miracidia may grow and develop within the intermediate host into a sac-like structure known as a sporocyst or into rediae, either of which may give rise to free-swimming, motile cercariae larvae; the cercariae may either definitively infect a vertebrate host or a second intermediate host. Adult metacercariae or mesocercariae, depending on the individual trematode's life cycle, can infect the vertebrate host or be rejected and excreted through faeces or urine. While the details vary with each species, the general life cycle stages are: The egg is found in the faeces, sputum, or urine of the definitive host.
Depending on the species, it will be either embryonated. The eggs of all trematodes except schistosomes are operculated; some eggs are eaten by the intermediate hatch in the environment. Miracidia hatch in the environment or in the intermediate host, they do not have a mouth, they cannot eat and need to find a host if they hatch in the environment. Energy is needed to develop into a sporocyst; the first intermediate host can differ for different trematodes. An elongated sac that produces either more rediae; this is. Mother Sporocyst: These have loose plates and migrate to gonas. Daughter Sporocyst: These are an asexual production of cercariae, they absorb nutrients while having no mouth. After the sporocyst form the larva, the first development from it forms the redia, they have a mouth which allows them to have an advantage to their competitors because they can just consume them and will either produce more rediae or start to form cercariae. The amount of rediae, or daughter sporocyst, varies a lot in the representatives of different deign taxa.
Co-infections of different parasite species within the same host could occur and cause competition between the rediae and sporocysts. Not all trematode species have a rediae stage, some may just have a sporocyst stage depending on the life cycle; the rediae are dominant to sporocyst because they have a mouth and are able to either eat their competitors' food or their competitor. The larval form of the parasite, develops within the germinal cells of the redia. A cercaria has a tapering head with large penetration glands, it may not have a long swimming "tail", depending on the species. The motile cercaria finds and settles in a host where it will become either an adult, or a mesocercaria, or a metacercaria, according to species. Mesocercaria: They are involved in an encysted stage either on vegetation or in a host tissue on the second intermediate host, they have a hard shell and are involved in the trophic transmission. This is where the parasite is able to infect the definitive host because it consumes the second intermediate host that has metacercariae on/in it.
Metacercaria: A cercaria encysted and resting. They are only involved. Cercaria is used as a genus of trematodes, when adult forms are not known; the usage dates back to Müller, in 1773. The developed mature stage, it is capable of sexual reproduction. Not all trematodes follow the typical sequence of eggs, sporocysts, rediae and adults. In some species, the redial stage is omitted, sporocysts produce cercariae. In some species, the cercaria develops into an adult within the same host. Many digenean trematodes require two hosts, one where asexual reproduction occurs in sporocysts, the other a vertebrate where the adult form engages in sexual reproduction to produce eggs. In some species the cercaria encysts, waits until the host is eaten by a third host, in whose gut it emerges and develops into an adult. Most trematodes are hermaphroditic. Males are stouter than the females. Bucephalus polymorphus Trematode infection Apicomplexa lifecycle stages Life cycle of Schistosoma mansoni
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
The gastropod shell is part of the body of a gastropod or snail, a kind of mollusc. The shell is an exoskeleton, which protects from predators, mechanical damage, dehydration, but serves for muscle attachment and calcium storage; some gastropods appear shell-less but may have a remnant within the mantle, or the shell is reduced such that the body cannot be retracted within. Some snails possess an operculum that seals the opening of the shell, known as the aperture, which provides further protection; the study of mollusc shells is known as conchology. The biological study of gastropods, other molluscs in general, is malacology. Shell morphology terms vary by species group. An excellent source for terminology of the gastropod shell is "How to Know the Eastern Land Snails" by John B. Burch now available at the Hathi Trust Digital Library; the gastropod shell has three major layers secreted by the mantle. The calcareous central layer, tracum, is made of calcium carbonate precipitated into an organic matrix known as conchiolin.
The outermost layer is the periostracum, resistant to abrasion and provides most shell coloration. The body of the snail contacts the innermost smooth layer that may be composed of mother-of-pearl or shell nacre, a dense horizontally packed form of conchiolin, layered upon the periostracum as the snail grows. Gastropod shell morphology is quite constant among individuals of a species. Controlling variables are: The rate of growth per revolution around the coiling axis. High rates give wide-mouthed forms such as the abalone, low rates give coiled forms such as Turritella or some of the Planorbidae; the shape of the generating curve equivalent to the shape of the aperture. It may be round, for instance in the turban shell, elongate as in the cone shell or have an irregular shape with a siphonal canal extension, as in the Murex; the rate of translation of the generating curve along the axis of coiling, controlling how high-spired the resulting shell becomes. This may range from a flat planispiral shell, to nearly the diameter of the aperture.
Irregularities or "sculpturing" such as ribs, spines and varices made by the snail changing the shape of the generating curve during the course of growth, for instance in the many species of Murex. Ontologic growth changes as the animal reaches adulthood. Good examples are the inward-coiled lip of the cowry; some of these factors can be modelled mathematically and programs exist to generate realistic images. Early work by David Raup on the analog computer revealed many possible combinations that were never adopted by any actual gastropod; some shell shapes are found more in certain environments, though there are many exceptions. Wave-washed high-energy environments, such as the rocky intertidal zone, are inhabited by snails whose shells have a wide aperture, a low surface area, a high growth rate per revolution. High-spired and sculptured forms become more common in quiet water environments; the shell of burrowing forms, such as the olive and Terebra, are smooth and lack elaborate sculpture, in order to decrease resistance when moving through sand.
On land, high-spired forms are associated with vertical surfaces, whereas flat-shelled snails tend to live on the ground. A few gastropods, for instance the Vermetidae, cement the shell to, grow along, solid surfaces such as rocks, or other shells. Most gastropod shells are spirally coiled; the majority of gastropod species have dextral shells, but a small minority of species and genera are always sinistral, a few species show a mixture of dextral and sinistral individuals. There occur aberrantly sinistral forms of dextral species and some of these are sought by shell collectors. If a coiled gastropod shell is held with the spire pointing upwards and the aperture more or less facing the observer, a dextral shell will have the aperture on the right-hand side, a sinistral shell will have the aperture on the left-hand side; this chirality of gastropods is sometimes overlooked when photographs of coiled gastropods are "flipped" by a non-expert prior to being used in a publication. This image "flipping" results in a normal dextral gastropod appearing to be a rare or abnormal sinistral one.
Sinistrality arose independently 19 times among marine gastropods since the start of the Cenozoic. This left-handedness seems to be more common in land pulmonates, but still the dextral living species in gastropods seem to account for 99% of the total number. The chirality in gastropods appears in the gene NODAL is involved. A more recent study correlates the asymmetric coiling of the shell by the left-right asymmetric expression of the decapentaplegic gene in the mantle. In a few cases, both left- and right-handed coiling are found in the same population. Sinistral mutants of dextral species and dextral mutants of sinistral species are rare but well documented occurrences among land snails in general. Populations or species with mixed coiling are much rarer, and, so far as is known, are confined, with one exception, to a few genera of arboreal tropical snails. Besides Amphidromus, the Cuban Liguus vittatus, Haitian Liguus virgineus, some Hawaiian Partulina and many Hawaiian Achatinella, as well as several species of Pacific islands Partula, are known to have mixed dextral-sinistral populations.
A possible exception may concern some of the European clausiliids of the subfamily Alopiinae. They are ob
Guyana the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a country on the northern mainland of South America. It is considered part of the Caribbean region because of its strong cultural and political ties with other Anglo-Caribbean countries and the Caribbean Community. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Venezuela to the west, Suriname to the east. With an area of 215,000 square kilometres, Guyana is the third-smallest sovereign state on mainland South America after Uruguay and Suriname; the region known as "the Guianas" consists of the large shield landmass north of the Amazon River and east of the Orinoco River known as the "land of many waters". Major rivers in Guyana include the Essequibo, the Berbice, the Demerara. Inhabited by many indigenous groups, Guyana was settled by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century, it was governed as British Guiana, with a plantation-style economy until the 1950s. It gained independence in 1966, became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970.
The legacy of British rule is reflected in the country's political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian, African and multiracial groups. Guyana is the only South American nation; the majority of the population, speak Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole language, as a first language. Guyana is part of the Anglophone Caribbean. CARICOM, of which Guyana is a member, is headquartered in Guyana's capital and largest city, Georgetown. In 2008, the country joined the Union of South American Nations as a founding member; the name "Guyana" derives from Guiana, the original name for the region that included Guyana, French Guiana, parts of Colombia and Brazil. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Guyana" comes from an indigenous Amerindian language and means "land of many waters". There are nine indigenous tribes residing in Guyana: the Wai Wai, Patamona, Kalina, Pemon and Warao; the Lokono and Kalina tribes dominated Guyana. Although Christopher Columbus was the first European to sight Guyana during his third voyage, Sir Walter Raleigh wrote an account in 1596, the Dutch were the first Europeans to establish colonies: Essequibo and Demerara.
After the British assumed control in 1796, the Dutch formally ceded the area in 1814. In 1831 the three separate colonies became a single British colony known as British Guiana. Since its independence in 1824 Venezuela has claimed the area of land to the west of the Essequibo River. Simón Bolívar wrote to the British government warning against the Berbice and Demerara settlers settling on land which the Venezuelans, as assumed heirs of Spanish claims on the area dating to the sixteenth century, claimed was theirs. In 1899 an international tribunal ruled; the British territorial claim stemmed from Dutch involvement and colonization of the area dating to the sixteenth century, ceded to the British. Guyana achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 26 May 1966 and became a republic on 23 February 1970, remaining a member of the Commonwealth; the US State Department and the US Central Intelligence Agency, along with the British government, played a strong role in influencing political control in Guyana during this time.
The American government supported Forbes Burnham during the early years of independence because Cheddi Jagan was identified as a Marxist. They provided secret financial support and political campaign advice to Burnham's People's National Congress, to the detriment of the Jagan-led People's Progressive Party, supported by Guyanese of East Indian background. In 1978, Guyana received international notice when 918 members of the American cult, Peoples Temple, died in a mass murder/suicide drinking cyanide-laced Flavor Aid. However, most of the suicides were by Americans and not Guyanese. More than 300 children were killed. Jim Jones's bodyguards had earlier attacked people taking off at a small remote airstrip close to Jonestown, killing five people, including Leo Ryan, a US congressman. In May 2008, President Bharrat Jagdeo was a signatory to the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty of the Union of South American Nations. Guyana has ratified the treaty; the territory controlled by Guyana lies between latitudes 1° and 9°N, longitudes 56° and 62°W.
The country can be divided into five natural regions. Some of Guyana's highest mountains are Mount Ayanganna, Monte Caburaí and Mount Roraima on the Brazil-Guyana-Venezuela tripoint border, part of the Pakaraima range. Mount Roraima and Guyana's table-top mountains are said to have been the inspiration for Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's 1912 novel The Lost World. There are many volcanic escarpments and waterfalls, including Kaieteur Falls, believed to be the largest water drop in the world. No
Planorbarius corneus, common name the great ramshorn, is a large species of air-breathing freshwater snail, an aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Planorbidae, the ram's horn snails, or planorbids, which all have sinistral or left-coiling shells. The shell of this species appears to be dextral in coiling though it is in fact sinistral or left-handed. Planorbarius corneus is distributed from western Europe, through central Europe and into the Caucasus, north into Siberia and south into the Middle East. In western Europe, it has been recorded in Belgium and the British Isles, it is not found in Spain, but it has been recorded on some Spanish and Portuguese Atlantic islands, including Madeira, the Azores, the Canary Islands. In the Nordic countries, it has been recorded in Denmark, Finland and Norway, its range extends through central Europe into the Caucasus. The species is found in western Asia, having been recorded in Kazakhstan, western regions of Russia, Turkey and Uzbekistan.
Additionally, as the species is sometimes sold in the aquarium trade, it is found outside of its main range in small ponds where they have been released or placed. All species within family Planorbidae have sinistral shells. Planorbarius corneus is the largest European species of ramshorn snail, with a shell measuring 35 millimetres across when fully-grown; the 10–17 by 22–40 millimetres coiled shell has between 3 and 4.5 rounded whorls with deep sutures, the last whorl predominating. The upper side is weakly depressed and the lower side is depressed. There is no keel; the shell is light yellowish with a brown, reddish or greenish periostracum and spirally weakly striated. The aperture is wide and circular; the animal is reddish. This large planorbid is found in water, still, or only moving where there is a good growth of many different kinds of pond weeds, where there are high levels of calcium dissolved in the water. P. Corneus under high temperatures has been studied by Podkovkin. Reproduction in spring and autumn at water temperatures above 15 °C, eggs are laid in elongate capsules of 8–15 mm width, each strain containing 12-40 eggs, fixed to aquatic plants, embryos are reddish with transparent shells, juveniles hatch after 14–16 days, life span up to 3 years.
Self-fertilization is possible, one single released animal can establish a stable population, but only 5% of the juveniles in self-fertilized eggs will hatch. This species of snail functions as a host for several parasite species: First intermediate host for Prosthogonimus ovatus First intermediate host for Apatemon gracilis First and as second intermediate host for Hypoderaeum conoideum Intermediate host for Syngamus trachea Intermediate host for Typhlocoelum sisowi Spencer, H. G. Marshall, B. A. & Willan, R. C.. Checklist of New Zealand living Mollusca. Pp 196–219 in Gordon, D. P. New Zealand inventory of biodiversity. Volume one. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Deuterostomia. Canterbury University Press, Christchurch. Planorbarius corneus at Animalbase taxonomy,short description, biology,status, images Planorbarius corneus images at Consortium for the Barcode of Life
The term ramshorn snail or ram's horn snail is used in two different ways. In the aquarium trade it is used to describe various kinds of freshwater snails whose shells are planispiral, meaning that the shell is a flat coil; such shells resemble a ram's horn. In a more general natural history context, the term "ramshorn snails" is used more to mean those aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusks in the family Planorbidae that have planispiral coiled shells. Ramshorn snails have been bred for the aquarium trade and various color forms have been selected. Most of the aquarium ramshorn snails are species in the family Planorbidae, but one kind is from a different family, the Ampullariidae. Ramshorn snails can sometimes become a nuisance in an aquarium, because some of them breed so profusely. Most of these snails are of the family Planorbidae, they include the species Planorbarius corneus. There are two different coloured skin forms: red, their blood contains red hemoglobin, unlike other snails' blood. These ramshorn snails breathe air.
Although most of them are small, some may reach a size of two and a half centimeters. The shells range from translucent through various shades of brown to a dark, nearly black color; the dark color appears to originate from dietary materials not available in the home aquarium, although many varieties from ponds are this dark shade. Snails of this family are spiralled sinistrally, with the opening hole slanted downward toward the right. Large folds of skin may protrude out of the more open left side. Like all air-breathing water snails, the animal has no operculum, has only one pair of tentacles with the eye spots at the base of the tentacles. Ramshorn snails are hermaphroditic. Ramshorn snails lay eggs in globules; the globules contain about a dozen or so eggs. The globules are translucent, so it is possible to visually see the new snails develop in size; the newborn snails are clearish white. Ramshorn snails will eat only the most delicate plants, preferring algae, uneaten fish food, dead fish; some varieties do enjoy eating the leaves of stem plants such as cabomba and anacharis.
Some aquarium species will eat ramshorn snails. More voracious eaters include puffers, bettas and most gouramis— though many other fish will consume snail meat; the larger apple snail will prey upon ramshorn snails. Good fish roommates for snails include, but are not limited to, guppies, White Cloud Mountain Minnows, neon tetras, cory catfish. All of these are non-aggressive fish that cohabit with snails. One should be aware that pond-reared red ramshorn snails are able to carry various parasitic flukes, which can be transmitted to fish, or humans. Most of these flukes require intermediate hosts, so that leaving the snails in a fish-free aquarium for a month or so will eliminate any parasites. If the population is kept to a manageable size, ramshorn snails can be good tank cleaners, they eat algae and dead or dying plants so they can be useful. However, if they breed too prolifically they can become a nuisance. In warm climates they much prefer ponds outdoor ponds. Algae, dead leaves that sink to the bottom and dead animals can be a problem, as they foul the water.
Ramshorn snails eat all of these things. Most ramshorn snails are considered minor aquarium pests, they may arrive in a tank as egg bundles hidden in newly acquired plants. Although their red color may make them somewhat interesting aquarium subjects, their hermaphroditic ability to breed prolifically from any two specimens can make them troublesome. Absolute eradication is difficult, but their numbers can be kept to a moderate level. Common methods to reduce population include treating plants to prevent introduction, various manual methods of control, introducing the snail-eating animals listed earlier, poisoning the snails. Soaking the plants in various chemicals may kill off the snails and their eggs. A 10-minute bath in a solution of 20 parts water to 1 part chlorine bleach has been suggested for hardier plants, followed by soaking in water containing a dechlorinating agent. A more gentle treatment calls for 5-10 tablespoons of alum to 1 gallon of water for 2–3 days. A safer alternative may be placing the plants in a quarantine tank, adding snail poisons to that tank rather than the main show tank.
Manual methods include baiting the snails with cucumber slices, or food pellets. These may be left out in the open, removed with their snails, or kept in some container, such as a film canister weighed down with a pebble, containing holes drilled in it. Crushing the snails by hand as they appear can effectively limit their population. Introducing animals to control a snail population can require some thought. Other aquarium fish may not be compatible, some larger adult snails may be too big to be eaten by smaller snail eating species, it may be necessary to crush a few snails manually so that the fish realize the snail can be eaten. Snail eating species do not discriminate between different types of snails, although this is not much of a concern. Snail poisons are cons