Trade, or commerce, involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money. A network that allows trade is called a market, the original form of trade, saw the direct exchange of goods and services for other goods and services. Barter is trading things without the use of money, one side of the barter started to involve precious metals, which gained symbolic as well as practical importance. Modern traders generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money, as a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money greatly simplified and promoted trade, Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade, while trade between more than two traders is called multilateral trade. Trade exists due to the specialization and division of labor, in which most people concentrate on an aspect of production. As such, trade at prices between locations can benefit both locations. Trade originated with human communication in prehistoric times, trading was the main facility of prehistoric people, who bartered goods and services from each other before the innovation of modern-day currency.
Peter Watson dates the history of commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. In the Mediterranean region the earliest contact between cultures were of members of the species Homo sapiens principally using the Danube river, at a time beginning 35–30,000 BCE, Trade is believed to have taken place throughout much of recorded human history. There is evidence of the exchange of obsidian and flint during the stone age, Trade in obsidian is believed to have taken place in Guinea from 17,000 BCE. The earliest use of obsidian in the Near East dates to the Lower, Trade in the stone age was investigated by Robert Carr Bosanquet in excavations of 1901. Trade is believed to have first begun in south west Asia, obsidian was traded at distances of 900 kilometres within the Mediterranean region. Trade in the Mediterranean during the Neolithic of Europe was greatest in this material, networks were in existence at around 12,000 BCE Anatolia was the source primarily for trade with the Levant and Egypt according to Zarins study of 1990.
Melos and Lipari sources produced among the most widespread trading in the Mediterranean region as known to archaeology, the Sari-i-Sang mine in the mountains of Afghanistan was the largest source for trade of Lapis Lazuli. The material was most largely traded during the Kassite period of Babylonia beginning 1595 BCE, ebla was a prominent trading centre during the third millennia, with a network reaching into Anatolia and north Mesopotamia. Materials used for creating jewelry were traded with Egypt since 3000 BCE, long-range trade routes first appeared in the 3rd millennium BCE, when Sumerians in Mesopotamia traded with the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley. The Phoenicians were noted sea traders, traveling across the Mediterranean Sea, for this purpose they established trade colonies the Greeks called emporia
The Courts of Denmark is the ordinary court system of the Kingdom of Denmark. Part of the Courts of Denmark are three boards, The Process Grating Board, The Sideline Employment Board and the Judicial Appointment Council, finally the Danish Court Administration is vested with the joint administration of the whole organization. The courts of Greenland and the Faeroe Islands constitute semi-autonomous parts of the Courts of Denmark and are governed by separate, in accordance with Article 3 of the Danish Constitution, all judicial authority is vested in the courts of justice. The constitution provides that judges of the court may pass judgements. The Danish system of courts is based on a structure, in which there are no special or constitutional courts of law. As a rule, all courts of law may adjudicate disputes in legal areas such as civil, administrative, the Court of Indictment and Revision handles complaints regarding procedure, disqualification of judges, etc. brought by the users of the courts, against the courts.
Proceedings are oral in general and open to the public in the lower courts, media transmissions from within the court are prohibited, unless allowed by the presiding judge. The general structure of the system is inspired by the traditions of continental Europe. The Act has undergone substantial changes since its enactment in 1916, the Danish Constitution provides for the Court of Impeachment of the Realm to hear cases brought against ministers concerning their administration. The Danish Courts exercise the powers of government and resolve related issues, including probate, enforcement, land registration. Lay judges may be of any profession, except they may not be attorneys, members of the clergy, or acting civil servants, from late 2005 a gradual reform of the lower courts is under way. When passed, the reform will transform the role of the County and High Courts, the composition of the county courts varies but is regulated by law. The Copenhagen County Court has 49 judges and a President, whilst Aarhus, Odense and Roskilde county courts have a President and 15,10,10,29 jurisdictions have two to four judges, whilst the last 50 jurisdictions have only one judge.
At the preparatory and trial stages of civil cases only one judge presides, in criminal cases where this is not the case, the judge sits with two lay judges. Special rules regarding appointment of lay judges apply to maritime cases, in cases where lay judges sit with the judge, decisions are adopted by simple majority. In addition to their duties, county court judges act as notary public and bailiffs, as well as administrators of bankruptcy proceedings. Furthermore, they administer the land registry. In regard to the tasks, these functions may be assigned to an assessor