Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, growth, distribution and taxonomy. Modern biology is a vast and eclectic field, composed of branches and subdisciplines. However, despite the broad scope of biology, there are certain unifying concepts within it that consolidate it into single, coherent field. In general, biology recognizes the cell as the unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity. It is understood today that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable, the term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios and the suffix -λογία, -logia, study of. The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica, the first German use, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological and psychological perspective.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most often traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Especially important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, and more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotles successor at the Lyceum, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences, even into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, biology began to quickly develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoeks dramatic improvement of the microscope.
It was that scholars discovered spermatozoa, infusoria, investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy had a impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the importance of the cell. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, meanwhile and classification became the focus of natural historians
Gadjah Mada University
Gadjah Mada University is a public research university located in Yogyakarta, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Officially founded on 19 December 1949, Gadjah Mada University is one of the oldest and largest institutions of education in the country. It has been credited as one of the most prestigious universities in Indonesia, along with the Bandung Institute of Technology and the University of Indonesia. When the university was established in the 1940s under Dutch rule, it was the first medicine faculty freely open to native Indonesians, the seventh and current President of Indonesia, Joko Jokowi Widodo, earned his degree in forestry at UGM. Comprising 18 faculties and 27 research centers, UGM offers 68 undergraduate,23 diploma,104 master and specialist, the university has enrolled approximately 55,000 students,1,187 foreign students, and has 2,500 faculty members. UGM maintains a campus of 360 acres, with facilities include a stadium. UGM was the first state university in Indonesia, established as Universiteit Negeri Gadjah Mada when Indonesia was still facing threats from the Netherlands, at the time, the capital of Indonesia had moved from Jakarta to Yogyakarta.
UGM was established through Government Regulation No.23 of 1949, the intentional date was meant to show that one year after the Netherlands had invaded the city, the government would establish a nationwide university there. UGM gradually established a campus of its own in Bulaksumur, on the side of Yogyakarta. The UGM main building is the Balairung, in Sleman, nearby is the Graha Sabha Pramana, a large building utilized for graduation ceremonies, with an adjoining square used for sport and recreation. There is a university library and a center, consisting of a stadium, tennis court. The UGM administration is divided into 18 faculties, offering programs from the undergraduate to doctoral level. There is a school offering vocational study programmes. In 1988, UGM opened a masters programme in management, to students in business practices. The business school is a collaboration with the University of Kentucky, the Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Gadjah Mada is one of the oldest medical schools in Indonesia, having been established on 5 March 1946.
It is ranked number 72 by the Times Higher Education Supplement 2006 for biomedicine, the International Medicine Programme is over five years, with the first three and a half years being study and a further one and a half years of clinical rotations. The programme is designed around a problem based learning approach, making use of study groups. CSIUP began in the 2012 academic year and it offers undergraduate computer science classes in English
Mathematical and theoretical biology
Mathematical and theoretical biology is an interdisciplinary scientific research field with a range of applications. The field is sometimes called mathematical biology or biomathematics to stress the mathematical side, Mathematical biology aims at the mathematical representation and modeling of biological processes, using techniques and tools of applied mathematics. It has both theoretical and practical applications in biological and biotechnology research, describing systems in a quantitative manner means their behavior can be better simulated, and hence properties can be predicted that might not be evident to the experimenter. Mathematical biology employs many components of mathematics, and has contributed to the development of new techniques, applying mathematics to biology has a long history. One founding text is considered to be On Growth and Form by DArcy Thompson, only recently has there been an explosion of interest in the field. Ecology and evolutionary biology have traditionally been the dominant fields of mathematical biology, Evolutionary biology has been the subject of extensive mathematical theorizing.
The traditional approach in this area, which includes complications from genetics, is population genetics, when infinitesimal effects at a large number of gene loci are considered, together with the assumption of linkage equilibrium or quasi-linkage equilibrium, one derives quantitative genetics. Ronald Fisher made fundamental advances in statistics, such as analysis of variance, another important branch of population genetics that led to the extensive development of coalescent theory is phylogenetics. Many population genetics models assume that population sizes are constant, variable population sizes, often in the absence of genetic variation, are treated by the field of population dynamics. The Lotka–Volterra predator-prey equations are another famous example, population dynamics overlap with another active area of research in mathematical biology, mathematical epidemiology, the study of infectious disease affecting populations. Various models of the spread of infections have been proposed and analyzed, in evolutionary game theory, developed first by John Maynard Smith and George R.
Price, selection acts directly on inherited phenotypes, without genetic complications. This approach has been refined to produce the field of adaptive dynamics. This published report includes 390 references to peer-reviewed articles by a number of authors. Modeling cell and molecular biology This area has received a boost due to the importance of molecular biology. It was introduced by Anthony Bartholomay, and its applications were developed in mathematical biology, a model of a biological system is converted into a system of equations, although the word model is often used synonymously with the system of corresponding equations. The solution of the equations, by either analytical or numerical means, there are many different types of equations and the type of behavior that can occur is dependent on both the model and the equations used. The model often makes assumptions about the system, the equations may make assumptions about the nature of what may occur. Computer with significant recent evolution in performance acceraretes the model based on various formulas
Oegstgeest is a town and municipality in the province of South Holland in the western Netherlands. Its population was 22,903 in 2014, the portion geest in the name refers to the geest lands, which were excavated in the seventeenth century for the benefit of the urban expansion of Leiden. About the Oegst part more uncertainty exists, the name was formerly often spelled Oestgeest or Oostgeest, which could indicate the geographical location of the village, east of the geest lands. However, the oldest spelling found in a copy of a list of goods of the St. Martins Cathedral in Utrecht from the tenth century states Osgeresgeest and this could indicate an original resident and owner of the territory, Osger. In the Middle Ages they spoke of the Church of Kerckwerve if one referred to the Oegstgeester parish church, Oegstgeest is one of the earliest inhabited places along the coast. By the 9th century there was already a church in the same location as the current Little Green Church which. The existence of church is an indication that there may have been a community there.
From the 11th to the 14th century, Oegstgeest enjoyed a period of progress and this ended when Leiden was granted city rights. The carrying out of trades and construction were no longer permitted within a distance from the city. In 1399, the heerlijkheid of Oegstgeest and that of Poelgeest were merged because their declining populations could no longer afford to pay the taxes to the Count of Holland. Until the 19th century the boundary of Oegstgeest extended right to the city walls, but in the 19th and 20th century, it conceded more and more of its territory to the rapidly expanding city of Leiden. Before the early 20th century, Oegstgeest had a rural character and it consisted of several unconnected smaller settlements. Only after 1900 were new neighbourhoods built between the settlements, first Wilhelminapark was built, followed by Prins Hendrikpark, Buitenlust or Indische Buurt, Julianapark and Emmapark, and Grunerie and the area between Emmalaan and Lange Voort. In the 1980s and 1990s, the Haaswijk and Morsebel neighbourhoods were built, in 2006 construction started on a new neighbourhood, Nieuw Rhijngeest.
In 2017 there will be a new housepark being built, at the current location of the footballclub ASC, herefor ASC will move to the old location of the cricketclub of Oegstgeest. The municipality of Oegstgeest covers an area of 7.97 km2 of which 0.67 km2 is water, Oegstgeest lies just to the north of Leiden, with which it is conjoined in a conurbation and formed the Leiden region. Oegstgeest is a municipality, but it is effectively a suburb of Leiden. The municipality of Katwijk is to the west, the municipality of Teylingen to the north, Oegstgeest is the birthplace of the famous Dutch writer Jan Wolkers as well as stand up comedian Theo Maassen
Physiology is the scientific study of normal mechanisms, and their interactions, which operate within a living system. A sub-discipline of biology, its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology, plant physiology, cellular physiology, microbial physiology, bacterial physiology, and viral physiology. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In medicine, a state is one occurring from normal body function, rather than pathologically. Physiological studies date back to the ancient civilizations of India and Egypt alongside anatomical studies, the study of human physiology as a medical field dates back to at least 420 BC to the time of Hippocrates, known as the father of medicine. Hippocrates incorporated his belief called the theory of humours, which consisted of four basic substance, water, air.
Each substance is known for having a corresponding humour, black bile, phlegm and yellow bile, Hippocrates noted some emotional connections to the four humours, which Claudis Galenus would expand on. The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece. Like Hippocrates, Aristotle took to the theory of disease. Claudius Galenus, known as Galen of Pergamum, was the first to use experiments to probe the functions of the body, unlike Hippocrates though, Galen argued that humoral imbalances can be located in specific organs, including the entire body. His modification of this theory better equipped doctors to more precise diagnoses. Galen was the founder of experimental physiology, and for the next 1,400 years, Galenic physiology was a powerful and influential tool in medicine. Jean Fernel, a French physician, introduced the term physiology, inspired in the work of Adam Smith, Milne-Edwards wrote that the body of all living beings, whether animal or plant, resembles a factory.
Where the organs, comparable to workers, work incessantly to produce the phenomena that constitute the life of the individual, in more differentiated organisms, the functional labor could be apportioned between different instruments or systems. In 1858, Joseph Lister studied the cause of blood coagulation and inflammation that resulted after previous injuries and he discovered and implemented antiseptics in the operating room, and as a result decreases death rate from surgery by a substantial amount. The Physiological Society was founded in London in 1876 as a dining club, the American Physiological Society is a nonprofit organization that was founded in 1887. The Society is, devoted to fostering education, scientific research, in 1891, Ivan Pavlov performed research on conditional reflexes that involved dogs saliva production in response to a plethora of sounds and visual stimuli
A priest or priestess, is a person authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of and their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. The necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, the question of which religions have a priest depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will often turn to for advice on spiritual matters, for example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are typically minister and pastor. The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in a sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion.
In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role, for example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning priest. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines, in a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood. The word priest, is derived from Greek, via Latin presbyter. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, apparently derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre, the Latin presbyter ultimately represents Greek presbyteros, the regular Latin word for priest being sacerdos, corresponding to Greek hiereus. That English should have only the term priest to translate presbyter. The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, in the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the ordination of women.
In the case of the ordination of women in the Anglican communion, it is common to speak of priests. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity, in the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity often performed sacred prostitution, and in Ancient Greece, some such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi. Sumerian and Akkadian Entu or EN were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and they owned property, transacted business, and initiated the hieros gamos ceremony with priests and kings
Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College primarily trained Congregationalist and Unitarian clergy. Its curriculum and student body were gradually secularized during the 18th century, james Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College, Harvards $34.5 billion financial endowment is the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large, highly residential research university, the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the Universitys large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. Harvards alumni include eight U. S. presidents, several heads of state,62 living billionaires,359 Rhodes Scholars. To date, some 130 Nobel laureates,18 Fields Medalists, Harvard was formed in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
In 1638, it obtained British North Americas first known printing press, in 1639 it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard an alumnus of the University of Cambridge who had left the school £779 and his scholars library of some 400 volumes. The charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650 and it offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational. The leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701, in 1708, John Leverett became the first president who was not a clergyman, which marked a turning of the college toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. When the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year later, in 1804, in 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College.
Agassizs approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans participation in the Divine Nature, agassizs perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the divine plan in all phenomena. When it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on an archetype for his evidence. Charles W. Eliot, president 1869–1909, eliminated the position of Christianity from the curriculum while opening it to student self-direction. While Eliot was the most crucial figure in the secularization of American higher education, he was motivated not by a desire to secularize education, during the 20th century, Harvards international reputation grew as a burgeoning endowment and prominent professors expanded the universitys scope. Rapid enrollment growth continued as new schools were begun and the undergraduate College expanded. Radcliffe College, established in 1879 as sister school of Harvard College, Harvard became a founding member of the Association of American Universities in 1900.
In the early 20th century, the student body was predominately old-stock, high-status Protestants, especially Episcopalians, Congregationalists, by the 1970s it was much more diversified
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus Latin, Societas Iesu, S. J. SJ or SI) is a religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in Spain. The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents, Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, and promote social justice, Ignatius of Loyola founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion. He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ, ignatiuss plan of the orders organization was approved by Pope Paul III in 1540 by a bull containing the Formula of the Institute. Ignatius was a nobleman who had a background, and the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world. The Society participated in the Counter-Reformation and, later, in the implementation of the Second Vatican Council, the Society of Jesus is consecrated under the patronage of Madonna Della Strada, a title of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and it is led by a Superior General.
The Society of Jesus on October 3,2016 announced that Superior General Adolfo Nicolás resignation was officially accepted, on October 14, the 36th General Congregation of the Society of Jesus elected Father Arturo Sosa as its thirty-first Superior General. The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome, the historic curia of St. Ignatius is now part of the Collegio del Gesù attached to the Church of the Gesù, the Jesuit Mother Church. In 2013, Jorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit Pope, the Jesuits today form the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church. As of 1 January 2015, Jesuits numbered 16,740,11,986 clerics regular,2,733 scholastics,1,268 brothers and 753 novices. In 2012, Mark Raper S. J. wrote, Our numbers have been in decline for the last 40 years—from over 30,000 in the 1960s to fewer than 18,000 today. The steep declines in Europe and North America and consistent decline in Latin America have not been offset by the significant increase in South Asia, the Society is divided into 83 Provinces with six Independent Regions and ten Dependent Regions.
On 1 January 2007, members served in 112 nations on six continents with the largest number in India and their average age was 57.3 years,63.4 years for priests,29.9 years for scholastics, and 65.5 years for brothers. The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa, the Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education. It operates colleges and universities in countries around the world and is particularly active in the Philippines. In the United States it maintains 28 colleges and universities and 58 high schools and he ensured that his formula was contained in two papal bulls signed by Pope Paul III in 1540 and by Pope Julius III in 1550. The formula expressed the nature, community life and apostolate of the new religious order, the meeting is now commemorated in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, Montmartre
Gerard M. Verschuuren is a scientist, writer and consultant, working at the interface of science and religion. He is a human geneticist who earned a doctorate in the philosophy of science, and studied and worked at universities in Europe, in 1994, he moved permanently to the United States, and lives now in the southern part of New Hampshire. He further specialized in philosophy of science, in particular in philosophy of biology, Verschuuren concluded his post-graduate studies with a doctoral thesis on the use of models in the sciences. Currently, he focuses almost exclusively on writing, and he became a member of the College Admission Test team for biology in the Netherlands. During the 1970s, Verschuuren wrote a column on breaking biological topics in the Volkskrant daily. All in all, he wrote books and articles in Dutch on biological and philosophical issues. In the 1980s, Verschuuren was an advisor to the Foundation Scientific Europe, from 1985 until 1994, he was the editor-in-chief of the Dutch magazine Natuurwetenschap en Techniek and publisher of the Dutch version of the Scientific American Library.
Verschuuren assisted scientists and engineers in using computers for analysis, statistical analysis. He became a Microsoft Certified Professional and was an adviser on Excels latest statistical functions. Intel Corporation, John Hancock, IBM, Keystone Trading, Lantheus Medical Imaging, Liberty Mutual, general Hospital, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, MIT, Rockwell Automation, Siemens, Staples and Wyeth. NET. These interactive tools are great for visual learners - completely visualized, full-color, in addition, he wrote From VBA to VSTO,80 Excel Simulations, and Excel for Scientists. He created many informative videos to help manage data on their PCs or laptops. A practicing Catholic, Verschuuren is interested in the relationship between science and religion, put in the words of Augustine of Hippo or Galileo Galilei, science reads the Book of Nature and religion reads the Book of Scripture, for they both have the same Author, GOD. From this perspective, grounded in the tradition of Thomas Aquinas, he has several books, Darwins Philosophical Legacy - The Good.
There is hardly any university, college, or even high school left where they do not teach Darwinism—and rightly so, most of these places do more preaching than teaching. In what the author likes to call The Good parts of his legacy, he explores what Darwin’s great contributions are to the study of evolution and to the theory of evolution. At the same time, he delves into the areas where his thoughts were not so perfect or even wrong. There are definitely two sides to Darwin’s legacy and they need to be carefully balanced and Evolution - Science Meets Faith
Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. The university was founded in 1575 by William, Prince of Orange, the Dutch Royal Family and Leiden University still have a close relationship, Queens Juliana and Beatrix and King Willem-Alexander are all former students. Leiden University has seven faculties, over 50 departments and enjoys an international reputation. Shanghai Jiao Tong Universitys 2011 Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Leiden University as the 29th best university worldwide, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings consistently rank Leiden University as the best university in Continental Europe for Arts and Humanities. During this time Leiden was home to figures as René Descartes, Christiaan Huygens, Hugo Grotius, Baruch Spinoza. The university is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum, Leiden University houses more than 40 national and international research institutes. In 1575, the emerging Dutch Republic did not have any universities in its northern heartland, the only other university in the Habsburg Netherlands was the University of Leuven in southern Leuven, firmly under Spanish control.
It is said the choice fell on Leiden as a reward for the defence of Leiden against Spanish attacks in the previous year. Ironically, the name of Philip II of Spain, Williams adversary, appears on the foundation certificate. Philip II replied by forbidding any subject to study in Leiden, renowned philosopher Baruch Spinoza was based close to Leiden during this period and interacted with numerous scholars at the university. At the end of the century, Leiden University again became one of Europes leading universities. At the world’s first university low-temperature laboratory, professor Heike Kamerlingh Onnes achieved temperatures of one degree above absolute zero of −273 degrees Celsius. In 1908 he was the first to succeed in liquifying helium, Kamerlingh Onnes was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1913. In 2005 the manuscript of Einstein on the theory of the monatomic ideal gas was discovered in one of Leidens libraries. Of the seventy-seven Spinozapremie, nineteen were granted to professors of the Universiteit Leiden, literary historian Frits van Oostrom was the first professor of Leiden to be granted the Spinoza award for his work on developing the NLCM centre into a top research centre.
Among other leading professors are Wim Blockmans, professor of Medieval History, the portraits of many famous professors since the earliest days hang in the university aula, one of the most memorable places, as Niebuhr called it, in the history of science. The University Library, which has more than 5 and it houses the largest collections worldwide on Indonesia and the Caribbean. Scholars from all over the world visit Leiden University Library, the oldest in the Netherlands, the anatomical and pathological laboratories of the university are modern, and the museums of geology and mineralogy have been restored
Maastricht is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands. It is the city of the province of Limburg. Maastricht is located on both sides of the Meuse river, at the point where the Jeker River joins it, Maastricht developed from a Roman settlement to a Medieval religious centre, a garrison town and an early industrial city. Today, Maastricht is well-regarded as an affluent cultural center, Maastricht has 1677 national heritage sites, which is the second highest number in a Dutch town, after Amsterdam. It has become known, by way of the Maastricht Treaty, as the birthplace of the European Union, European citizenship, and the single European currency, the town is popular with tourists for shopping and recreation, and has a large growing international student population. Maastricht is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network and is part of the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion, the name Maastricht is derived from Latin Traiectum ad Mosam, meaning crossing at the Meuse, and referring to the bridge built by the Romans.
The Latin name first appears in documents and it is not known whether this was Maastrichts official name during Roman times. A resident of Maastricht is referred to as Maastrichtenaar whilst in the local dialect it is either Mestreechteneer or, there is some debate as to whether Maastricht is the oldest city in the Netherlands. Some people consider Nijmegen the oldest, mainly because it was the first settlement in the Netherlands to receive Roman city rights, Maastricht never did, but it may be as old or older as a settlement. In addition, Maastricht can claim uninterrupted habitation since Roman times, a large number of archeological finds confirms this. Nijmegen has a gap in its history, there is no evidence of habitation in the early Middle Ages. Neanderthal remains have been found to the west of Maastricht, of a date are Palaeolithic remains, between 8,000 and 25,000 years old. Celts lived here around 500 BC, at a spot where the river Meuse was shallow and it is not known when the Romans arrived in Maastricht, or whether the settlement was founded by them.
The Romans built a bridge over the Meuse in the 1st century AD, the bridge was an important link in the main road between Bavay and Cologne. Roman Maastricht was probably relatively small, remains of the Roman road, the bridge, a religious shrine, a Roman bath, a granary, some houses and the 4th-century castrum walls and gates, have been excavated. Fragments of provincial Roman sculptures, as well as coins, glass, according to legend, the Armenian-born Saint Servatius, Bishop of Tongeren, died in Maastricht in 384 and was buried there along the Roman road, outside the castrum. According to Gregory of Tours it was bishop Monulph who, around 570, built the first stone church on the grave of Servatius, the city remained an early Christian diocese until it lost this position to nearby Liège in the early 8th century. In the early Middle Ages Maastricht was part of the heartland of the Carolingian Empire along with Aachen, the town was an important centre for trade and manufacturing