The Daily Telegraph
The Daily Telegraph referred to as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier; the Telegraph is regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858; the paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018; the Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories.
Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph. Editorially, the paper is considered conservative; the Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers HSBC; the Daily Telegraph and Courier was founded by Colonel Arthur B. Sleigh in June 1855 to air a personal grievance against the future commander-in-chief of the British Army, Prince George, Duke of Cambridge. Joseph Moses Levy, the owner of The Sunday Times, agreed to print the newspaper, the first edition was published on 29 June 1855; the paper was four pages long.
The first edition stressed the quality and independence of its articles and journalists: We shall be guided by a high tone of independent action. However, the paper was not a success, Sleigh was unable to pay Levy the printing bill. Levy took over the newspaper, his aim being to produce a cheaper newspaper than his main competitors in London, the Daily News and The Morning Post, to expand the size of the overall market. Levy appointed his son, Edward Levy-Lawson, Lord Burnham, Thornton Leigh Hunt to edit the newspaper. Lord Burnham relaunched the paper as The Daily Telegraph, with the slogan "the largest and cheapest newspaper in the world". Hunt laid out the newspaper's principles in a memorandum sent to Levy: "We should report all striking events in science, so told that the intelligent public can understand what has happened and can see its bearing on our daily life and our future; the same principle should apply to all other events—to fashion, to new inventions, to new methods of conducting business".
In 1876, Jules Verne published his novel Michael Strogoff, whose plot takes place during a fictional uprising and war in Siberia. Verne included among the book's characters a war correspondent of The Daily Telegraph, named Harry Blount—who is depicted as an exceptionally dedicated and brave journalist, taking great personal risks to follow the ongoing war and bring accurate news of it to The Telegraph's readership, ahead of competing papers. In 1908, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany gave a controversial interview to The Daily Telegraph that damaged Anglo-German relations and added to international tensions in the build-up to World War I. In 1928 the son of Baron Burnham, Harry Lawson Webster Levy-Lawson, 2nd Baron Burnham, sold the paper to William Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, in partnership with his brother Gomer Berry, 1st Viscount Kemsley and Edward Iliffe, 1st Baron Iliffe. In 1937, the newspaper absorbed The Morning Post, which traditionally espoused a conservative position and sold predominantly amongst the retired officer class.
William Ewart Berry, 1st Viscount Camrose, bought The Morning Post with the intention of publishing it alongside The Daily Telegraph, but poor sales of the former led him to merge the two. For some years the paper was retitled The Daily Telegraph and Morning Post before it reverted to just The Daily Telegraph. In the late 1930s Victor Gordon Lennox, The Telegraph's diplomatic editor, published an anti-appeasement private newspaper The Whitehall Letter that received much of its information from leaks from Sir Robert Vansittart, the Permanent Under-Secretary of the Foreign Office, Rex Leeper, the Foreign Office's Press Secretary; as a result, Gordon Lennox was monitored by MI5. In 1939, The Telegraph published Clare Hollingworth's scoop. In November 1940, with Fleet Street subjected to daily bombing raids by the Luftwaffe, The Telegraph started printing in Manchester at Kemsley House, run by Camrose's brother Kemsley. Manchester quite printed the entire run of The Telegraph when its Fleet Street offices were under threat.
The name Kemsley House was changed to Thomson House in 1959. In 1986 printing of Northern editions of the Daily and Sunday Telegraph moved to Trafford Park and in 2008 to Newsprinters at Knowsley, Liverpool. During the Second World War, The Daily Telegraph covertly helped in the recruitment of code-breakers for Bletchley Park; the ability to solve The Telegraph's crossword in under 12 minutes was considered to be a recruitment test. The newspaper was asked to organise a crossword competition, after wh
British Pakistanis are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestral roots lie in Pakistan. This includes people born in the UK who are of Pakistani descent, Pakistani-born people who have migrated to the UK; the majority of British Pakistanis originate from the Azad Kashmir and Punjab regions, with a smaller number from other parts of Pakistan including Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan. The UK is home to the largest Pakistani community in Europe, with the population of British Pakistanis exceeding 1.17 million based on the 2011 census. British Pakistanis are the second-largest ethnic minority population in the United Kingdom and make up the second-largest sub-group of British Asians. In addition, they are one of the largest overseas Pakistani communities, similar in number to the Pakistani diaspora in Saudi Arabia. Due to the historical relations between the two countries, immigration to the UK from the region, now Pakistan began in small numbers in the mid-19th century.
During the mid-nineteenth century, parts of what is now Pakistan came under the British Raj and people from those regions served as soldiers in the British Indian Army, some were deployed in other parts of the British Empire. However, it was following the Second World War, the break-up of the British Empire and the independence of Pakistan, that Pakistani immigration to the United Kingdom increased during the 1950s and 1960s; this was made easier. Pakistani immigrants helped to resolve labour shortages in the British steel and engineering industries. Doctors from Pakistan were recruited by the National Health Service in the 1960s; the British Pakistani population has grown from about 10,000 in 1951 to over 1.1 million in 2011. The vast majority of these live in England, with a sizable number in Scotland and smaller numbers in Wales and Northern Ireland; the most diverse Pakistani population is in London which comprises Punjabis, Mirpuri Kashmiris, Sindhis, Saraikis and others. The majority of British Pakistanis are Muslim.
The majority are Sunni Muslims, with a significant minority of Shia Muslims. The UK has one of the largest overseas Christian Pakistani communities. Since their settlement, British Pakistanis have had diverse contributions and influence on British society, culture and sport. Whilst social issues include high relative poverty rates among the community according to the 2001 census, significant progress has been made in recent years, with the 2011 Census showing British Pakistanis as having amongst the highest levels of home ownership in Britain. A large number of British Pakistanis have traditionally been self-employed, with a significant number working in the transport industry or in family-run businesses of the retail sector; the earliest period of Asian migration to Britain has not been ascertained. It is known that Romani groups such as the Romanichal and Kale arrived in the region during the Middle Ages, having originated from North India and Pakistan and traveled westward to Europe via Southwest Asia around 1000 CE, intermingling with local populations over the course of several centuries.
Immigration from what is now Pakistan to the United Kingdom began long before the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Muslim immigrants from Kashmir, Sindh, the North-West Frontier and Balochistan as well as other parts of South Asia, arrived in the British Isles as early as the mid-seventeenth century as employees of the East India Company as lashkars and sailors in British port cities; these immigrants were the first Asians to be seen in British port cities and were perceived as indolent due to their reliance on Christian charities. Despite this, most early Pakistani immigrants married local white British women because there were few South Asian women in Britain at the time. During the colonial era, Asians continued coming to Britain as seamen, students, domestic workers, political officials and visitors, some of them settled in the region. South Asian seamen being abandoned by ship masters. Many early Pakistanis came to the UK as scholars and studied at major British institutions, before returning to British India.
An example of such a person is the founder of Pakistan. Jinnah came to the UK in 1892 and started an apprenticeship at Graham's Shipping and Trading Company. After completing his apprenticeship, Jinnah joined Lincoln's Inn. At 19, Jinnah became the youngest person from South Asia to be called to the bar in Britain. Most early Pakistani settlers and their families moved from port towns to the Midlands, as Britain declared war on Germany in 1939. Many of these Kashmiris and Sindhis worked in the munition factories of Birmingham. After the war, most of these early settlers stayed on in the region and took advantage of an increase in the number of jobs; these settlers were joined by the arrival of their families to Britain. In 1932, the Indian National Congress survey of'all Indians outside India' estimated that there were 7,128 Indians in the United Kingdom. There were 832,500 Muslim Indian soldiers in 1945; these soldiers fought alongside the British Army during the F
Fish and chips
Fish and chips is a hot dish of English origin consisting of fried fish in batter served with chips. It is an early example of culinary fusion. Fish and chips first appeared in the UK in the 1860s. By 1910 there were more than 25,000 fish and chip shops across the UK, by the 1930s there were over 35,000. Fish and chips are now a staple takeaway meal in numerous countries in English-speaking and Commonwealth countries; the tradition in the UK of fish battered and fried in oil may have come from Jewish immigrants from Spain and Portugal. Western Sephardic Jews settling in England as early as the 16th century would have prepared fried fish in a manner similar to pescado frito, coated in flour fried in oil. Charles Dickens mentions "fried fish warehouses" in Oliver Twist, in 1845 Alexis Soyer in his first edition of A Shilling cookery for the People, gives a recipe for "Fried fish, Jewish fashion", dipped in a batter of flour and water; the exact location of the first fish and chip shop is unclear.
The earliest known shops were opened in the 1860s, in London by Joseph Malin and in Mossley, near Oldham, Lancashire, by John Lees. However, fried fish, as well as chips, had existed independently for at least fifty years, so the possibility that they had been combined at an earlier time cannot be ruled out. Fish and chips became a stock meal among the working classes in England as a consequence of the rapid development of trawl fishing in the North Sea, the development of railways which connected the ports to major industrial cities during the second half of the 19th century, so that fresh fish could be transported to the populated areas. Deep-fried chips as a dish may have first appeared in England in about the same period: the Oxford English Dictionary notes as its earliest usage of "chips" in this sense the mention in Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities: "Husky chips of potatoes, fried with some reluctant drops of oil"; the modern fish-and-chip shop originated in the United Kingdom, although outlets selling fried food occurred throughout Europe.
Early fish-and-chip shops had only basic facilities. These consisted principally of a large cauldron of cooking fat, heated by a coal fire; the fish-and-chip shop evolved into a standard format, with the food served, in paper wrappings, to queuing customers, over a counter in front of the fryers. By 1910, there were more than 25,000 fish and chip shops across the country, in the 1920s there were more than 35,000 shops; as a boy Alfred Hitchcock lived above a fish and chip shop in London, the family business. According to Professor John Walton, author of Fish and Chips and the British Working Class, the British government made safeguarding supplies of fish and chips during World War I a priority: "The cabinet knew it was vital to keep families on the home front in good heart, unlike the German regime that failed to keep its people well fed". In 1928, Harry Ramsden opened his first chip shop in Guiseley, West Yorkshire. On a single day in 1952, the shop served 10,000 portions of fish and chips, earning a place in the Guinness Book of Records.
In George Orwell's The Road to Wigan Pier, which documents his experience of working class life in the north of England, the author considered fish and chips chief among the'home comforts' which acted as a panacea to the working classes. During World War II, fish and chips remained one of the few foods in the United Kingdom not subject to rationing. Prime Minister Winston Churchill referred to the combination of fish and chips as "the good companions". John Lennon enjoyed his fish and chips—a staple of the working class—smothered in ketchup. British fish and chips were served in a wrapping of old newspapers but this practice has now ceased, with plain paper, cardboard, or plastic being used instead. In the United Kingdom, the Fish Labelling Regulations 2003 and in Ireland the European Communities Regulations 2003 enact directive 2065/2001/EC, mean that "fish" must be sold with the particular commercial name or species named. In the United Kingdom the Food Standards Agency guidance excludes caterers from this.
A prominent meal in British culture, the dish became popular in wider circles in London and South East England in the middle of the 19th century: Charles Dickens mentions a "fried fish warehouse" in Oliver Twist, first published in 1838, while in the north of England a trade in deep-fried chipped potatoes developed. The first chip shop stood on the present site of Oldham's Tommyfield Market, it remains unclear when and where these two trades combined to become the fish-and-chip shop industry we know. A Jewish immigrant, Joseph Malin, opened the first recorded combined fish-and-chip shop in London in 1860 or in 1865; the concept of a fish restaurant, as opposed to take-away, was introduced by Samuel Isaacs who ran a thriving wholesale and retail fish business throughout London and the South of England in the latter part of the 19th century. Isaacs' first restaurant opened in London in 1896 serving fish and chips and butter, tea for nine pence, its popularity ensured a rapid expansion of the chain.
The restaurants were carpeted, had table service, flowers, chi
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
Slimming World is a UK-based weight loss organisation that provides lifestyle weight management programmes. Slimming World's members have group support through shared experience with other slimmers to encourage behaviour change, called IMAGE Therapy. Slimming World's eating plan is based on energy density. Slimming World was founded in Derbyshire in 1969 by Margaret Miles-Bramwell, who remains its chairman. Caryl Richards has been managing director of the company since 2001; the company expanded into Yorkshire. By the 1980s, Slimming World had 700 classes in the UK and by 2012 there were over 10,000 groups, making it the largest slimming club in the UK and Ireland. Slimming World's charity,'SMILES', was launched in 1997. SMILES stands for "Slimmers Making It a Little Easier for Someone", since 1997 it has raised more than £2,500,000 for charity. Slimming World magazine was launched in 1998. In 2013, circulation exceeded 447,000 per issue. Slimming World publishes a range of recipe books and directories available to members in group.
In 2001, Slimming World pioneered'Slimming World on Referral' in the UK, whereby GPs can'prescribe' attendance of a group for 12 weeks. In 2011, a paper published in the journal Obesity Facts showed that patients attending at least 10 out of 12 sessions achieved a clinically significant weight loss of 5% of their body weight. Slimming World works with around 60 health authorities and, by April 2011, in excess of 100,000 people had used the scheme. In its 2014 guidance, the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence lists the Slimming World programme alongside the Rosemary Conley and Weight Watchers programmes as being "effective at 12 to 18 months"; the current plan consists of three steps, described as food optimising: 1. Free foods consist of most fruit and vegetables, eggs, low-fat dairy products and meat if prepared in a healthy way, can be eaten in unlimited amounts. In the free foods, "Speed" and "Protein" foods are highlighted. 2. Healthy extras consists of one measured portion of fibre-rich food and two measured portions of calcium-rich food every day.
3. Syns are ready meals, cooking oil, additional portions of healthy extras, all other foods, are given a point value and a daily limit. Members are encouraged to follow this plan to help control and regulate their weight loss as safely as possible but without making people feel guilty or hungry all of the time, which are behaviours typical of regular dieting methods. Slimming World encourages members to introduce physical activity into their daily lives through its'Body Magic' programme; the emphasis is on introducing activity at first, such as getting off the bus a stop early a couple of times a week, or walking up two flights of steps instead of taking the lift then on finding forms of activity which can be integrated into everyday life. Members achieve bronze, silver and platinum'Body Magic' awards. Platinum is achieved when members are active/exercising five times a week for thirty minutes at a time; this is in line with Government activity guidelines. Slimming World has signed up to the Department of Health's Public Health Responsibility Deal and has pledged to encourage its members to build activity into their daily routine.
Since 2011, Slimming World has supported more than 150,000 people to become more active. Slimming World works in partnership with the Royal College of Midwives and is the first national slimming organisation to support pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers to manage their weight healthily during pregnancy, it states that its pregnancy programme is designed to ensure that mothers-to-be and breastfeeding mothers can continue to manage their weight, with the consent of their midwife. Slimming World's pregnancy policy was devised in collaboration with the Royal College of Midwives. Dieting List of diets Slimming World official website
Ku Klux Klan
The Ku Klux Klan called the KKK or the Klan, is an American white supremacist hate group. The Klan has existed in three distinct eras at different points in time during the history of the United States; each has advocated extremist reactionary positions such as white nationalism, anti-immigration and—especially in iterations—Nordicism and anti-Catholicism. The Klan used terrorism—both physical assault and murder—against groups or individuals whom they opposed. All three movements have called for the "purification" of American society and all are considered right-wing extremist organizations. In each era, membership was secret and estimates of the total were exaggerated by both friends and enemies; the first Klan flourished in the Southern United States in the late 1860s died out by the early 1870s. It sought to overthrow the Republican state governments in the South by using violence against African-American leaders; each chapter was autonomous and secret as to membership and plans. Its numerous chapters across the South were suppressed through federal law enforcement.
Members made their own colorful, costumes: robes and conical hats, designed to be terrifying and to hide their identities. The second Klan was founded in Georgia in 1915 and it flourished nationwide in the early and mid-1920s, including urban areas of the Midwest and West. Taking inspiration from D. W. Griffith's 1915 silent film The Birth of a Nation, which mythologized the founding of the first Klan, it employed marketing techniques and a popular fraternal organization structure. Rooted in local Protestant communities, it sought to maintain white supremacy took a pro-Prohibition stance, it opposed Catholics and Jews, while stressing its opposition to the alleged political power of the Pope and the Catholic Church; this second organization was funded by selling its members a standard white costume. It used K-words which were similar to those used by the first Klan, while adding cross burnings and mass parades to intimidate others, it declined in the half of the 1920s. The third and current manifestation of the KKK emerged after 1950, in the form of localized and isolated groups that use the KKK name.
They have focused on opposition to the civil rights movement using violence and murder to suppress activists. It is classified as a hate group by the Southern Poverty Law Center; as of 2016, the Anti-Defamation League puts total KKK membership nationwide at around 3,000, while the Southern Poverty Law Center puts it at 6,000 members total. The second and third incarnations of the Ku Klux Klan made frequent references to America's "Anglo-Saxon" blood, hearkening back to 19th-century nativism. Although members of the KKK swear to uphold Christian morality every Christian denomination has denounced the KKK; the first Klan was founded in Pulaski, sometime between December 1865 and August 1866 by six former officers of the Confederate army as a fraternal social club inspired at least in part by the largely defunct Sons of Malta. It borrowed parts of the initiation ceremony from that group, with the same purpose: "ludicrous initiations, the baffling of public curiosity, the amusement for members were the only objects of the Klan," according to Albert Stevens in 1907.
The name is derived from the Greek word kuklos which means circle. The manual of rituals was printed by Laps D. McCord of Pulaski. According to The Cyclopædia of Fraternities, "Beginning in April, 1867, there was a gradual transformation... The members had conjured up a veritable Frankenstein, they had played with an engine of power and mystery, though organized on innocent lines, found themselves overcome by a belief that something must lie behind it all — that there was, after all, a serious purpose, a work for the Klan to do."Although there was little organizational structure above the local level, similar groups rose across the South and adopted the same name and methods. Klan groups spread throughout the South as an insurgent movement promoting resistance and white supremacy during the Reconstruction Era. For example, Confederate veteran John W. Morton founded a chapter in Tennessee; as a secret vigilante group, the Klan targeted their allies. In 1870 and 1871, the federal government passed the Enforcement Acts, which were intended to prosecute and suppress Klan crimes.
The first Klan had mixed results in terms of achieving its objectives. It weakened the black political establishment through its use of assassinations and threats of violence. On the other hand, it caused a sharp backlash, with passage of federal laws that historian Eric Foner says were a success in terms of "restoring order, reinvigorating the morale of Southern Republicans, enabling blacks to exercise their rights as citizens". Historian George C. Rable argues that the Klan was a political failure and therefore was discarded by the Democratic leaders of the South, he says: the Klan declined in strength in part because of internal weaknesses. More fundamentally, it declined because it failed to achieve its central objective – the overthrow of Republican state governments in the South. After the Klan was suppressed, similar insurgent paramilitary groups arose that were explicitly directed at suppressing Republican voting and turning Republicans out o
Dust are fine particles of solid matter. It consists of particles in the atmosphere that come from various sources such as soil, dust lifted by wind, volcanic eruptions, pollution. Dust in homes and other human environments contains small amounts of plant pollen and animal hairs, textile fibers, paper fibers, minerals from outdoor soil, human skin cells, burnt meteorite particles, many other materials which may be found in the local environment. House dust mites are present. Positive tests for dust mite allergies are common among people with asthma. Dust mites are microscopic arachnids whose primary food is dead human skin cells, but they do not live on living people, they and their feces and other allergens which they produce are major constituents of house dust, but because they are so heavy they are not suspended for long in the air. They are found on the floor and other surfaces until disturbed, it could take somewhere between twenty minutes and two hours for dust mites to settle back down out of the air.
Dust mites are a nesting species that prefers a dark and humid climate. They flourish in mattresses, upholstered furniture, carpets, their feces include enzymes that are released upon contact with a moist surface, which can happen when a person inhales, these enzymes can kill cells within the human body. House dust mites did not become a problem until humans began to use textiles, such as western style blankets and clothing. Atmospheric or wind-borne fugitive dust known as aeolian dust, comes from arid and dry regions where high velocity winds are able to remove silt-sized material, deflating susceptible surfaces; this includes areas where grazing, vehicle use, other human activities have further destabilized the land, though not all source areas have been affected by anthropogenic impacts. One-third of the global land area is covered by dust-producing surfaces, made up of hyper-arid regions like the Sahara which covers 0.9 billion hectares, drylands which occupy 5.2 billion hectares. Dust in the atmosphere is produced by saltation and sandblasting of sand-sized grains, it is transported through the troposphere.
This airborne dust is considered an aerosol and once in the atmosphere, it can produce strong local radiative forcing. Saharan dust in particular can be transported and deposited as far as the Caribbean and the Amazon basin, may affect air temperatures, cause ocean cooling, alter rainfall amounts. Dust in the Middle East has been a historic phenomenon; because of climate change and the escalating process of desertification, the problem has worsened dramatically. As a multi-factor phenomenon, there is not yet a clear consensus on the sources or potential solutions to the problem. In Iran, the dust is affecting more than 5 million people directly, has emerged as a serious government issue in recent years. In the province of Khuzestan it has led to the severe reduction of air quality; the amount of pollutants in the air has surpassed more than 50 times the normal level several times in a year. Initiatives such as Project-Dust have been established to directly study the Middle Eastern dust. Dust kicked up by vehicles traveling on roads may make up 33% of air pollution.
Road dust consists of deposits of vehicle exhausts and industrial exhausts, particles from tire and brake wear, dust from paved roads or potholes, dust from construction sites. Road dust is a significant source contributing to the generation and release of particulate matter into the atmosphere. Control of road dust is a significant challenge in urban areas, in other locations with high levels of vehicular traffic upon unsealed roads, such as mines and landfill dumps. Road dust may be suppressed by mechanical methods like street sweeper vehicles equipped with vacuum cleaners, vegetable oil sprays, or with water sprayers. Improvements in automotive engineering have reduced the amount of PM10s produced by road traffic. Coal dust is responsible for the lung disease known as pneumoconiosis, including black lung disease that occurs among coal miners; the danger of coal dust resulted in environmental legislation regulating work place air quality in some jurisdictions. In addition, if enough coal dust is dispersed within the air in a given area, in rare circumstances, it can create an explosion hazard under certain circumstances.
These circumstances are within confined spaces. Most governmental EPAs, including the United States Environmental Protection Agency mandate that facilities that generate fugitive dust, minimize or mitigate the production of dust in their operation; the most frequent dust control violations occur at new residential housing developments in urban areas. United States Federal law requires that construction sites obtain permits to conduct earth moving, clearing of areas, to include plans to control dust emissions when the work is being carried out. Control measures include such simple practices as spraying construction and demolition sites with water, preventing the tracking of dust onto adjacent roads; some of the issues include: Reducing dust related health risks that include allergic reactions and asthmatic attacks. Improving visibility and road safety. Providing cleaner air, cleaner vehicles and cleaner homes and promoting better health. Improving crop productivity in agriculture. Reducing vehicle maintenance costs by lowering the levels of dust that clog filters and machinery.
Reducing driver fatigue, maintenance on suspension systems and improving fuel economy. Increasing cumulative effect - each new applicati