Mark is a common male given name and is derived from old Latin "Mart-kos", which means "consecrated to the god Mars", may mean "God of war" or "to be warlike". Marcus was one of the three most common Roman given names. Mark is a form of the name Marcus. Mark the Evangelist is the traditionally ascribed eponymous author of the second Gospel in the New Testament, he is the patron saint of Venice, where he is buried. Though in use during the Middle Ages, Mark was not common in the English-speaking world until the 19th century, when it began to be used alongside the classical form Marcus. In the Celtic legend of Tristan and Isolde this was the name of a king of Cornwall, it was borne by the American author Mark Twain, real name Samuel Clemens, the author of'Tom Sawyer' and'Huckleberry Finn'. He took his pen name from a call used by riverboat workers on the Mississippi River to indicate a depth of two fathoms; this is the usual English spelling of the name of the 1st-century BC Roman triumvir Marcus Antonius.
Mark Adler, American software engineer Mark Azadovsky, Russian scholar of folk-tales and Russian literature Mark Benecke, German forensic biologist Mark Blaug, Dutch-born British economist Mark Buchanan, American physicist Mark Catesby, English naturalist Mark Wayne Chase, American-born British botanist Mark R. Cohen, American scholar of Jewish history Mark Dean, American inventor and a computer engineer Mark Fettes, Canadian Esperantist Mark Fisher, British cultural theorist and philosopher Mark Z. Jacobson, American civil and environmental engineer Mark Jerrum, British computer scientist and computational theorist Mark Lilla, American political scientist and philosopher Mark van Loosdrecht, Dutch biotechnologist Mark Mazower, British historian Mark Borisovich Mitin, Soviet Marxist-Leninist philosopher Mark P. McCahill, American computer scientist and internet pioneer Mark Oliphant, Australian physicist and humanitarian Mark Overmars, Dutch computer scientist, creator of Game Maker Mark Pattison, English educational reformer and Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford Mark Ptashne, American molecular biologist Mark Reed, American physicist Mark Ridley, British zoologist and writer on evolution Mark Satin,American political theorist Mark Sedgwick, British historian Mark R. Showalter, American astronomer Mark Solonin, Russian WWII historian Mark Steedman, British computational linguist and cognitive scientist Mark van Vugt, Dutch evolutionary psychologist Mark Waer, Belgian biomedical scientist and university president Mark Wainberg, Canadian HIV/AIDS researcher and activist Mark Walport, British medical scientist Mark Weiser, American chief scientist at Xerox PARC Mark Zborowski, American anthropologist and Soviet spy Marc Singer, American actor known for his role as Beastmaster and starring in the mini-series V Mark Burg, American film producer Mark Dexter, British actor Mark Hamill, actor known for his role as Luke Skywalker in Star Wars Mark Harmon, actor Mark Gatiss, British actor and producer Mark Indelicato, American actor best known as Justin Suarez in Ugly Betty Mark Lamarr, British comedian, radio DJ and television presenter Mark Lenard, American actor Mark Linn-Baker, American actor Mark Pellegrino, American actor, best known as Jacob in Lost Mark Rendall, voice actor and actor Mark Robson, American film director Mark Ruffalo, American actor Mark Salling, American actor, best known for playing Noah Puckerman on Glee Mark Seibert, German musical theatre actor.
Known in "Elisabeth das Musikal" as Der Todd and Fiyero in German Production of "Wicked." Mark A. Sheppard, actor best known as Crowley on Supernatural. Mark Allen Shepherd, actor Mark Strickson, English actor Mark Sinclair, American actor, writer and producer Mark Wahlberg, actor known as Marky Mark Mark Williams, British actor and scriptwriter Mark Womack Mark Zakharov, Russian director and screenwriter Mark Heyes, British fashion presenter Mark Kermode, film critic Mark Kostabi, Estonian-American artist Mark Rothko, abstract-expressionist painter Mark Ryden, pop-surrealist painter Mark Steel, British satirical comedian Mark Tobey, American abstract expressionist painter Mark Tompkins, artist and choreographer of contemporary dance Mark Cuban, American entrepreneur Mark Leiter, Executive Vice President at Nielsen Mark Loughridge, Vice-President of IBM Mark Morton, co-founder of Morton Salt Mark Shepherd and chief executive officer of Texas Instruments Mark Shuttleworth, South African entrepreneur Mark Zuckerberg, founder of Facebook Mark the Evangelist, one of the gospel writers of the life of Jesus Marcus I of Byzantium, bishop of Byzantium from 198 to 211 AD Pope Mark, pope of the Catholic Church Mark of Ephesus, 15th century Archbishop of Ephesus, Opponent of the Union of Florence Patriarch Mark II of Constantinople, reigned from 1465 to 1466 Mark Z. Danielewski, American novelist Mark Lynas, British author and environmental activist Mark Steven Morton, Canadian author Mark Shepherd, author of several novels in the fantasy genre Mark Shulman, American children's author Mark Andrew Smith, American graphic novelist Mark Twain, pen name of American author Samuel Langhorne Clemens Mark Van Doren, American poet and literary critic Mark Waid, American comic book
The marka was the currency of the Kingdom of Poland and of the Republic of Poland between 1917 and 1924. It was subdivided into 100 fenigs, much like its German original. During the World War I, in 1915, after defeating the Russians, the Central Powers occupied the whole territory of the former Congress Poland and appointed two Governors General: a German in Warsaw and an Austro-Hungarian in Lublin; the civil administration of the country was laid into the hands of imported German and Austrian officials. Four currencies circulated: the Russian ruble, the German Papiermark, the German Ostruble and the Austro-Hungarian krone. On December 9 the following year, after consultations with the Austrians, the chief of the German Administration, Wolfgang von Kries proclaimed the foundation of a new bank, called the Polish Loan Bank and the creation of a new currency unit, the marka, equivalent to the German mark; the stability of the new currency was guaranteed by the German Reichsbank up to the amount of 1 billion mark.
In 1917 new coins and banknotes were introduced and started to replace all the previously-used currencies. All the banknotes were white with the White Eagle of Poland on a red field. At the time of the Armistice of November 11, 1918, 880 million markas were in circulation; the new Polish government decided to retain the marka as currency and to allow the Loan Bank to continue operating. The following year the German-made banknotes were replaced in circulation with new ones; these featured Polish historical motifs. The notes of 10 and 500 markas displayed a picture of Queen Jadwiga, the notes of 5, 10, 100 and 1000 markas showed Tadeusz Kościuszko. A silver coin of 50 markas was never issued due to the galloping inflation. Only one such coin is known to exist today. Poland devastated after 123 years of partitions and by 5 years of war, now entered a series of armed struggles, which crippled the economy more. In 1920, during the Polish-Bolshevik War, new banknotes of ½ marka with Kosciuszko and 5000 markas with both the Queen and Kosciuszko came into use.
There were now 5 billion markas in circulation. However, the following years the crisis deepened and by 1922 a period of ruinous inflation began. By there were 207 billion markas in circulation, it was necessary to print notes of 50,000 markas. At the beginning of the following year the inflation gained more momentum and speed, notes of 100,000, 250,000, 500,000 and 1 million markas were introduced, only to be followed by notes of 5 and 10 million markas that year. Early in 1924, financial reforms devised by politician and economist Władysław Grabski were instituted; the Bank Polski was proclaimed as the new central bank of Poland. The marka was exchanged for a new, gold-based currency, the złoty, at the rate of 1,800,000 markas to 1 złoty. One American dollar was worth 5.18 złotys—or 9,324,000 Polish markas. Exchange rate of 1 United States dollar to Polish marka: 1919 - 90 1921 - 6000 May 1923 - 52,000 July 1923 - 140,000 Beginning of November 1923 - 2,000,000 End of November 1923 - 5,000,000 January 1924 - 9,300,000 Tadeusz Kałkowski, Tysiąc lat monety polskiej, Cracow 1981 Paweł Zaremba, Historia dwudziestolecia 1918-1939, Paris 1981
Mark (Australian rules football)
A mark is a skill in Australian rules football where a player cleanly catches a kicked ball that has travelled more than 15 metres without anyone else touching it or the ball hitting the ground. Although catching the ball is found in other codes of football, along with kicking the ball, it is one of the most prevalent skills in Australian football. Marking can be one of the most spectacular and distinctive aspects of the game, the best mark of the AFL season is awarded with the Mark of the Year, with similar competitions running across smaller leagues; the top markers in the Australian Football League, like Jason Dunstall and Jonathan Brown took an average of over eight marks per game. An AFL match between St Kilda and Port Adelaide in 2006 set a record of 303 marks in a single game. Upon taking a mark, the umpire will blow the whistle to signify the mark and a player is entitled to an unimpeded kick of the ball, to advance their team towards their goalposts; the nearest opposition player stands on the spot where the player marked the ball, known as the mark, becomes the man on the mark.
When taking the set kick, the player must either kick the ball over the mark. The criterion for a mark is that it be caught cleanly, i.e. the player have complete control of the ball, for any length of time. As such, if the ball is caught in one grab, punched out from between the player's hands, a mark is paid if they have held it for only an instant. If a ball is controlled, dislodged by another player or the ground, the mark will still be paid. Although the rules make no provision for two players marking the ball by convention the umpire will award the mark to the man in front, i.e. the player who has the front position in the marking contest. The mark has been included in the compromise rules used in the International Rules Football series between teams from Australia and Ireland since 1984. Various forms of football descended from English public school football games of the 19th century have featured a fair catch or mark, it was abolished early in the development of soccer but still exists in rugby union and American football.
The mark has been one of the most distinctive features of Australian football since rules were drawn up in 1859. Some people claim that the origin of the term mark comes from the practice of a player who has just taken a mark physically marking the ground with his/her foot, or cap which formed part of the attire worn by players in the 19th century, to show where he took the fair catch. Others claim that the origin of the mark comes from the traditional Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, said to have influenced Tom Wills' writing of the laws of the game, it is claimed that in Marn Grook, jumping to catch the ball, called "mumarki", an Aboriginal word meaning "to catch", results in a free kick. Some counterclaim this theory as false etymology. In Australian football, marks are described in combination of the following ways. Overhead mark: catching the ball with hands extended above the head Contested mark: catching the ball against one or more opponents who are attempting to mark or spoil the player attempting the mark.
This skill is declining in the professional game due to coaches discouraging preferring to avoid contests. Pack mark: catching the ball against one or more opponents and/or teammates all close to the fall of the ball. High mark: catching the ball whilst jumping up in the air. Stewart "Buckets" Loewe, Matthew Richardson and Simon Madden are notable exponents of the high mark. Spectacular mark: sometimes nicknamed'specky','screamer' or'hanger', this term is most used when a mark taken whilst jumping in the air. Additional elevation is achieved by using the legs to spring off the back or shoulders of one or more opponents and/or teammates; the movement of other players beneath the player marking can cause them to lose balance in mid air and land or fall awkwardly, enhancing the spectacle of the mark. The name reflects its popularity among spectators. Chest mark: catching the ball and drawing it in to the chest; this is considered the easiest mark to take, is used in wet weather. At professional level this skill is discouraged by coaches due to it giving opponents a much better chance of intercepting the ball from most directions.
Out in front: catching the ball with arms extended forward from the body. This skill is difficult with the ball travelling low and at high speeds. At professional level this skill is preferred by coaches, as it gives opponents less chance of spoiling from behind, if the ball spills, it will be "front and centre" of the player, which makes it much easier for rovers to predict and to execute game strategy. One-handed mark: catching the ball with only one hand. Used in a contested situation where one player's arm is impeded by an opponent, or where the player uses upper body strength to physically fend off their opponent. While spectacular, this skill is discouraged by coaches due to a low percentage of success and is sometimes seen as "showing off" or "lairising". Diving mark: leaping horizontally to catch the ball before it hits the ground. With the flight of the ball: a mark taken running in the direction that the ball is travelling. In order to do this, the player must take their eyes off opposition players sometimes running at fast pace in the opposite direction.
This type of mark is branded "courageous", because in attempting the mark, the player must ignore the danger of a high
The name Papiermark is applied to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Goldmark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of World War I. In particular, the name is used for the banknotes issued during the hyperinflation in Germany of 1922 and 1923. From 1914, the value of the Mark fell; the rate of inflation rose following the end of World War I and reached its highest point in October 1923. The currency was stabilized in November 1923 after the announcement of the creation of the Rentenmark, although the Rentenmark did not come into circulation until 1924; when it did, it replaced. In 1924, the Rentenmark was replaced by the Reichsmark. In addition to the issues of the government, emergency issues of both tokens and paper money, known as Kriegsgeld and Notgeld, were produced by local authorities; the Papiermark was used in the Free City of Danzig until replaced by the Danzig Gulden in late 1923. Several coins and emergency issues in papiermark were issued by the free city.
During the war, cheaper metals were introduced for coins, including aluminium and iron, although silver ½ Mark pieces continued in production until 1919. Aluminium 1 Pfennig were produced until 1918 and the 2 Pfennig until 1916. Whilst iron 5 Pfennig, both iron and zinc 10 Pfennig and aluminium 50 Pfennig coins were issued until 1922. Aluminium 3 Mark were issued in 1922 and 1923, aluminium 200 and 500 Mark were issued in 1923; the quality of many of these coins varied from decent to poor. During this period, many provinces and cities had their own corresponding coin and note issues, referred to as Notgeld currency; this came about due to a shortage of exchangeable tender in one region or another during the war and hyperinflation periods. Some of the most memorable of these to be issued during this period came from Westfalen and featured the highest face value denominations on a coin eventually reaching 50,000,000 Mark. In 1914, the State Loan Office began issuing paper money known as Darlehnskassenscheine.
These circulated alongside the issues of the Reichsbank. Most were 1- and 2-Mark notes but there were 5-, 20-, 50- and 100-Mark notes; the victor nations in World War I decided to assess Germany for their costs of conducting the war against Germany. With no means of paying in gold or currency backed by reserves, Germany ran the presses, causing the value of the Mark to collapse. Between 1914 and the end of 1923 the German papiermark’s rate of exchange against the U. S. dollar plummeted from 4.2 mark/dollar to 4.2 trillion mark/dollar. The price of one gold mark in German paper currency at the end of 1918 was two paper mark, but by the end of 1919 a gold mark cost 10 paper mark; this inflation worsened between 1920 and 1922, the cost of a gold mark rose from 15 to 1,282 paper mark. In 1923 the value of the paper mark had its worst decline. By July, the cost of a gold mark had risen to 101,112 paper mark, in September was at 13 million. On 30 Nov 1923 it cost 1 trillion paper mark to buy a single gold mark.
In October 1923, Germany experienced a 29,500% hyperinflation. This one-month inflation rate has only been exceeded three times: Yugoslavia, 313,000,000%. On 15 November 1923 the papiermark was replaced by the rentenmark at 4.2 rentenmark/dollar, or 1 trillion papiermark/rentenmark. During the hyperinflation higher denominations of banknotes were issued by the Reichsbank and other institutions; the Papiermark was circulated in enormously large quantities. Before the war, the highest denomination was 1000-Mark, equivalent to 50 British pounds or 238 US dollars. In early 1922, 10,000-Mark notes were introduced, followed by 100,000- and 1 million-Mark notes in February 1923. July 1923 saw notes up to 50 million-Mark, with 10 milliard -Mark notes introduced in September; the hyperinflation peaked in October 1923 and banknote denominations rose to 100 trillion -Mark. At the end of the hyperinflation, these notes were worth £5 sterling or US$24; the Danziger Privat Actien-Bank was the first bank established in Danzig.
They issued two series of notes denominated in thalers prior to issuing the mark. These mark issues are rare; the Ostbank fur Handel and Gewerbe opened 16 March 1857, by 1911 two additional banks were in operation. The German papiermark was issued by Danzig from 1914 to 1923. Five series were issued during World War I by the City Council. Denominations ranged from 10 pfennig to 20 mark; the Free City of Danzig municipal senate issued an additional four post-World War I series of notes. The 1922 issue was denominated in 100, 500, 1000 mark notes; the denominations for the 1923 issue were 1000, 10000 and 50000 mark notes. The 1923 provisional issue reused earlier notes with a large red stamp indicating the new denominations of 1 million and 5 million mark; the last series of Danzig mark was the 1923 inflation issue of 1 million, 10 million, 100 m
The mark was a currency or unit of account in many nations. It is named for the mark unit of weight; the word mark comes from a merging of three Teutonic/Germanic words, Latinised in 9th-century post-classical Latin as marca, marha or marcus. It was a measure of weight for gold and silver used throughout Western Europe and equivalent to eight ounces. Considerable variations, occurred throughout the Middle Ages; as of 2018, the only circulating currency named "mark" is the Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark. "Mark" can refer to one of the following historical German currencies: Since the 11th century: the Kölner Mark, used in the Electorate of Cologne. In England the "mark" was only a unit of account, it was introduced in the 10th century by the Danes. According to 19th-century sources, it was equivalent to 100 pence, but after the Norman Conquest, it was worth 160 pence, two-thirds of a pound sterling. In Scotland, the merk Scots was a silver coin of that value, issued first in 1570 and afterwards in 1663.
In northern Germany and Scandinavia, the mark was a unit of account, a coin, worth 16 schillings or skillings. In an attempt to prevent debasement of the currency, the Bank of Hamburg was founded in 1619, after the example of the Bank of Amsterdam. Both these banks established a stable money of account; the Hamburg unit of account was the mark banco. It was credited by way of credit against collateral. No coins or banknotes were issued; the account holders could use their credit balances by remittances to other accounts or by drawing bills of exchange against them. These bills circulated and could be transferred by endorsement, were accepted as payment, they could be redeemed. This currency proved to be stable. Following German unification in 1871, the country adopted the German gold mark as its currency in 1873; the name was taken from the mark banco. The coins and banknotes of the various predecessor currencies, such as the thaler, the kreuzer, the guilder, continued to circulate, were treated as fixed multiples of the new unit of account to the introduction period of the euro between 1999 and 2002.
Coins denominated in gold marks were first issued in 1871, replaced the old coins. The mark banco was converted into the new gold mark at par; the Bank of Hamburg was incorporated as the Hamburg subsidiary into the newly founded Reichsbank, issuing banknotes denominated in gold marks. In 1914, the Reichsbank stopped demanding first-class collateral; the gold mark became a weak currency, colloquially referred to as the paper mark, in order to finance the war effort. In 1918, the pre-war sound money policy was not re-established, the continuing loose money policy resulted in inflation, in 1923, in hyperinflation. In late 1923, when the paper mark had become worthless, it was replaced by a new currency, the Rentenmark; the new currency was issued by the newly established Rentenbank as credit to borrowers, but requiring collateral in the form of first-class claims to real estate. In 1924, the Reichsbank stopped providing unrestricted credit against worthless financial bills, pegged its new currency, the Reichsmark, to the stable Rentenmark.
The Reichsbank rationed its lending, so that the Reichsmark remained at par with the stable Rentenmark. The currencies continued to exist in parallel, were both abbreviated RM; the original intention was to withdraw the Rentenmark by 1934, but the Nazi government decided to continue to use the Rentenmark, which enjoyed a considerable trust due to its stability. The Nazis deliberately overissued both currencies to finance infrastructure investments by the state, expanded government employment and expenditure on items such as armaments. By 1935, laws limiting increases of prices and rents were needed to suppress inflation. Enormous extra taxes, charged on real estate owners, on the occasion of the anti-Semitic November Pogrom, on J
A confidence trick is an attempt to defraud a person or group after first gaining their confidence, used in the classical sense of trust. Confidence tricks exploit characteristics of the human psyche, such as credulity, naïveté, vanity and greed. Researchers Lindsey Huang and Barak Orbach defined the scheme as "a distinctive species of fraudulent conduct... intending to further voluntary exchanges that are not mutually beneficial", as they "benefit con operators at the expense of their victims". The perpetrator of a confidence trick is referred to as a confidence man, con-artist, or a "grifter". Samuel Thompson was the original "confidence man". Thompson was a clumsy swindler who asked his victims to express confidence in him by giving him money or their watch rather than gaining their confidence in a more nuanced way. A few people watches. Thompson was arrested in July 1849. Reporting about this arrest, Dr. James Houston, a reporter of the New York Herald, publicized Thompson by naming him the "Confidence Man".
Although Thompson was an unsuccessful scammer, he gained reputation as a genius operator because Houston's satirical writing wasn't understood as such. The National Police Gazette coined the term "confidence game" a few weeks after Houston first used the name "confidence man". A confidence trick is known as a con game, a con, a scam, a grift, a hustle, a bunko, a swindle, a flimflam, a gaffle, or a bamboozle; the intended victims are known as marks, stooges, rubes, or gulls. When accomplices are employed, they are known as shills. A short con or small con is a fast swindle, it aims to rob the victim of everything in his wallet. A long con or big con is a scam that unfolds over several days or weeks and involves a team of swindlers, as well as props, extras and scripted lines, it aims to rob the victim of huge sums of money or valuable things by getting him or her to empty out banking accounts and borrow from family members. In Confessions of a Confidence Man, Edward H. Smith lists the "six definite steps or stages of growth" of a confidence game.
He notes. Foundation Work Preparations are made in advance of the game, including the hiring of any assistants required. Approach The victim is contacted. Build-up The victim is given an opportunity to profit from a scheme; the victim's greed is encouraged, such that their rational judgment of the situation might be impaired. Pay-off or Convincer The victim receives a small payout as a demonstration of the scheme's effectiveness; this faked in some way. In a gambling con, the victim is allowed to win several small bets. In a stock market con, the victim is given fake dividends; the Hurrah A sudden crisis or change of events forces the victim to act immediately. This is the point at which the con fails; the In-and-In A conspirator puts an amount of money into the same scheme as the victim, to add an appearance of legitimacy to the scheme. This can reassure the victim, give the con man greater control when the deal has been completed. In addition, some games require a "corroboration" step those involving a "rare item".
This includes the use of an accomplice who plays the part of an uninvolved third party, who confirms the claims made by the con man. Confidence tricks exploit typical human characteristics such as greed, vanity, lust, credulity, desperation, naïvety; as such, there is no consistent profile of a confidence trick victim. Victims of investment scams tend to show an incautious level of greed and gullibility, many con artists target the elderly, but alert and educated people may be taken in by other forms of a confidence trick. Researchers Huang and Orbach argue: Cons succeed for inducing judgment errors—chiefly, errors arising from imperfect information and cognitive biases. In popular culture and among professional con men, the human vulnerabilities that cons exploit are depicted as ‘dishonesty,’ ‘greed,’ and ‘gullibility’ of the marks. Dishonesty represented by the expression ‘you can’t cheat an honest man,’ refers to the willingness of marks to participate in unlawful acts, such as rigged gambling and embezzlement.
Greed, the desire to ‘get something for nothing,’ is a shorthand expression of marks’ beliefs that too-good-to-be-true gains are realistic. Gullibility reflects beliefs that marks are ‘suckers’ and ‘fools’ for entering into costly voluntary exchanges. Judicial opinions echo these sentiments. Accomplices known as shills, help manipulate the mark into accepting the perpetrator's plan. In a traditional confidence trick, the mark is led to believe that he will be able to win money or some other prize by doing some task; the accomplices may pretend to be strangers. Bell, J. Bowyer. Cheating and Deception. New Brunswick & London: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0887388682. Blundell, Nigel; the World's Greatest Crooks and Conmen and other mischievous malefactors. London: Octopus Books. ISBN 978-0706421446. Dillon, Eamon; the Fraudsters: Sharks and Charlatans – How Con Artists Make Their Money. Merlin Publishing. ISBN 978-1903582824. Ford, Charl
German gold mark
The Goldmark was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914. The Papiermark refers to the German currency from 4 August 1914 when the link between the Mark and gold was abandoned. Before unification, the different German states issued a variety of different currencies, though most were linked to the Vereinsthaler, a silver coin containing 16 2⁄3 grams of pure silver. Although the mark was based on gold rather than silver, a fixed exchange rate between the Vereinsthaler and the mark of 3 marks = 1 Vereinsthaler was used for the conversion. Southern Germany had used the Gulden as the standard unit of account, worth 4⁄7 of a Vereinsthaler and, became worth 1.71 marks in the new currency. Bremen had used a gold based Thaler, converted directly to the mark at a rate of 1 gold Thaler = 3.32 marks. Hamburg had used its own mark prior to 1873; this was replaced by the gold mark at a rate of 1 Hamburg mark = 1.2 gold mark. From 1 January 1876 onwards, the mark became the only legal tender.
The name Goldmark was created to distinguish it from the Papiermark which suffered a serious loss of value through hyperinflation following World War I. The gold mark was on a gold standard with 2790 marks equal to 1 kilogram of pure gold. From 1900 to 1933, the United States adhered to a gold standard as well, with the value of the dollar being fixed at a price of 1⁄20 troy ounce of gold; the gold mark therefore had a value of US$0.25. The monetary hegemon of the time when the gold mark was in use, was the pound sterling, with £1 being valued at 20.43 gold marks. World War I reparations owed by Germany were stated in gold marks in 1921, 1929 and 1931; the actual amount of reparations that Germany was obliged to pay out was not the 132 billion marks cited in the London Schedule of 1921 but rather the 50 billion marks stipulated in the A and B Bonds. The actual total payout from 1920 to 1931 was 20 billion German gold marks, worth about US$5 billion or GB£1 billion. Most of that money came from loans from New York bankers.
Following the Nazi seizure of power in 1933, payments of reparations were abandoned. West Germany after World War II did not resume payment of reparations as such, but did resume the payment of debt that Germany had acquired in the inter-war period to finance its reparation payments, paying off the principal on those debts by 1980; the interest on those debts was paid off on 3 October 2010, the 20th anniversary of German reunification. Coins of denominations between 1 Pfennig and 1 Mark were issued in standard designs for the whole Empire, whilst those above 1 Mark were issued by the individual states, using a standard design for the reverses with a design specific to the state on the obverse a portrait of the monarch of the kingdom or duchy. Commemorative coins were minted, in which cases the obverse and the reverse designs might depart from the usual pictorial standards. Many of the smaller states issued coins in small numbers. In general all states' coinage became limited after the First World War began.
Well preserved examples of such low mintage coins can be valuable. The Principality of Lippe was the only state not to issue any gold coins in this period. 1 Pfennig 2 Pfennig 5 Pfennig 10 Pfennig 20 Pfennig 25 Pfennig Silver coins were minted in.900 fineness to a standard of 5 grams silver per Mark. Production of 2 and 5 Mark coins ceased in 1915 while 1 Mark coins continued to be issued until 1916. A few 3 Mark coins were minted until 1918, ½ Mark coins continued to be issued in silver until 1919. 20 Pfennig, 1.1111 g, only until 1878 ½ Mark or 50 Pfennig, 2.7778 g 1 Mark, 5.5555 g 2 Mark, 11.1111 g 3 Mark, 16.6667 g, from 1908 onwards 5 Mark, 27.7778 g The 3 Mark coin was introduced as a replacement for the Vereinsthaler coins of the previous currency, whose silver content was more than that of the 3 Mark coin. The 5 Mark coin, was closer in value to older Thalers. Gold coins were minted in.900 fineness to a standard of 2790 Mark of gold. Gold coin production ceased in 1915. 5 Mark gold coins were minted only in 1877 and 1878.
5 Mark, 1.9912 g 10 Mark, 3.9825 g 20 Mark, 7.965 g Banknotes were issued by the Imperial Treasury and the Reichsbank, as well as by the banks of some of the states. Imperial Treasury notes were issued in denominations of 5, 10, 20 and 50 Mark, whilst Reichsbank notes were produced in denominations of 20, 50, 100 and 1000 Mark; the notes issued after 1914 are referred to as Papiermark. In Unicode, the Mark sign is U+2133 ℳ SCRIPT CAPITAL M; the Pfennig is U+20B0 ₰ GERMAN PENNY SIGN