On the Air (TV series)
On the Air is an American television sitcom created by Mark Frost and David Lynch. It was broadcast from June 20 to July 1992 on the American Broadcasting Company; the series follows the staff of a fictional 1950s television network, Zoblotnick Broadcasting Company, as they produce a live variety program called The Lester Guy Show—often with disastrous results. On the Air was produced by Lynch/Frost Productions and followed Lynch and Frost's previous series, Twin Peaks. In the United States only three of the seven filmed episodes were aired, but the first-and-only season was broadcast in its entirety in the United Kingdom and several other European countries; the series stars Ian Buchanan, Marla Rubinoff, Nancye Ferguson, Miguel Ferrer, Gary Grossman, Mel Johnson Jr. Marvin Kaplan, David L. Lander, Kim McGuire and Tracey Walter. On the Air featured several directors, including co-creator David Lynch, Lesli Linka Glatter, Jonathan Sanger, Jack Fisk and Betty Thomas. Lester Guy - a washed-up movie star who stayed stateside during WWII and made a name for himself because every Hollywood leading man was off fighting the war.
Star of "The Lester Guy Show". Put on the air after Zoblotnik Broadcasting Corporation Network President Bud Budwaller discovered him drinking vodka from a frozen orange juice can in West Hollywood, gave him the comeback break opportunity of a lifetime. Though the star of "The Lester Guy Show", Lester Guy is outshone by supporting actress Betty Hudson because he cares more about his own popularity than being the entertainer he is supposed to be. In the sixth episode Lester finds a graphic sketch of a logo for "The Betty Hudson Show with Lester Guy", is devastated. Lester Guy spends every waking moment either "down town" or plotting a way to make himself more popular than Betty... or to make Betty less popular than himself. He winds up with a head injury, it seems that he is immortal because, in the first episode, while his ankles are tied, he is lifted by a rope and flung through a solid wall. In the fourth episode he is electrocutionally launched from a hyperactive prop electric chair up to a backstage catwalk.
He would like much to someday meet Betty's uncle Doodles. Betty Hudson - is an ingenue, she has no acting experience, although not bright, she is unfailingly sweet and earnest. Betty wins a tremendous fan base because, in her mind, "the birds sing a pretty song and there's always music in the air," and she uses that to express her simple gentleness unto the American public, they love her for it. She becomes America's Sweetheart, overshadows Lester Guy who feels threatened by her. In the pilot episode, we learn that Betty always carries her music box with her, for good luck, when she sings a song called "The Bird in the Tree" which uses the same music box tune as "The Mister Peanuts Song" and "Falling", she loves Chiclets gum. Her mother's name is Mary. Bud Budwaller - Zoblotnik Broadcasting Corporation Network President, he discovered washed-up actor Lester Guy drinking vodka from a frozen orange juice can in West Hollywood, recognized that he could control this person. Budwaller knew of network owner Mr. Zoblotnik's love of Lester Guy's work in a WWII era musical: "Piccadilly Circus".
Budwaller, hoping for a promotion, introduced Zoblotnik to his hero from the musical, Lester Guy. As "The Lester Guy Show" progresses, America grows more and more fond of Betty Hudson, Budwaller fears that he may lose his job because he thinks Betty will ruin the show or take it over, showing Budwaller's ineptitude in understanding the audience. Bud Budwaller has "nothing but contempt for insubordination from so far down the food chain," and feels superior to his audience, he tries to control them through the show and makes two understudy appearances on the fourth episode while special guest: Stan Tailings is having a coughing fit. In that instance, though Budwaller has last week's script, the dialog is the same as this week's and he is able to convey actual meaning through the delivery of incorrect dialog. Nicole Thorne - Zoblotnik Broadcasting Corporation Head of Comedy, she worries that if the Lester Guy show fails she will lose her job, goes along with Lester Guy and Bud Budwaller's plans to "break" Betty.
After the fifth episode she becomes sycophantically devoted to Lester. She hyperventilates, people make fun of her for it. In the sixth episode she hyperventilates nine breaths as backstage workers laugh and count her wheezes, Lester stands behind her holding up the nine of hearts, she shouts at her subordinates: "How dare you laugh at me? I am the head of comedy for this network!" She wears sexy underwear. Dwight McGonigle - Producer of "The Lester Guy Show", he is the casting genius who discovered Betty. From so far away she called to him, he found her and trained her, brought her to appear on "The Lester Guy Show". McGonigle suffers from hay-fever and is given an antihistamine that transfers his personality into Snaps the dog, Snaps the dog into him, it transfers Mrs. Thissle into him. Water breaks the "spell". We can tell that McGonigle is a trans-dimensional entity because when he is flustered he finds himself being pulled away from reality into a world that lies beyond his own distant hand, he recites: "From so far away she calls to me."
We can tell he is immortal because in the third episode while experiencing hay fever he sneezes and falls into an office
A pseudonym or alias is a name that a person or group assumes for a particular purpose, which can differ from their first or true name. Pseudonyms include stage names and user names, ring names, pen names, aliases, superhero or villain identities and code names, gamer identifications, regnal names of emperors and other monarchs, they have taken the form of anagrams and Latinisations, although there are many other methods of choosing a pseudonym. Pseudonyms should not be confused with new names that replace old ones and become the individual's full-time name. Pseudonyms are "part-time" names, used only in certain contexts – to provide a more clear-cut separation between one's private and professional lives, to showcase or enhance a particular persona, or to hide an individual's real identity, as with writers' pen names, graffiti artists' tags, resistance fighters' or terrorists' noms de guerre, computer hackers' handles. Actors, voice-over artists and other performers sometimes use stage names, for example, to better channel a relevant energy, gain a greater sense of security and comfort via privacy, more avoid troublesome fans/"stalkers", or to mask their ethnic backgrounds.
In some cases, pseudonyms are adopted because they are part of a cultural or organisational tradition: for example devotional names used by members of some religious institutes, "cadre names" used by Communist party leaders such as Trotsky and Lenin. A pseudonym may be used for personal reasons: for example, an individual may prefer to be called or known by a name that differs from their given or legal name, but is not ready to take the numerous steps to get their name changed. A collective name or collective pseudonym is one shared by two or more persons, for example the co-authors of a work, such as Carolyn Keene, Ellery Queen, Nicolas Bourbaki. Or James S. A. Corey; the term is derived from the Greek ψευδώνυμον "false name", from ψεῦδος, "lie, falsehood" and ὄνομα, "name". A pseudonym is distinct from an allonym, the name of another person, assumed by the author of a work of art; this may occur when someone is ghostwriting a book or play, or in parody, or when using a "front" name, such as by screenwriters blacklisted in Hollywood in the 1950s and 1960s.
See pseudepigraph, for falsely attributed authorship. Sometimes people change their name in such a manner that the new name becomes permanent and is used by all who know the person; this is not an alias or pseudonym, but in fact a new name. In many countries, including common law countries, a name change can be ratified by a court and become a person's new legal name. For example, in the 1960s, black civil rights campaigner Malcolm Little changed his surname to "X", to represent his unknown African ancestral name, lost when his ancestors were brought to North America as slaves, he changed his name again to Malik El-Shabazz when he converted to Islam. Some Jews adopted Hebrew family names upon immigrating to Israel, dropping surnames, in their families for generations; the politician David Ben-Gurion, for example, was born David Grün in Poland. He adopted his Hebrew name in 1910, when he published his first article in a Zionist journal in Jerusalem. Many transgender people choose to adopt a new name around the time of their social transitioning, to resemble their desired gender better than their birth name.
Businesspersons of ethnic minorities in some parts of the world are sometimes advised by an employer to use a pseudonym, common or acceptable in that area when conducting business, to overcome racial or religious bias. Criminals may use aliases, fictitious business names, dummy corporations to hide their identity, or to impersonate other persons or entities in order to commit fraud. Aliases and fictitious business names used for dummy corporations may become so complex that, in the words of the Washington Post, "getting to the truth requires a walk down a bizarre labyrinth" and multiple government agencies may become involved to uncover the truth. A pen name, or "nom de plume", is a pseudonym adopted by an author; some female authors used male pen names, in particular in the 19th century, when writing was a male-dominated profession. The Brontë family used pen names for their early work, so as not to reveal their gender and so that local residents would not know that the books related to people of the neighbourhood.
The Brontës used their neighbours as inspiration for characters in many of their books. Anne Brontë published The Tenant of Wildfell Hall under the name Acton Bell. Charlotte Brontë published Jane Eyre under the name Currer Bell. Emily Brontë published Wuthering Heights as Ellis Bell. A well-known example of the former is Mary Ann Evans. Another example is Amandine Aurore Lucile Dupin, a 19th-century French writer who used the pen name George Sand. In contrast, some twentieth and twenty first century male romance novelists have used female pen names. A few examples of male authors using female pseudonyms include Brindle Chase, Peter O'Donnell and Christopher Wood. A pen name may be used if a writer's real name is to be confused with the name of another writer or notable individual, or if their real name is deemed to be unsuitable. Authors who write both fiction and non-fiction, or in different genres, may use
The Six Million Dollar Man
The Six Million Dollar Man is an American science fiction and action television series about a former astronaut, Colonel Steve Austin, portrayed by American actor Lee Majors. Austin has superhuman strength due to bionic implants and is employed as a secret agent by a fictional U. S. government office titled OSI. The series was based on the Martin Caidin novel Cyborg, the working title of the series during pre-production. Following three television pilot movies, which all aired in 1973, The Six Million Dollar Man television series aired on the ABC network as a regular episodic series for five seasons from 1974 to 1978. Steve Austin became a pop culture icon of the 1970s. A spin-off television series, The Bionic Woman, featuring the lead female character Jaime Sommers, ran from 1976 to 1978. Three television movies featuring both bionic characters were produced from 1987 to 1994; when NASA astronaut Colonel Steve Austin is injured in the crash of an experimental lifting body aircraft, he is "rebuilt" in an operation that costs $6 million.
His right arm, both legs and the left eye are replaced with "bionic" implants that enhance his strength and vision far above human norms: he can run at speeds of over 60 mph, his eye has a 20:1 zoom lens and infrared capabilities, while his bionic limbs all have the equivalent power of a bulldozer. He uses his enhanced abilities to work for the OSI as a secret agent. Caidin's novel Cyborg was a best-seller when it was published in 1972, he followed it up with three sequels, Operation Nuke, High Crystal, Cyborg IV about a black market in nuclear weapons, a Chariots of the Gods? scenario, fusing Austin's bionic hardware to a spaceplane. In March 1973, Cyborg was loosely adapted as a made-for-TV movie titled The Six Million Dollar Man starring Majors as Austin; the producers first choice was Monte Markham. The adaptation was done by writer Howard Rodman; the film, nominated for a Hugo Award, modified Caidin's plot, notably made Austin a civilian astronaut rather than a colonel in the United States Air Force.
Absent were some of the standard features of the series: the electronic sound effects, the slow-motion running, the character of Oscar Goldman. Instead, another character named Oliver Spencer, played by Darren McGavin, was Austin's supervisor, of an organization here called the OSO; the lead scientist involved in implanting Austin's bionic hardware, Dr. Rudy Wells, was played in the pilot by Martin Balsam on an occasional basis in the series by Alan Oppenheimer, as a series regular, by Martin E. Brooks. Austin did not use the enhanced capabilities of his bionic eye during the first TV movie; the first movie was a major ratings success and was followed by two more made-for-TV movies in October and November 1973 as part of ABC's rotating Movie of the Week series. The first was titled The Six Million Dollar Man: "Wine and War", the second was titled The Six Million Dollar Man: "The Solid Gold Kidnapping"; the first of these two bore strong resemblances to Operation Nuke. This was followed in January 1974 by the debut of The Six Million Dollar Man as a weekly hour-long series.
The last two movies, produced by Glen A. Larson, notably introduced a James Bond flavor to the series and reinstated Austin's status from the novels as an Air Force colonel; the show was popular during its run and introduced several pop culture elements of the 1970s, such as the show's opening catchphrase, the slow motion action sequences, the accompanying "electronic" sound effects. The slow motion action sequences were referred to as "Kung Fu slow motion" in popular culture. In 1975, a two-part episode entitled "The Bionic Woman", written for television by Kenneth Johnson, introduced the lead character Jaime Sommers, a professional tennis player who rekindled an old romance with Austin, only to experience a parachuting accident that resulted in her being given bionic parts similar to Austin, her body "rejected" her bionic hardware and she died. The character was popular and the following season it was revealed that she had survived, having been saved by an experimental cryogenic procedure, she was given her own spin-off series, The Bionic Woman.
This spin-off ran until 1978 when both it and The Six Million Dollar Man were cancelled, though the two series were on different networks when their final seasons aired. Steve Austin and Jaime Sommers returned in three subsequent made-for-television movies: The Return of the Six Million Dollar Man and the Bionic Woman, Bionic Showdown: The Six Million Dollar Man and the Bionic Woman which featured Sandra Bullock in an early role as a new bionic woman. Majors reprised the role of Steve Austin in all three productions, which featured Richard Ander
Carnegie Mellon School of Drama
The Carnegie Mellon School of Drama is the oldest degree-granting drama program in the United States, founded in 1914 as a division of the College of Fine Arts at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, United States. Its undergraduate BFA programs in acting, musical theatre, design and production technology and management majors are considered to be among the top programs in undergraduate conservatory training, its MFA offerings in directing and production and technology management are considered to be top graduate programs. The School of Drama offers 18 events every season on campus, presents members of its graduating class in produced showcases in New York City and Los Angeles. Many Carnegie Mellon graduates have gone on to successful careers in Pittsburgh theatre; the 2017 The Hollywood Reporter best undergraduate drama schools ranked Carnegie Mellon 2nd. In 2014, The Hollywood Reporter ranked the School of Drama number three in the world amongst drama schools. In 2015, the same publication ranked the MFA program at the School of Drama number five in the world.
According to Playbill, the Carnegie Mellon School of Drama has the fourth most alumni represented in the 2015-2016 Broadway season. Since 2000, the Purnell Center for the Arts designed for the School of Drama, has been home to the department; the space includes: Philip Chosky Theater, a 430-seat proscenium theater Helen Wayne Rauh Studio Theater, a 140-seat black box theater John Wells Video Studio, a sound stage television studioAs well as two movement/dance studios, three rehearsal studios, four design studios, a lighting lab, a sound lab, a costume shop, a scene shop, various classrooms. Theatre in Pittsburgh Carnegie Mellon School of Drama Carnegie Mellon School of Drama Showcase Carnegie Mellon University West Coast Drama Alumni Clan New York Drama Alumni Clan "Third Coast" Chicago Drama Alumni Clan The Official Unofficial Carnegie Mellon University School of Drama
David Keith Lynch is an American filmmaker, musician and photographer. He has been described by The Guardian as "the most important director of this era", while AllMovie called him "the Renaissance man of modern American filmmaking", his films Blue Velvet and Mulholland Drive are regarded by critics to be among the greatest films of their respective decades, while the success of his 1990–91 television series Twin Peaks led to him being labeled "the first popular Surrealist" by film critic Pauline Kael. He has received three Academy Award nominations for Best Director, has won France's César Award for Best Foreign Film twice, as well as the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival and a Golden Lion award for lifetime achievement at the Venice Film Festival. In 2016, Mulholland Drive, was named the top film of the 21st century by the BBC following a poll of 177 film critics from 36 countries. Born to a middle-class family in Missoula, Lynch spent his childhood traveling around the United States before he studied painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, where he first made the transition to producing short films.
He moved to Los Angeles, where he produced his first motion picture, the surrealist horror film Eraserhead. After Eraserhead became a cult classic on the midnight movie circuit, Lynch was employed to direct the biographical film The Elephant Man, from which he gained mainstream success, he was employed by the De Laurentiis Entertainment Group and proceeded to make two films: the science-fiction epic Dune, which proved to be a critical and commercial failure, a neo-noir mystery film Blue Velvet, which stirred controversy over its violence but grew in critical reputation. Next, Lynch created his own television series with Mark Frost, the popular murder mystery Twin Peaks, he created a cinematic prequel, Twin Peaks: Fire Walk with Me, a road film Wild at Heart and a family film The Straight Story in the same period. Turning further towards surrealist filmmaking, three of his subsequent films operated on dream logic non-linear narrative structures: Lost Highway, Mulholland Drive, Inland Empire.
Meanwhile, Lynch embraced the Internet as a medium, producing several web-based shows, such as the animated DumbLand and the surreal sitcom Rabbits. Lynch and Frost reunited for the Showtime limited series Twin Peaks: The Return, with Lynch co-writing and directing every episode. Lynch's other artistic endeavours include: his work as a musician, encompassing two solo albums—Crazy Clown Time and The Big Dream —as well as music and sound design for a variety of his films. An avid practitioner of Transcendental Meditation, Lynch founded the David Lynch Foundation in 2005, which sought to fund the teaching of TM in schools and has since widened its scope to other at-risk populations, including the homeless and refugees. Lynch was born in Missoula, Montana, on January 20, 1946, his father, Donald Walton Lynch, was a research scientist working for the U. S. Department of Agriculture, his mother, Edwina "Sunny" Lynch, was an English language tutor. Two of Lynch's maternal great-grandparents were Finnish, had immigrated to the United States from Finland in the 19th century.
Lynch was raised a Presbyterian. The Lynch family moved around according to where the USDA assigned Donald, it was because of this that when he was two months old, Lynch moved with his parents to Sandpoint and only two years after that, following the birth of his brother John, the family moved to Spokane, Washington. It was here; the family moved to Durham, North Carolina Boise and Alexandria, Virginia. Lynch found this transitory early life easy to adjust to, noting that he found it easy to meet new friends whenever he started attending a new school. Commenting on much of his early life, Lynch has remarked: I found the world and fantastic as a child. Of course, I had the usual fears, like going to school... For me, back school was a crime against young people, it destroyed the seeds of liberty. The teachers didn't encourage a positive attitude. Alongside his schooling, Lynch joined the Boy Scouts, although he would note that he only "became so I could quit and put it behind me." He rose to the highest rank of Eagle Scout.
As an Eagle Scout, he was present with other Boy Scouts outside the White House at the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy, which took place on Lynch's birthday in 1961. Lynch had been interested in painting and drawing from an early age, became intrigued by the idea of pursuing it as a career path when living in Virginia, where his friend's father was a professional painter. At Francis C. Hammond High School in Alexandria, Lynch did poorly academically, having little interest in school work, but was popular with other students, after leaving decided that he wanted to study painting at college, beginning his studies at the School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston in 1964, where he was a roommate of Peter Wolf. Nonetheless, he left the School of the Museum of Fine Arts after only a year, stating that "I was not inspired AT ALL in that place", instead deciding that he wanted to travel around Europe for three years with his friend Jack Fisk, unhappy with his studies at Cooper Union, they had some hopes tha
Ventura County, California
Ventura County is a county in the southern part of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 823,318; the largest city is Oxnard, the county seat is the city of Ventura. Ventura County comprises the Oxnard-Thousand Oaks-Ventura, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area, it is considered the southernmost county along the California Central Coast. It is a separate metropolitan area west of the more populous Los Angeles metropolitan area. Ventura County has been named the "most desirable" place to live in the U. S. by the Washington Post and the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 2015, it is home to several of the safest communities in the U. S. including Thousand Oaks, Simi Valley, Newbury Park, Moorpark. Overall, crime in the county is 33% lower than California and U. S. rates. Two of the California Channel Islands are part of the county: Anacapa Island, the most visited island in Channel Islands National Park, San Nicolas Island.
Ventura County was inhabited by the Chumash people, who settled much of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties, with their presence dating back 10,000-12,000 years. The Chumash were hunter-gatherers and traders with the Mojave and Tongva Indians; the Chumash are known for their rock paintings and for their great basketry. Chumash Indian Museum in Thousand Oaks has several reconstructed Chumash houses and there are several Chumash pictographs in the county, including the Burro Flats Painted Cave in Simi Valley; the plank canoe, called a tomol in Chumash, was important to their way of life. Canoe launching points on the mainland for trade with the Chumash of the Channel Islands were located at the mouth of the Ventura River, Mugu Lagoon and Point Hueneme; this has led to speculations among archeologists of whether the Chumash could have had a pre-historic contact with Polynesians. According to diachronic linguistics, certain words such as tomolo’o could be related to Polynesian languages; the dialect of the Chumash language, spoken in Ventura County was Ventureño.
Several place names in the county has originated from Chumash, including Ojai, which means moon, Simi Valley, which originates from the word Shimiyi and refers to the stringy, thread-like clouds that typify the region. Others include Point Mugu from the word Muwu, Saticoy from the word Sa’aqtiko’y, Sespe Creek from the word S’eqp’e. In October 1542, the expedition led by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo anchored in an inlet near Point Mugu. Active occupation of California by Spain began in 1769. Gaspar de Portolà led a military expedition by land from San Diego to Monterey, passing through Ventura County in August of that year. A priest with the expedition, Father Juan Crespí, kept a journal of the trip and noted that the area was ideal for a mission to be established and it was a "good site to which nothing is lacking". On this expedition was Father Junípero Serra, who founded a mission on this site. On March 31, 1782, the Mission San Buenaventura was founded by Father Serra, it is named after Saint one of the early intellectual founders of the Franciscan Order.
The town that grew up around the mission and remains named San Buenaventura, although has been known as Ventura since 1891. In the 1790s, the Spanish Governor of California began granting land concessions to Spanish Californians who were retiring soldiers; these concessions were known as ranchos and consisted of thousands of acres of land that were used as ranch land for livestock. In Ventura County, Rancho Simi was granted in 1795 and Rancho El Conejo in 1802. Fernando Tico was granted part of Ventura by Gov. Alvarado. In 1822, California was notified of Mexico's independence from Spain and the Governor of California, the Junta, the military in Monterey and the priests and neophytes at Mission San Buenaventura swore allegiance to Mexico on April 11, 1822. California land, vested in the King of Spain was now owned by the nation of Mexico. By the 1830s, Mission San Buenaventura was in a decline with fewer neophytes joining the mission; the number of cattle owned by the mission dropped from first to fifteenth ranking in the California Missions.
The missions were secularized by the Mexican government in 1834. The Mexican governors began granting land rights to Mexican Californians retiring soldiers. By 1846, there were 19 rancho grants in Ventura County. In 1836, Mission San Buenaventura was transferred from the Church to a secular administrator; the natives, working at the mission left to work on the ranchos. By 1839, only 300 Indians were left at the Mission and it slipped into neglect. Several outhouses were discovered in July 2007 dating back to the 1800s where a new site had been cleared to prepare for development; the area proved to be a treasure trove for archaeologists who braved the lingering smell in the dirt to uncover artifacts that showed heavy utilization by mission inhabitants, early settlers and Spanish and Mexican soldiers. The Mexican–American War began in 1846 but its effect was not felt in Ventura County until 1847. In January of that year, Captain John C. Frémont led the California Battalion into San Buenaventura finding that the Europeans had fled leaving only the Indians in the Mission.
Fremont and the Battalion continued south to sign the Treaty of Cahuenga with General Andrés Pico. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo formally transferred California to the United States in 1848. By 1849, a constitution had been adopted for the California territory; the n
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were