South Australian House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. The other is the Legislative Council, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The House of Assembly was created in 1857; the development of an elected legislature — although only men could vote — marked a significant change from the prior system, where legislative power was in the hands of the Governor and the Legislative Council, appointed by the Governor. In 1895, the House of Assembly granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature. South Australia was the second place in the world to do so after New Zealand in 1893, the first to allow women to stand for election. From 1857 to 1933, the House of Assembly was elected from multi-member districts known as "seats," with each district returning between one and six members; the size of the Assembly varied during this time—36 members from 1857 to 1875, 46 members from 1875 to 1884, 52 members from 1884 to 1890, 54 members from 1890 to 1902, 42 members from 1902 to 1912, 40 members from 1912 to 1915, 46 members from 1915 to 1938.
In 1938, the Assembly was reduced to 39 members, elected from single-member districts. The House of Assembly has had 47 members since the 1970 election, elected from single-member districts: 34 in the Adelaide metropolitan area and 13 in rural areas; these seats are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by preferential voting with complete preference allocation, as with the equivalent federal chamber, the Australian House of Representatives. All members face re-election every four years; the most recent election was held on 17 March 2018. Most legislation is initiated in the House of Assembly; the party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party becomes Premier of South Australia, their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios; as Australian MPs always vote along party lines all legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the House of Assembly.
As with the federal parliament and Australian other states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Voting in the House of Assembly had been voluntary, but this was changed in 1942. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, 1.3 million of them live in Adelaide. Uniquely, over 75% of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area, making South Australia the most centralised state in the nation; as a result, Adelaide accounts for 72% of the seats in the chamber. The dominance of Adelaide, combined with a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, results in the metropolitan area deciding election outcomes. At the 2014 election for example, although the state-wide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. 24 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia List of South Australian state by-elections Members of the South Australian House of Assembly Parliaments of the Australian states and territories South Australian Electoral Districts House of Assembly Homepage General Hansard Information
Electoral district of Kavel
Kavel, created in 1969 and coming into effect in 1970, is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. Located to the east of Adelaide, Kavel includes the residential hills suburbs and farming areas of Balhannah, Brukunga, Carey Gully, Dawesley, Hay Valley, Mount Barker, Mount Barker Junction, Mount Barker Springs, Mount Barker Summit, Mount George, Oakbank, Piccadilly, Totness and Woodside. Amongst others abolished seats include Gumeracha and Mount Barker. Kavel is named after Lutheran pastor August Kavel who migrated to South Australia from in 1838 with 250 people seeking freedom from religious persecution, they and German immigrants and their descendants have made a significant contribution to South Australia's development and culture. Kavel has been held by the Liberal Party for its entire existence. Like most seats in the Adelaide Hills, it has been reasonably safe for that party, it has been held by only four members. The first member, Roger Goldsworthy, served as Deputy Premier of South Australia from 1979 to 1982 under David Tonkin.
Goldsworthy retired in 1992 to allow former state Liberal leader John Olsen to transfer from the Australian Senate back to state politics. Olsen went on to become Premier of South Australia after a 1996 party-room coup against Premier Dean Brown, he was forced to retire from politics after being caught misleading the House, was succeeded by Mark Goldsworthy, son of Roger. Mark held the seat until handing it to current member Dan Cregan in 2018; the strong Family First Party vote of 15.7 percent at the 2006 election was due in part to their prominent local candidate, church minister Thomas "Tom" Playford V, son of former Premier Sir Thomas Playford who represented Gumeracha decades earlier. Playford ran as an independent in the 2002 election. Kavel state by-election, 1992 ECSA profile for Kavel: 2018 ABC profile for Kavel: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Kavel: 2018
2018 South Australian state election
The 2018 South Australian state election to elect members to the 54th Parliament of South Australia was held on 17 March 2018. All 47 seats in the House of Assembly or lower house, whose members were elected at the 2014 election, 11 of 22 seats in the Legislative Council or upper house, last filled at the 2010 election, were contested; the record-16-year-incumbent Australian Labor Party government led by Premier Jay Weatherill was seeking a fifth four-year term, but was defeated by the opposition Liberal Party of Australia, led by Opposition Leader Steven Marshall. Nick Xenophon's new SA Best party unsuccessfully sought to obtain the balance of power. Like federal elections, South Australia has compulsory voting, uses full-preference instant-runoff voting for single-member electorates in the lower house and optional preference single transferable voting in the proportionally represented upper house; the election was conducted by the Electoral Commission of South Australia, an independent body answerable to Parliament.
^a: Results final as of 5 April. Independents: Frances Bedford, Troy Bell, Geoff Brock The Liberal opposition formed a two-seat majority government with 25 of 47 seats, after retaining three of the four redistributed notionally Liberal seats won by Labor at the previous election and winning the newly-created notionally ultra marginal Labor seat of King; the Labor government went in to opposition with 19 seats. Despite the change of government, there was a statewide two-party-preferred swing away from the Liberals toward Labor; the seats of Colton, Elder and Newland were won by Labor at the previous election, but the 2016 redistribution made them notionally Liberal seats. Colton and Newland were won by the Liberals. ^b: Results final as of 23 April. The 11 of 22 seats up for election were 4 Labor, 1 Green, 1 Conservative and 1 Dignity; the final outcome was 4 Labor, 2 SA Best and 1 Green. Conservative MLC Dennis Hood, elected as a Family First MLC in 2014, defected to the Liberals nine days after the 2018 state election.
The 22 seat upper house composition is therefore 9 Liberal on the government benches, 8 Labor on the opposition benches, 5 to minor parties on the crossbench, consisting of 2 SA Best, 2 Green, 1 Advance SA. The government therefore requires at least three additional non-government members to form a majority and carry votes on the floor. Four hours after the close of polls, at 10pm ACDT, incumbent Premier Jay Weatherill telephoned Steven Marshall and conceded defeat. Weatherill subsequently publicly announced that he had conceded, saying, "I'm sorry I couldn't bring home another victory, but I do feel like one of those horses that has won four Melbourne Cups and I think the handicap has caught up with us on this occasion." Marshall claimed victory saying, "A massive thank you to the people of South Australia who have put their trust, their faith in me and the Liberal team for a new dawn, a new dawn for South Australia!" After the SA Best party failed to win a seat including Hartley, Nick Xenophon ruled out a return to federal politics.
Following the election outcome, Weatherill resigned as state Labor leader and returned to the backbench. Outgoing Minister for Health Peter Malinauskas became Leader of the Opposition, with outgoing Education Minister Susan Close as deputy, following a Labor caucus meeting on 9 April 2018. Notably, the Liberals won 16 of the 33 metropolitan seats, their best showing in the Adelaide area since their landslide victory in 1993, when they took all but nine seats in the capital. Labor had spent all but 12 of the 48 years since the end of the Playmander in government due to its traditional dominance of Adelaide. South Australia is Australia's most centralised state. To a greater extent than other state capitals, Adelaide is decisive in deciding state election outcomes. Since the end of the Playmander, most elections have seen Labor win most of the metropolitan seats, with most of the Liberal vote locked up in safe rural seats. In 2010, for instance, the Liberals won 51 percent of the two-party vote on a swing that should have been large enough to deliver them government.
However, they only won nine seats in Adelaide. In 2014, while picking up a two percent two-party swing, the Liberals were only able to win an additional three seats in Adelaide. Nick Xenophon announced a few SA Best lower house candidates. Polls had included Xenophon's party as one of the four parties they monitored explicitly since February 2016. SA Best planned to only contest 12 seats; this was increased to 20. On 27 January, a landmark was passed when Xenophon announced eight new candidates, making a total of 24; this was the minimum number to be theoretically capable of forming majority government in the 47-seat house. On 1 February, Xenophon said it was the total number of SA Best lower house candidates would be around 30. After early opinion polls indicated that it could outperform other parties, the party contested 36 seats in the House of Assembly and put forward four candidates for the upper house. Opinion polling indicated; the party failed to secure any lower house seats, although there was a close contest in the seat of Heysen.
Xenophon lost the seat of Hartley, with un-finalised results indicating a two-party preferred vote of around 42%. The party came second on primary votes in ten seats. SA Best did, secure two upper house positions, with the successful election of Connie
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are citizens and nationals of the Commonwealth of Australia, although some dual citizens and permanent residents may claim Australian nationality. Home to people of many different ethnic origins and national origins, the Australian culture and law does not correspond nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and loyalty to the country. Despite the fact that over half of the citizens descend from the peoples of the British Isles, Australia is a multicultural society and has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Many early settlements were penal colonies and transported convicts made up a significant proportion of the population in most colonies. Large-scale immigration did not occur. Further waves of immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Europe, the Middle East, Pacific Islands, Latin America and Africa.
Prior to British settlement, Australia was inhabited by various indigenous peoples – Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians and Torres Strait Islanders, a Melanesian people. A small percentage of present-day Australians descend from these peoples; the development of a separate Australian identity and national character is most linked with the period surrounding the First World War, which gave rise to the concept of the Anzac spirit. The Eureka Rebellion of 1854 and various events of the Second World War, most notably the Kokoda Track campaign, are frequently mentioned in association with Australian identity. However, Australian culture predates the federation of the Australian colonies by several decades – Australian literature, most notably the work of the bush poets, dates from colonial times. Modern Australian identity draws on a multicultural and British cultural heritage; the majority of Australians or their ancestors immigrated within the past four centuries, with the exception of the Indigenous population and other outer lying islands who became Australian through expansion of the country.
Despite its multi-ethnic composition, the culture of Australia held in common by most Australians can be referred to as mainstream Australian culture, a Western culture derived from the traditions of British and Irish colonists and immigrants. The Colony of New South Wales was established by the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1788, with the arrival of the First Fleet, five other colonies were established in the early 19th century, now forming the six present-day Australian states. Large-scale immigration occurred after the First and Second World Wars, with many post-World War II migrants coming from Southern and Eastern Europe introducing a variety of elements. Immigration from the Middle East and east Asia, Pacific Islands and Latin America has been having an impact; the predominance of the English language, the existence of a democratic system of government drawing upon the British traditions of Westminster Government, Parliamentarianism and constitutional monarchy, American constitutionalist and federalist traditions, Christianity as the dominant religion, the popularity of sports originating in the British Isles, are all evidence of a significant Anglo-Celtic heritage.
Australian culture has diverged since British settlement. Sporting teams representing the whole of Australia have been in existence since the 1870s. Australians are referred to as "Aussie" and "Antipodean". Australians were referred to as "Colonials", "British" and "British subjects"; as a result of many shared linguistic, historical and geographic characteristics, Australians have identified with New Zealanders in particular. Furthermore, elements of Indigenous, American and more recent immigrant customs and religions have combined to form the modern Australian culture. Today, Australians of English and other European descent are the majority in Australia, estimated at around 70% of the total population. European immigrants had great influence over Australian history and society, which resulted in the perception of Australia as a Western country. Since soon after the beginning of British settlement in 1788, people of European descent have formed the majority of the population in Australia; the majority of Australians are of British – English, Welsh, Cornish, or Manx – and Irish ancestral origin.
Although some observers stress Australia's convict history, the vast majority of early settlers came of their own free will. Far more Australians are descended from assisted immigrants than from convicts, the majority being British and Irish. About 20% of Australians are descendants of convicts. Most of the first Australian settlers came from London, the Midlands and the North of England, Ireland. Settlers that arrived throughout the 19th century were from all parts of the United Kingdom and Ireland, a significant proportion of settlers came from the Southwest and Southeast of England, from Ireland and from Scotland. Anglo-Celtic Australians have been influential in shaping the nation's character. By the mid-1840s, the numbers of freeborn settlers had overtaken the convict population. In 1888, 60 percent of the Australian population had been born in Australia, all had British ancestral origins. Out of the remaining 40 percent, 34 percent had been born in the British Isles, 6 percent were of European origin from Germany and Scandinavia.
In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12 percent of
John Wayne Olsen, AO is a former politician and lobbyist. He was Premier of South Australia between 28 November 1996 and 22 October 2001. Olsen was twice the parliamentary leader of the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia in the South Australian House of Assembly, from 1982 to 1990 and again from 1996 to 2001, he unsuccessfully led the party to both 1989 election. After the 1989 election he left South Australian parliament to fill a casual vacancy in the Australian Senate, he returned to the South Australian parliament in 1992, but was defeated for the Liberal party leadership by Dean Brown. However in 1996, Olsen challenged Brown for the Liberal leadership, hence became Premier, he led the party to a narrow victory at the 1997 election, remained Premier until 2001. He was forced to resign in 2001, after he was found to have misled parliament during the Motorola affair. Olsen is the longest-serving Liberal Party of Australia Premier of South Australia and the fourth-longest-serving Leader of the Opposition.
After politics Olsen worked as political lobbyist. He became the State President of the SA Liberals in June 2017. Olsen was first elected to the South Australian House of Assembly at the 1979 election as a Liberal in the Barossa Valley seat of Rocky River, he had been the last mayor of the Corporate Town of Kadina from 1974 to 1977. He represented this seat, renamed Custance at the 1985 election, until 1990. Olsen's political career was marked by a bitter rivalry with Dean Brown, the two representing the conservative and moderate wings of the South Australian Liberal Party respectively. After the 1982 election and the electoral defeat and retirement of David Tonkin, Olsen defeated Brown for the state Liberal Party leadership and became Leader of the Opposition. Up against the Labor premier John Bannon, Olsen lost both 1989 election. In the latter election, the Liberals won a majority of the two-party vote with a five-seat swing. However, most of that majority was wasted on landslides in the Liberals' rural heartland.
With the support of the one National Party MP, the Liberals were still one seat short of making Olsen Premier. Olsen returned to the backbench, he was appointed to the Australian Senate in 1990 to fill a casual vacancy caused by the resignation of Tony Messner. However, in 1992, after less than two years in the Senate, he resigned to return to state politics; the Bannon government was under pressure from the collapse of the State Bank of South Australia. However, Olsen's successor as state Liberal leader, Dale Baker, was unable to gain significant ground. Baker resigned as state Liberal leader in 1992 and called a spill for all leadership positions, intending to hand the leadership back to Olsen as soon as he was securely back in the legislature. To facilitate this, former Deputy Premier Roger Goldsworthy, a leading member of the Liberals' right wing, resigned his seat of Kavel, based on Mount Barker, handed it to Olsen. However, several members of the party's moderate wing were unwilling to see Olsen take the leadership uncontested.
They arranged for leading party moderate Ted Chapman to give up his seat of Alexandra and hand it to Brown so Brown could challenge for the leadership. Olsen returned to the House of Assembly at the 1992 Kavel by-election, on the same day as Brown at the 1992 Alexandra by-election; this time, Brown narrowly defeated Olsen in the leadership ballot, thus became premier when the Liberals won the 1993 election in a landslide where the Liberals won 37 of the 47 seats available, the most that any party has won since the abolition of the Playmander. Olsen became Minister for Industry and Minister for Infrastructure until 1997, when a cabinet reshuffle saw him become Minister for Information Technology and Minister for Multicultural and Ethnic Affairs. Soon after taking office, Olsen led negotiations with Motorola to build a software centre in Adelaide. Motorola decided to open the centre in April after winning a number of incentives, including becoming the supplier for a government radio network, a contract was signed in June.
During a September Question Time, Olsen stated that there had been no discussions with Motorola about the radio contract. This statement would prove to be his undoing. By late 1996, the Liberals' poll numbers under Dean Brown were stagnating in the face of factional battles and concerns about the slow pace of reform. With a statutory general election due in 1997, two prominent Liberal moderate backbenchers, Joan Hall and Graham Ingerson, threw their support to Olsen. With Hall and Ingerson's support, Olsen challenged Brown for the party leadership in November 1996; this time, he was sworn in as Premier, with Ingerson as his deputy. During the ensuing 1997 election campaign, most commentators agreed that Olsen lost the leaders' debate against Labor's Mike Rann; the election was close. The Liberals suffered a 9.4% swing and lost 11 seats, Olsen was forced into a minority government supported by National and independent MPs. It was the first time that the main non-Labor party in South Australia had won a second term since adopting the Liberal Party label in 1974.
After one of those crossbenchers, former Liberal Mitch Williams, returned to the party in December 1999, Olsen held a one-seat majority for eight months until he expelled longtime Liberal maverick Peter Lewis in July 2000. Among a number of controversial policies
Dr David Oliver Tonkin AO was the 38th Premier of South Australia, serving from 18 September 1979 to 10 November 1982. He was elected to the House of Assembly seat of Bragg at the 1970 election, serving until 1983, he became the leader of the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia in 1975, replacing Bruce Eastick. Leading the party to defeat at the 1977 election against the Don Dunstan Labor government, his party won the 1979 election against the Des Corcoran Labor government. Following the 1980 Norwood by-election the Tonkin government was reduced to a one-seat majority, his government's policy approach combined economic conservatism with social progressivism. The Tonkin Liberal government was defeated after one term at the 1982 election by Labor led by John Bannon. David Tonkin was born in Unley, South Australia, on 20 July 1929; when he was only five, his father died, leaving Tonkin's mother to raise his siblings. Tonkin attended local public schools before gaining a scholarship to St Peter's College.
Accepted into Medicine at the University of Adelaide, Tonkin worked as a taxi driver while completing his degree and practised as a General Practitioner before undertaking a postgraduate ophthalmology course in London. He established a practice in Adelaide and was soon considered one of the city's leading eye surgeons. Tonkin was of Cornish ancestry. Tonkin's dedication to aiding the wider community was manifest through his honorary service as an eye surgeon to Adelaide public hospitals and through the initiation, through the Lions Club, of Australia's first public screening programme for glaucoma. In 1962 Tonkin became executive director of the Australian Foundation for Prevention of Blindness SA Inc. From a young age, Tonkin was a supporter of the Liberal and Country League, handing out how-to-vote cards at the 1939 election for the party, his prominence in Adelaide society and his community service made him an ideal LCL candidate. In 1967, he unsuccessfully challenged Premier Don Dunstan in Dunstan's seat of Norwood before becoming the first member for the adjacent seat of Bragg at the 1970 election.
Tonkin gained a reputation as a progressive member of the LCL. He was an early supporter of the Liberal Movement faction created by former premier Steele Hall, although Tonkin remained with the LCL when the Liberal Movement split from it. Tonkin gained statewide prominence was in 1974, when he introduced a private member's bill to outlaw sex discrimination, the first such law in Australia. A year this prominence led him to challenge Bruce Eastick for the leadership of what by had become the South Australia branch of the Liberal Party. Tonkin became leader; as leader, Tonkin worked toward healing the internal party wounds by coaxing the Liberal Movement back into the Liberal fold. Although the Liberals lost the 1977 election, they won the 1979 election against Labor led by Des Corcoran. At that election, the Liberals won 55 percent of the two-party vote on a swing of over eight percent. At the time, this was the largest two-party victory for any party since the end of the Playmander, exceeding Labor taking 54.5 percent in 1973.
While this would have been enough for a strong majority government in the rest of Australia, the Liberals won only 13 seats in Adelaide. As a result, they only won 25 of just two more than needed to govern alone. So, it was the first time that the main non-Labor party in South Australia had won a majority of the two-party vote while winning the most seats since its predecessor, the LCL, won 50.3 percent of the two-party vote in 1959. Governing on a knife-edge, Tonkin's majority became slimmer in 1980 after a court decision threw out a Liberal victory in Dunstan's old seat Norwood, Labor regained it in the ensuing by-election; as a result, Tonkin found himself with a bare majority of one seat. Taking the position of Treasurer of South Australia, Tonkin combined fiscal conservatism with implementing progressive reforms. In the former, Tonkin made significant cuts to the public service, earning him the enmity of the unions, while an example of the latter was the passage of the land rights bill and the return to the Pitjantjatjara people of 10 per cent of South Australia's area.
Other significant actions include the development of the copper and uranium mine at Olympic Dam, extending his earlier anti-discrimination provisions to include physical disability, establishing the Ethnic Affairs Commission and introducing random breath testing. Bidding for re-election at the 1982 election, Tonkin had support of the South Australian media. However, the economy was hit by the early 1980s recession; the government suffered a large swing at the 1982 Florey by-election before narrowly losing the state election two months to Labor led by John Bannon. Tonkin resigned from parliament shortly after following a heart complaint. Graham Ingerson retained the seat for the Liberals at the ensuing by-election. Subsequently, Tonkin returned to ophthalmology and served in various capacities in different government and community organisations, including chairman of the board of the State Opera from 1985 to 1986 and vice-president of Sturt Football Club. In 1986 he assumed the London-based position of Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association.
Returning to Australia in 1992, Tonkin was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in 1993 and served as chairman of the South Australian Film Corporation from 1994 to 1996. A stroke in 1996 permanently affected his speech and