The Australian Open is a major tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia. First held in 1905, the tournament is chronologically the first of the four Grand Slam tennis events of the year – the other three being the French Open and the US Open. It features mens and womens singles, mens and mixed doubles and juniors championships, as well as wheelchair, the Australian Open typically has high attendances and occasionally exceeding the US Open. The tournament holds the record for the highest attendance at a Grand Slam event, the Australian Open is managed by Tennis Australia, formerly the Lawn Tennis Association of Australia, and was first played at the Warehousemans Cricket Ground in Melbourne in November 1905. This facility is now known as the Albert Reserve Tennis Centre, the tournament was first known as the Australasian Championships and became the Australian Championships in 1927 and the Australian Open in 1969. Since 1905, the Australian Open has been staged in five Australian and two New Zealand cities, Sydney, Brisbane, Perth and Hastings.
Though started in 1905, the tournament was not designated as being a championship until 1924. The tournament committee changed the structure of the tournament to include seeding at that time, in 1972, it was decided to stage the tournament in Melbourne each year because it attracted the biggest patronage of any Australian city. The tournament was played at the Kooyong Lawn Tennis Club from 1972 until the move to the new Melbourne Park complex in 1988, the new facilities at Melbourne Park were envisaged to meet the demands of a tournament that had outgrown Kooyongs capacity. The move to Melbourne Park was an success, with a 90 percent increase in attendance in 1988 on the previous year at Kooyong. Because of Australias geographic remoteness, very few foreign players entered this tournament in the early 20th century, in the 1920s, the trip by ship from Europe to Australia took about 45 days. The first tennis players who came by boats were the US Davis Cup players in November 1946, even inside the country, many players could not travel easily.
When the tournament was held in Perth, no one from Victoria or New South Wales crossed by train, in Christchurch in 1906, of a small field of 10 players, only two Australians attended and the tournament was won by a New Zealander. The first tournaments of the Australasian Championships suffered from the competition of the other Australasian tournaments, before 1905, all Australian states and New Zealand had their own championships, the first organised in 1880 in Melbourne and called the Championship of the Colony of Victoria. In those years, the best two players – Australian Norman Brookes and New Zealander Anthony Wilding – almost did not play this tournament, Brookes came once and won in 1911, and Wilding entered and won the competition twice. Their meetings in the Victorian Championships helped to determine the best Australasian players, even when the Australasian Championships were held in Hastings, New Zealand, in 1912, though three times Wimbledon champion, did not come back to his home country.
It was a problem for all players of the era. Brookes went to Europe only three times, where he reached the Wimbledon Challenge Round once and won Wimbledon twice
The Cincinnati Masters is an annual outdoor hardcourt tennis event held in Mason, Ohio near Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. The event started on September 18,1899 and is the oldest tennis tournament in the United States played in its original city, the first tournament in 1899 was played on clay courts, and the event was mostly played on clay until 1979 when it switched permanently to hardcourts. In 1903, the tournament was moved to the Cincinnati Tennis Club, in 1975, the tournament moved to the Coney Island amusement park on the Ohio River, and the tournament began to gain momentum again. In 1975, the tournament reins were taken by Paul M. Flory, barrett Cancer Center at University Hospital. Flory began his involvement as a volunteer with the tournament in the late 1960s and remained a volunteer until the end, who was born on May 31,1922, died on January 31,2013, remaining tournament chairman until his final day. Between 1978 and 1989 it was a tournament of the mens Grand Prix Tennis Tour. In 1979 the tournament moved to Mason where a permanent stadium was built, a new Court 3 was built in 2010, increasing the number of stadium courts to four, with the existing Court 3 renamed Court 9.
In August 2008, the tournament was sold to the United States Tennis Association. In 2002, the tournament was sponsored for the first time by Western & Southern Financial Group, in 2011 the mens and womens tournaments were played at the same time making a joint tournament. As a result, the name of the changed from the Western & Southern Financial Group Masters. The tournament is played at the Lindner Family Tennis Center, located in the Cincinnati suburb of Mason, Ohio. In 2009, the tournament announced a $10 million upgrade to the facility, including the construction of a 52,000 square feet West Building to add space for players, media. In 2010, the tournament announced plans to expand the grounds by more than 40%, one of those courts is Court 3, which serves as the third television court, while another court has seating for 2,500. A new ticket office, entry plaza, food court and exhibit areas were added, the following is the list of champions of the Cincinnati Masters. Note, The 1979 mens competition was a non-Grand Prix event not bringing any ATP ranking points although named ATP Championships, run as a rival event to US Pro Championships in Boston.
Most titles, Roger Federer Most finals, Bill Talbert, Roger Federer Most consecutive titles, Raymond D.1, men Roger Federer Best match winning %, Bryan Grant and Bobby Riggs,100
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Patrick Hart Cash is a retired Australian professional tennis player. He reached a career-high ATP singles ranking of world No.4 in May 1988 and he has been described as one of the greatest net players of all time. After winning the singles championship at Wimbledon in 1987, he climbed into the stands to celebrate. The son of Pat Cash Sr. an Australian rules football player for Hawthorn, Cash first came to the worlds attention as a prominent. He was awarded a scholarship at the Australian Institute of Sport and he was ranked the No.1 junior player in the world in 1981. In June 1982, Cash won the doubles title at the French Open partnering John Frawley. In July he won the singles title at Wimbledon, and while partnering Frawley. In September, he won the singles title at the US Open. Cash turned professional in 1982 and won his first top-level singles title that year in Melbourne, Cash established a reputation on the tour as a hard-fighting serve-and-volleyer and for wearing his trademark black-and-white checked headband and his cross earring.
In 1983, Cash became the youngest player to play in a Davis Cup final and he won the decisive singles rubber against Joakim Nyström as Australia defeated Sweden 3–2 to claim the cup. In 1984, Cash reached the singles semifinals at both Wimbledon and the US Open. He lost in three sets in the Wimbledon semifinals to John McEnroe and was defeated in the semifinals at the US Open by Ivan Lendl and he finished the year in Top 10 for the first time. Cash was the runner-up in the Mens Doubles competition at Wimbledon in both 1984 with McNamee and 1985 with Fitzgerald, in 1986, he helped Australia regain the Davis Cup with a 3–2 victory over Sweden. Cash again won the singles rubber, recovering from two sets down against Mikael Pernfors. Just prior to Wimbledon in 1986 Cash had an appendix operation. He reached the quarterfinals of the competition, and during the championship he started the now common tradition of throwing wristbands and headbands into the crowd,1987 is a particularly strong year for Cash.
He reached 5 singles finals, of which 2 were Grand Slam finals, Cash reached his first Grand Slam singles final at the Australian Open, where he lost in five sets to Stefan Edberg. This was the last Australian Open played at Kooyong on a grass court, the crowning moment of Cashs career came at Wimbledon in 1987
Kevin Melvyn Curren is a former professional tennis player. He played in two Grand Slam singles finals and won four Grand Slam doubles titles, reaching a career-high singles ranking of World No.5, Curren became a naturalized American citizen in April 1985. Curren played both tennis and cricket at Glenwood High School in Durban and he quickly rose among the ranks as a junior at Montclair Lawn Tennis Club in Montclair, Durban. At college he played tennis for the University of Texas at Austin in the United States and he turned professional that year, and won his first top-level singles title in 1981 in Johannesburg. It went on to be his only 4th round loss in 35 Grand Slam tournaments appearances. In 1984, Curren powered his way through the draw and played Mats Wilander in the final of the Australian Open, Wilander won the match, played on the grass courts at Kooyong, in four sets, 6–7, 6–4, 7–6, 6–2. In 1985, Curren became an American citizen, and reached the final at Wimbledon with the help of coaching from Tony Roche.
1 John McEnroe in the quarterfinals, 6–2, 6–2, 6–4, Curren was the first player to beat both legends in the same Grand Slam event. In the final, he lost in four sets to Boris Becker, 3–6, 7–6, 6–7, 4–6, the final was very heated and intense, and Becker sent several hostile glares to Curren before and after points. On one of the final change-overs, Becker even bumped Currens shoulder as they passed one another, Curren was the last American man to reach the final at Wimbledon until Andre Agassi did so seven years in 1992. Though he never won a Grand Slam singles title, Curren did win four Grand Slam doubles titles, in 1981, he won the US Open mixed doubles, and in 1982 he won the Wimbledon mixed doubles and both mens doubles and mixed doubles at the US Open. During his career, Curren won five singles titles and 26 doubles titles. His career-high rankings were World No.5 in singles and World No.3 in doubles and his career prize-money earnings totaled $3,055,510. His final career title came in 1989 at Frankfurt.
Curren retired from the tour in 1993. Since retiring from the tour, Curren has served as captain of South Africas Davis Cup team, Kevin Curren at the Association of Tennis Professionals Kevin Curren at the International Tennis Federation
Murgon is a town and locality in the South Burnett Region, Australia. It is situated on the Bunya Highway 270 kilometres north-west of the state capital, at the 2011 Australian Census the town recorded a population of 2,092. Murgon is in the region of Queensland known as the South Burnett, attractions of Murgon include winemaking, fishing on the nearby Bjelke-Petersen Dam and gem-fossicking. Industries include peanuts, dairy farming and cattle production, the Indigenous Australian settlement of Cherbourg is just south of Murgon. Murgon Post Office opened by June 1908, the foundation stone of the Murgon War Memorial was laid on 25 April 1920 by Lieutenant Colonel Wilder Neligan. On 11 November 1921, the memorial was dedicated by RSL chairman. In the early 20th century the Nanango railway line reached the town, the town was the administrative centre for the former Shire of Murgon which existed from 1914 until 2008. The South Burnett Regional Council operates a library in Murgon
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch with a wicket at each end. One team bats, attempting to score as many runs as possible, each phase of play is called an innings. After either ten batsmen have been dismissed or a number of overs have been completed, the innings ends. The winning team is the one that scores the most runs, including any extras gained, at the start of each game, two batsmen and eleven fielders enter the field of play. The striker takes guard on a crease drawn on the four feet in front of the wicket. His role is to prevent the ball hitting the stumps by use of his bat. The other batsman, known as the non-striker, waits at the end of the pitch near the bowler. A dismissed batsman must leave the field, and a teammate replaces him, the bowlers objectives are to prevent the scoring of runs and to dismiss the batsman. An over is a set of six deliveries bowled by the same bowler, the next over is bowled from the other end of the pitch by a different bowler.
If a fielder retrieves the ball enough to put down the wicket with a batsman not having reached the crease at that end of the pitch. Adjudication is performed on the field by two umpires, the laws of cricket are maintained by the International Cricket Council and the Marylebone Cricket Club. Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball. Although crickets origins are uncertain, it is first recorded in south-east England in the 16th century and it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the mid-19th century. ICC, the governing body, has over 100 members. The sport is followed primarily in Australasia, the Indian subcontinent, southern Africa, womens cricket, which is organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. A number of words have been suggested as sources for the term cricket, in the earliest definite reference to the sport in 1598 it is called creckett.
One possible source for the name is the Old English cricc or cryce meaning a crutch or staff, in Samuel Johnsons Dictionary, he derived cricket from cryce, Saxon, a stick
The Championships, Wimbledon
The Championships, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely considered the most prestigious. It has been held at the All England Club in Wimbledon, Wimbledon is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, the others being the Australian Open, the French Open and the US Open. Since the Australian Open shifted to hardcourt in 1988, Wimbledon is the only major still played on grass. The tournament takes place two weeks in late June and early July, culminating with the Ladies and Gentlemens Singles Final. Five major and invitational events are each year. Wimbledon traditions include a dress code for competitors and Royal patronage. The tournament is notable for the absence of sponsor advertising around the courts. In 2009, Wimbledons Centre Court was fitted with a roof to lessen the loss of playing time due to rain. The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club is a club founded on 23 July 1868. Its first ground was off Worple Road, Wimbledon, in 1876, lawn tennis, a game devised by Major Walter Clopton Wingfield a year or so earlier and originally given the name Sphairistikè, was added to the activities of the club.
In spring 1877, the club was renamed The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club, a new code of laws, replacing the code administered by the Marylebone Cricket Club, was drawn up for the event. Todays rules are similar except for such as the height of the net and posts. The inaugural 1877 Wimbledon Championship started on 9 July 1877 and the Gentlemens Singles was the event held. It was won by Spencer Gore, an old Harrovian rackets player, about 200 spectators paid one shilling each to watch the final. The lawns at the ground were arranged so that the court was in the middle with the others arranged around it. The name was retained when the Club moved in 1922 to the present site in Church Road, however, in 1980 four new courts were brought into commission on the north side of the ground, which meant the Centre Court was once more correctly defined. The opening of the new No.1 Court in 1997 emphasised the description, by 1882, activity at the club was almost exclusively confined to lawn tennis and that year the word croquet was dropped from the title.
However, for reasons it was restored in 1899
Boris Franz Becker is a German former world No.1 professional tennis player. He is a major singles champion, having been the youngest Wimbledon mens champion when he was 17. He has won 3 Wimbledon titles and he won 13 Masters Series titles, five elite indoor titles. He is the player to have won all 3 Open era season end finals ATP Tour Finals, WCT Finals. Becker won Olympic gold medal in doubles, Tennis magazine ranked Becker the 11th best male player of the period 1965–2005. He coached Novak Djokovic for three years beginning in 2013, Boris Becker was born in Leimen, the only son of Elvira and Karl-Heinz Becker. His mother was Catholic, and they raised him as a Catholic and his father Karl-Heinz, an architect, founded a tennis centre in Leimen, where Becker learned the game. Becker turned professional in 1984, under the guidance of Romanian-born coach Günther Bosch and Romanian manager Ion Ţiriac, and won his first professional doubles title that year in Munich. As a German teenager, Becker won the Tennis World Young Masters at the NEC in Birmingham in 1985, two weeks later, on 7 July, he became the first unseeded player and the first German to win the Wimbledon singles title, defeating Kevin Curren in four sets.
Becker was at that time ranked 20th in ATP ranking, and was unseeded and he was the youngest ever male Grand Slam singles champion at 17 years,227 days. Two months after his triumph, Becker became the youngest winner of the Cincinnati Open, Becker has since said that The plan from my parents for me was to finish school, go to university, get a proper degree and learn something respectful. The last thing on everyones mind was me becoming a tennis professional, in 1986, Becker successfully defended his Wimbledon title, defeating world no.1 Ivan Lendl in straight sets in the final. In 1987 Becker, ranked world no,2, was upset in the second round of Wimbledon by the world no.70 player, Peter Doohan. In the Davis Cup that year and John McEnroe played one of the longest matches in tennis history, Becker won 4–6, 15–13, 8–10, 6–2, 6–2. The match lasted 6 hours and 22 minutes, Becker was back in the Wimbledon final in 1988, where he lost in four sets to Stefan Edberg in a match that marked the start of one of Wimbledons great rivalries.
Becker helped West Germany win its first Davis Cup in 1988 and he won the year-end Masters title in New York City, defeating five-time champion Lendl in the final. The same year he won season ending WCT Finals for the rival World Championship Tennis tour. In 1989, Becker won two Grand Slam singles titles, the year he won more than one
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Darren Cahill is a tennis coach and former professional tennis player from Australia. In addition, Cahill is a tennis analyst for the Grand Slam events on the US sports network ESPN and he won his first tour doubles title in 1985 at the Melbourne Outdoor tournament. In 1987, he won his first top-level singles title at New Haven, in 1989, Cahill finished runner-up in mens doubles at the Australian Open partnering fellow Aussie Mark Kratzmann. Also with Kratzmann, Cahill won the ATP Championships in Cincinnati, Cahill was a member of the Australian team which reached the final of the Davis Cup in 1990. The team lost 3–2 to the United States in the final, Cahill compiled a 6–4 career Davis Cup record. Cahill won his last tour title in 1991 at San Francisco. His last doubles title came in 1994 in Sydney, in 1989, Cahills reached his career peak doubles ranking of world no.10 and his peak singles ranking of no.22 in 1989. After chronic knee injuries and ten operations, he retired from the tour in 1995.
Since retiring from the tour, Cahill has been a tennis coach. After Hewitt, Cahill coached Andre Agassi, who under Cahill became the oldest player ever to be ranked world no.1 in May 2003 and he is an Adidas talent scout and works with promising junior players worldwide. In addition to coaching individual players, Cahill was the Australian Davis Cup coach from 2007 until February 2009, along with Paul Annacone, he heads up PlaySights Coaching and Player Development team, helping the company to bring its technology to more tennis coaches and players across the world. Since 2007, Cahill is a tennis analyst for the sports network ESPN for the four major tennis Grand Slams, the Australian Open, French Open, Wimbledon. He works for the Australian television network Channel 7 for the Hopman Cup, Darren is the son of Australian rules football player and coach John Cahill. He was an Australian Institute of Sport scholarship holder and is now a member of the Adidas Player Development Program, Darren Cahill at the Association of Tennis Professionals Darren Cahill at the International Tennis Federation Darren Cahill at the Davis Cup
The French Open, often referred to as Roland Garros, is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland Garros in Paris, France. Roland Garros is the only Grand Slam event held on clay, French spelling rules dictate that in the name of a place or event named after a person, the elements of the name are joined together with a hyphen. Therefore, the names of the stadium and the tournament are hyphenated as Roland-Garros, in 1891 the Championnat de France, which is commonly referred to in English as the French Championships, was begun. It was only open to players who were members of French clubs. The first winner was a Briton—H, the first womens singles tournament, with four entries, was held in 1897. The mixed doubles event was added in 1902 and the doubles in 1907. This French club members only tournament was played until 1924, using four different venues during that period, Île de Puteaux, in Puteaux, the Racing Club de France, played on clay.
For one year,1909, it was played at the Société Athlétique de la Villa Primrose in Bordeaux, Tennis Club de Paris, at Auteuil, played on clay. Another tournament, the World Hard Court Championships, is considered the precursor to the French Open as it was open to international competitors. Winners of this tournament included world no, 1s such as Tony Wilding from New Zealand and Bill Tilden from the US. In 1924 there was no World Hard Court Championships due to tennis being played at the Paris Olympic Games, in 1925, the French Championships became open to all amateurs internationally and was designated a major championship by the ILTF. It was held at the Stade Français in Saint-Cloud in 1925 and 1927, in 1926 the Racing Club de France hosted the event in Paris, site of the previous French club members only Championship, on clay. In 1928, the Roland Garros stadium was opened and the event has held there ever since. After the Mousquetaires or Philadelphia Four won the Davis Cup on American soil in 1927, the Stade de France had offered the tennis authorities three hectares of land with the condition that the new stadium must be named after the World War I pilot, Roland Garros.
The new Stade de Roland Garros, and its Center Court hosted that Davis Cup challenge, during World War II the tournament was held from 1941 through 1945 on the same grounds but these editions are not recognized by the French governing body, Fédération Française de Tennis. From 1946 through 1947, the French Championships were held after Wimbledon, in 1968, the French Championships became the first Grand Slam tournament to go open, allowing both amateurs and professionals to compete. Since 1981, new prizes have been presented, the Prix Orange, the Prix Citron, in another novelty, since 2006 the tournament has begun on a Sunday, featuring 12 singles matches played on the three main courts. Additionally, on the eve of the opening, the traditional Benny Berthet exhibition day takes place