Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal
The Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal or The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Medal is a commemorative medal created in 2012 to mark the sixtieth anniversary of Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the Commonwealth realms. There are three versions of the medal: one issued by the United Kingdom, another by Canada, the third for the Caribbean realms of Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; the ribbons used with the Canadian and British versions of the medal are the same, while the ribbon of the Caribbean medal differs slightly. The different iterations of the medal were presented to tens of thousands of recipients throughout the Commonwealth realms in the jubilee year. Named by Order in Council as the Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee Medal, the Canadian medal was designed by Cathy Bursey-Sabourin, Fraser Herald of the Canadian Heraldic Authority, manufactured by the Royal Canadian Mint, it takes the form of a disc with, on the obverse, a crowned effigy of the Queen circumscribed by the words ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA • CANADA.
The reverse features Elizabeth's royal cypher crowned and superimposed upon a diamond shield, behind, a bed of four maple leaves and a ribbon with the dates 1952 and 2012 to the left and right of the shield and VIVAT REGINA below, all on a field of diamonds. In the United Kingdom, the medal, more properly known as The Queen's Diamond Jubilee Medal, was designed by Timothy Noad, a calligrapher and illuminator, it depicts on the obverse the Ian Rank-Broadley effigy of the Queen crowned with a tiara and is circumscribed by the inscription ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA FID DEF. The reverse shows a faceted hexagon with a crowned royal cipher, inscribed with the years 1952 and 2012. Eight Commonwealth realms in the Caribbean—Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines—have each issued a Diamond Jubilee medal; the obverse bears the same effigy of the Queen as does the British medal circumscribed by the words DIAMOND JUBILEE HM QUEEN ELIZABETH II.
The reverse shows the royal cypher of Elizabeth II with CARIBBEAN REALMS above and the years 1952–2012 below. The medal itself is rhodium plated. Both the Canadian and British versions of the medal are worn suspended from a broad red ribbon with blue outer stripes and, at the centre, double white stripes with a red stripe between; the ribbon of the Caribbean medal is similar to the aforementioned, with a black stripe between the middle two white stripes. In the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, 450,000 medals were awarded only to members of HM Armed Forces who had served longer than five years, operational members of HM Prison Service, emergency services personnel who have been in paid service, retained or in a voluntary capacity, who had completed five full calendar years of service on 6 February 2012. Holders of the Victoria Cross and George Cross and members of the Royal Household were eligible; the medals cost the Department for Culture and Sport £8m to produce. The Canadian medal, to "honour significant contributions and achievements by Canadians," is administered by the Chancellery of Honours at Rideau Hall and was awarded to 60,000 citizens and permanent residents of Canada who made a significant contribution to their fellow countrymen, their community, or to Canada over the previous sixty years.
The medal could have been awarded posthumously if the recipient was alive on 6 February 2012. The medals were allocated either automatically to individuals within certain prescribed categories—such as those in the Canadian order of precedence, the Order of Canada, or recipients of the Cross of Valour—or by selection by specific officials, such as the Governor General, the Chief of the Defence Staff, or presidents of various non-governmental organisations; the Governor General was permitted to make "exceptional awards" of the medal. On 30 May 2012, Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, presented British jubilee medals to 28 members of the Victoria Cross and George Cross Association, including individuals from the United Kingdom, Australia and Indonesia, as well as representatives from Malta and the Royal Ulster Constabulary, which had each been collectively awarded the George Cross between 1942 and 1999, respectively; some orders of precedence are as follows: In keeping with previous jubilees, plans for a commemorative medal were first announced by the Lord President of the Council, Lord Mandelson, in early 2010.
The design and eligibility criteria were subsequently announced by the Secretary of State for Culture, Jeremy Hunt, in the summer of 2011, stating "I hope the official medal will serve as a mark of thanks to all those who give so much in the name of society and public service and I extend my congratulations to all the recipients." The Governor General of Canada, David Johnston, announced on 3 February 2011 that the Queen had approved the creation of the Canadian Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal and he and Prime Minister Stephen Harper unveiled the medal's design at Rideau Hall. The first medal was struck by the Governor General on 6 December of the same year. On Accession Day 2012, the first Canadian medals were presented to 60 recipients by the Governor General at a ceremony at Rideau Hall and to others at other locations across the country, it was at the same time announced that each member o
Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service religious. The word consecration means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, the term is used in various ways by different groups; the origin of the word comes from the Latin word consecrat, which means dedicated and sacred. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify. Images of the Buddha and bodhisattvas are ceremonially consecrated in a broad range of Buddhist rituals that vary depending on the Buddhist traditions. Buddhābhiseka is a Sanskrit term referring to these consecration rituals. "Consecration" is used in the Catholic Church as the setting apart for the service of God of both persons and objects. The ordination of a new bishop is called a consecration. While the term "episcopal ordination" is now more common, "consecration" was the preferred term from the Middle Ages through the period including the Second Vatican Council; the Vatican II document Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy n. 76 states, Both the ceremonies and texts of the ordination rites are to be revised.
The address given by the bishop at the beginning of each ordination or consecration may be in the mother tongue. When a bishop is consecrated, the laying of hands may be done by all the bishops present; the English text of Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition, 1997, under the heading "Episcopal ordination—fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders", uses "episcopal consecration" as a synonymous term, using "episcopal ordination" and "episcopal consecration" interchangeably. The Code of Canon Law Latin-English Edition, under "Title VI—Orders" uses the term sacrae ordinationis minister "minister of sacred ordination" and the term consecratione episcopali "episcopal consecration"; the life of those who enter religious institutes, secular institutes or societies of apostolic Life are described as Consecrated life. The rite of consecration of virgins can be traced back at least to the fourth century. By the time of the Second Vatican Council, the bestowal of the consecration was limited to cloistered nuns only.
The Council directed. Two similar versions were prepared, one for women living in monastic orders, another for consecrated virgins living in the world. An English translation of the rite for those living in the world is available on the web site of the United States Association of Consecrated Virgins. Chrism, an anointing oil, is olive oil consecrated by a bishop. Objects such as patens and chalices, used for the Sacrament of the Eucharist, are consecrated by a bishop, using chrism; the day before a new priest is ordained, there is a vigil and a service or Mass at which the ordaining Bishop consecrates the paten and chalice of the ordinands. A more solemn rite exists for what used to be called the "consecration of an altar", either of the altar alone or as the central part of the rite for a church; the rite is now called the dedication. Since it would be contradictory to dedicate to the service of God a mortgage-burdened building, the rite of dedication of a church is carried out only if the building is debt-free.
Otherwise, it is only blessed. A special act of consecration is that of the bread and wine used in the Eucharist, which according to Catholic belief involves their change into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change referred to as transubstantiation. To consecrate the bread and wine, the priest speaks the Words of Institution. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the term "consecration" can refer to either the Sacred Mystery of Cheirotonea of a bishop, or the sanctification and solemn dedication of a church building, it can be used to describe the change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ at the Divine Liturgy. The Chrism used at Chrismation and the Antimension placed on the Holy Table are said to be consecrated. Church buildings and altars are consecrated to the purpose of religious worship, baptismal fonts and vessels are consecrated for the purpose of containing the Eucharistic elements, the bread and wine/the body and blood of Christ. A person may be consecrated for a specific role within a religious hierarchy, or a person may consecrate his or her life in an act of devotion.
In particular, the ordination of a bishop is called a consecration. In churches that follow the doctrine of apostolic succession, the bishops who consecrate a new bishop are known as the consecrators and form an unbroken line of succession back to the Apostles; those who take the vows of religious life are said to be living a consecrated life. The Methodist Book of Worship for Church and Home contains a liturgies for "The Order for the Consecration of Bishops", "An Office for the Consecration of Deaconesses", "An Office for the Consecration of Directors of Christian Education and Directors of Music", as well as "An Office for the Opening or Consecrating of a Church Building" among others. Among some religious groups there is a service of "deconsecration", to return a consecrated place to secular purpose. In the Church of England, an order closing a church may remove the legal effects of consecration. In most South Indian Hindu temples around the world, Kumbhabhishekam, or the temple's consecration ceremony, is done once every 12 years.
It is done to purify the temple after a renovation or done to renew the purity of th
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Anglican Church of Canada
The Anglican Church of Canada is the province of the Anglican Communion in Canada. The official French-language name is l'Église anglicane du Canada. In 2007, the Anglican Church counted 545,957 members on parish rolls in 2792 congregations, organised into 1676 parishes; the 2011 Canadian Census counted 1,631,845 self-identified Anglicans, making the Anglican Church the third-largest Canadian church after the Roman Catholic Church and the United Church of Canada. The Queen of Canada's Canadian Royal Style continues to include the title of Defender of the Faith, the Canadian Monarch continues her countenance of three Chapels Royal in the Realm; until 1955, the Anglican Church of Canada was known as the "Church of England in the Dominion of Canada" or the "Church of England in Canada". In 1977, the church's General Synod adopted l'Église Episcopale du Canada as its French-language name; this name was replaced with the current one, l'Église anglicane du Canada, in 1989. A matter of some confusion for Anglicans elsewhere in the world is that while the Anglican Church of Canada is a province of the Anglican Communion, the Ecclesiastical Province of Canada is one of four such ecclesiastical provinces of the Anglican Church of Canada.
This confusion is furthered by the fact that Canada has ten civil provinces, along with three territories. In recent years, there have been attempts by splinter groups to incorporate under similar names. Corporations Canada, the agency of the federal government which has jurisdiction over federally-incorporated companies, ruled on 12 September 2005 that a group of dissident Anglicans may not use the name "Anglican Communion in Canada", holding that in Canada, the term "Anglican Communion" is associated only with the Anglican Church of Canada, being the Canadian denomination which belongs to that international body; the Anglican Church of Canada's Prayer Book commemorates John Cabot's landing in Newfoundland on 24 June 1497. The first Church of England service was a celebration of Holy Communion at Frobisher Bay around 3 September 1578 by the chaplain on Martin Frobisher's voyage to the Arctic; the chaplain was "'Maister Wolfall and preacher', charged by Queen Elizabeth'to serve God twice a day'".
The propagation of the Church of England occurred in three ways. One way was by officers of ships and lay military and civil officials reading services from the Book of Common Prayer when no clergy were present. For example, in the charter issued by Charles I for Newfoundland in 1633 was this directive: "On Sundays Divine Service to be said by some of the Masters of ships, such prayers as are in the Book of Common Prayer". A second way was the direct appointing and employing of clergy by the English government on ships and in settlements. A third way was the employment of clergy by private "adventurous" companies; the first documented resident Church of England cleric on Canadian soil was Erasmus Stourton, who arrived at the "Sea Forest Plantation" at Ferryland, Newfoundland, in 1612 under the patronage of Lords Bacon and Baltimore. Stourton was of the Puritan party and remained in Ferryland until returning to England in 1628; the overseas development of the Church of England in British North America challenged the insular view of the Church at home.
The editors of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer found that they had to address the spiritual concerns of the contemporary adventurer. In the 1662 Preface, the editors note:... that it was thought convenient, that some Prayers and Thanksgivings, fitted to special occasions, should be added in their due places. The Hudson's Bay Company sent out its first chaplain in 1683, where there was no chaplain the officers of the company were directed to read prayers from the BCP on Sundays. Members of the Church of England established the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge in 1698, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1701, the Church Missionary Society in 1799; these and other organizations directly financed and sent missionaries to establish the English Church in Canada and to convert Canada's First Nations people. Direct aid of this sort lasted up to the 1940s; the first Anglican church in Newfoundland and in Canada was the small garrison chapel at St John's Fort built sometime before 1698.
The first continuously resident cleric of the chapel was the Reverend John Jackson – a Royal Navy chaplain who had settled in St. John's and was supported by the SPCK in 1698. In 1701, the SPG took over the patronage of St John's. Jackson continued to receive little actual support and was replaced by the Reverend Jacob Rice in 1709. Rice wrote a letter to the Bishop of London detailing his efforts to repair the church, "most unchristianly defaced" and asking for help in acquiring communion vessels, a pulpit cloth and glass for the windows; the garrison chapel was replaced in 1720 and in 1759. The Cathedral of St John the Baptist in St John's, Newfoundland, is the oldest Anglican parish in Canada, founded in 1699 in response to a petition drafted by the Anglican townsfolk of St John's and sent to the Bishop of London, the Right Reverend Henry Compton; the first Anglican services in Nova Scotia are dated from 1710 when a New England army from Boston with assistance of the Royal Navy captured for the fourth t
Indigenous peoples of the Americas
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the Pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture; the impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, states and empires. Among these are the Aztec and Maya states that until the 16th century were among the most politically and advanced nations in the world, they had a vast knowledge of engineering, mathematics, writing, medicine and irrigation, mining and goldsmithing. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but cater to modern needs; some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples. Indigenous peoples of the United States are known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives. Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies; those islands came to be known as the "West Indies", a name still used. This led to the blanket term "Indies" and "Indians" for the indigenous inhabitants, which implied some kind of racial or cultural unity among the indigenous peoples of the Americas.
This unifying concept, codified in law and politics, was not accepted by the myriad groups of indigenous peoples themselves, but has since been embraced or tolerated, by many over the last two centuries. Though the term "Indian" does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood; this is contrasted, for instance, to the American Indian-European mixed race mestizos of Hispanic America who, with their larger population, identify as a new ethnic group distinct from both Europeans and Indigenous Americans, but still considering themselves a subset of the European-derived Hispanic or Brazilian peoplehood in culture and ethnicity.
The term Amerindian and its cognates find preferred use in scientific contexts and in Quebec, the Guianas and the English-speaking Caribbean. Indígenas or pueblos indígenas is a common term in Spanish-speaking countries and pueblos nativos or nativos may be heard, while aborigen is used in Argentina and pueblos originarios is common in Chile. In Brazil, indígenas or povos indígenas are common if formal-sounding designations, while índio is still the more often-heard term and aborígene and nativo being used in Amerindian-specific contexts; the Spanish and Portuguese equivalents to Indian could be used to mean any hunter-gatherer or full-blooded Indigenous person to continents other than Europe or Africa—for example, indios filipinos. The specifics of Paleo-Indian migration to and throughout the Americas, including the exact dates and routes traveled, are the subject of ongoing research and discussion. According to archaeological and genetic evidence and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the land bridge of Beringia that joined Siberia to northwest North America. Alaska was a glacial refugium; the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska for thousands of years. Indigenous genetic studies suggest that the first inhabitants of the Americas share a single ancestral population, one that developed in isolation, conjectured to be Beringia; the isolat
The Anglican ministry is both the leadership and agency of Christian service in the Anglican Communion. "Ministry" refers to the office of ordained clergy: the threefold order of bishops and deacons. More Anglican ministry includes many laypeople who devote themselves to the ministry of the church, either individually or in lower/assisting offices such as lector, sub-deacon, Eucharistic minister, musicians, parish secretary or assistant, vestry member, etc. All baptized members of the church are considered to partake in the ministry of the Body of Christ. "...t might be useful if Anglicans dropped the word minister when referring to the clergy... In our tradition, ordained persons are either bishops, priests, or deacons, should be referred to as such." Each of the provinces of the Anglican Communion has a high degree of independence from the other provinces, each of them have different structures for ministry and governance. However, personal leadership is always vested in a member of the clergy (a bishop at provincial and diocesan levels, a priest and consensus derived by synodical government.
At different levels of the church's structure, laity and bishops meet together with prayer to deliberate over church governance. These gatherings are variously called conferences, general or church-wide conventions, councils and vestries; the effect of Henry VIII's Act in Restraint of Appeals and first Act of Supremacy was to establish royal authority in all matters spiritual and temporal assigning the power of ecclesiastical visitation over the Church in the English Realm. Queen Elizabeth I, while declining the title of Supreme Head, was declared to be "Supreme Governor of this realm... as well in all spiritual or ecclesiastical things or causes as temporal". Thus, although the Church of England was regarded in the sixteenth century as a church of the Reformation, it nonetheless maintained the historic church structure including the maintenance of the threefold order of the ministry, with bishops, consecrated in apostolic succession, ordaining deacons and priests. Thus, Anglican ordained ministry resembles.
While the Puritan ascendency in England introduced a parallel presbyterian polity, Anglicanism worldwide is defined in part by the historic structure, although outside the British Isles it has no supreme governor. In recent years, due to increasing theological differences within the Anglican Communion, there have been a number of instances of "valid but irregular" ordinations performed by clergy acting outside the normal authority structures of the church. Under the Overseas and Other Clergy Measure 1967 the Church of England "recognizes and accepts" as valid the orders of two churches which, although Anglican in identity, are not members of the Anglican Communion: the Church of England in South Africa and the Free Church of England. In Anglican sacramental theology, certain ministerial functions can only be performed by individuals ordained into one or more of the three holy orders. There are two kinds of ministers in this sense; the ordinary minister of a sacrament has both the spiritual power to perform the sacrament and the legal authority to perform the sacrament.
An extraordinary minister has the spiritual power but may only perform the sacrament in certain special instances under canon law. If a person, neither an ordinary nor an extraordinary minister attempts to perform a sacrament, no preternatural effect happens. In the Anglican Communion, the following are ministers of the sacraments: Baptism: clergy. Confirmation: bishop. Eucharist: bishop or priest. Reconciliation of a penitent: bishop or priest. Healing: bishop or priest. Matrimony: the individuals to be married Holy Orders: at least one bishop ordains deacons and priests; the churches of the Anglican Communion maintain the historical episcopate, which ordains clergy into the three orders of deacon and bishop. Bishops provide the leadership for the Anglican Communion, in accordance with episcopal polity. All bishops, constituting a worldwide College of Bishops, are considered to be equal in orders. However, bishops have a variety of different responsibilities, in these some bishops are more senior than others.
All bishops, of diocesan rank and below, are styled the Right Reverend. Most bishops oversee a diocese, some are consecrated to assist diocesan bishops in large or busy dioceses, some are relieved of diocesan responsibilities so they can minister more widely. A few member churches of the Anglican Communion ordain women as bishops, many more have prepared the legislation for women to become bishops but have not yet ordained a woman to the episcopate. Anglican bishops are identified by the purple clergy shirt and cassock they are entitled to wear. However, bishops are permitted to wear other colours, a former Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, is seen wearing a black cassock. Bishops al