Louis Victor Piniella is a former professional baseball player and manager. An outfielder in the major leagues, he played sixteen seasons with the Baltimore Orioles, Cleveland Indians, Kansas City Royals and New York Yankees. During his playing career, he was named AL Rookie of the Year in 1969 and captured two World Series championships with the Yankees. Following his playing career, Piniella became a manager for the New York Yankees, Cincinnati Reds, Seattle Mariners, Tampa Bay Devil Rays, Chicago Cubs, he won the 1990 World Series championship with the Reds and led the Mariners to four postseason appearances in seven years. He captured back-to-back division titles during his time with the Cubs. Piniella was named Manager of the Year three times during his career and finished his managerial career ranked 14th all-time on the list of managerial wins, he was nicknamed "Sweet Lou", both for his swing as a major league hitter and, facetiously, to describe his demeanor as a player and manager. Born in Tampa, Piniella's parents were of Asturian descent, from northwest Spain.
He grew up in West Tampa, played American Legion baseball and PONY League baseball alongside Tony La Russa. Piniella attended Jesuit High School in Tampa. After graduation in 1961, he attended the University of Tampa for a year, where he was a College Division All-American in baseball for the Spartans. Piniella was signed by the Cleveland Indians at age 18 as an amateur free agent on June 9, 1962; that fall, he was drafted by the Washington Senators from the Indians in the 1962 first year draft. In August 1964, Piniella was sent to the Baltimore Orioles to complete an earlier trade for Buster Narum, Piniella played in his first major league game that September with the Orioles at the age of 21. Prior to the 1966 season, he was traded by the Orioles back to the Indians for Cam Carreon, made his second major league appearance in September 1968 at age 25 with the Indians. Piniella was selected by the Seattle Pilots in the 1968 expansion draft in October, but was traded after spring training on April 1 to the Kansas City Royals for John Gelnar and Steve Whitaker.
Piniella played for the Royals for their first five seasons, 1969 through 1973, was the American League's Rookie of the Year in 1969 and was named to the 1972 All-Star Game. He was the first batter in Royals history. Piniella doubled to left field scored on an RBI single by Jerry Adair. After the 1973 season, Piniella was traded by the Royals with Ken Wright to the New York Yankees for Lindy McDaniel, he played with the Yankees for 11 seasons, during which the Yankees won five AL East titles, four AL pennants, two World Series championships. In 1975, he missed part of the year with an inner ear infection. From mid-1977 through the end of 1980, he was the Yankees' regular outfielder/DH. In his career, Piniella made one All-Star team and compiled 1705 lifetime hits despite not playing full-time for just under half of his career, he received 2 votes for the Hall of Fame as a player in 1990. After retiring as a player, Piniella joined the Yankees coaching staff as the hitting coach, he managed the Yankees from 1986 to 1987.
His initial managerial contract for 1986 was for $200,000. Combining both stints as Yankees manager, he won 193 losses. Hired in November 1989, Piniella managed the Cincinnati Reds from 1990 through 1992. In his first year, the Reds won the World Series in a four-game sweep of the heavily-favored Oakland Athletics, who were the defending champions, his three-year contract totaled over one million dollars. Following his third season, he announced in October, he finished with a record of 231 losses. Under a new ownership group, Piniella was introduced as the new manager of the Mariners in November 1992, led the Seattle Mariners for ten seasons, his wife Anita insisted he not take the position. His initial contract in Seattle was for $2.5 million over three years more than his predecessor, Bill Plummer, whose two-year deal totaled $500,000. Piniella won the AL Manager of the Year Award in 1995, again in 2001, when he led the Mariners to a record-tying 116 wins. After winning the 2001 AL Division Series, the Mariners dropped the first two games of the AL Championship Series, Piniella held an angry post-game press conference in which he guaranteed the Mariners would win two out of three games in New York to return the ALCS to Seattle.
However, the Yankees closed out the series at Yankee Stadium, the Mariners have not reached the playoffs since. Following the 2002 season, Piniella requested out of his final year with the Mariners to manage the Tampa Bay Devil Rays; as compensation, the Devil Rays traded outfielder Randy Winn to the Mariners for infield prospect Antonio Perez. Piniella finished with a record of 711 losses. All four of the Mariners' playoff appearances in team history were under Piniella. In 2014, Pinella was inducted into the Seattle Mariners Hall of Fame on August 9. Piniella's Number 14, though not yet retired, had not been issued to any
1992 Major League Baseball season
The 1992 Major League Baseball season saw the Toronto Blue Jays defeat the Atlanta Braves in the World Series, becoming the first team outside the United States to win the World Series. A resurgence in pitching dominance occur during this season. On average, one out of every seven games pitched. Two teams pitched at least 20 shutouts each. In the National League, no team hit more than 138 home runs and no team scored 700 runs; the San Francisco Giants were shut out the most in the Majors. The effect was similar in the American League. In 1991, two AL teams had scored at least 800 runs and three had collected 1,500 hits. In 1992, no team scored only one reached 1,500 hits; the California Angels were shut out 15 times, the most in the AL. Baseball Hall of Fame Rollie Fingers Bill McGowan Hal Newhouser Tom Seaver Rolaids Relief Man of the Year Award Dennis Eckersley, Oakland Athletics Lee Smith, St. Louis Cardinals World Series: Toronto Blue Jays over Atlanta Braves. January 7 – Pitchers Tom Seaver and Rollie Fingers are elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Baseball Writers' Association of America.
Seaver finishes with a record 98.8% of the votes cast. Pete Rose, ineligible because of his ban from baseball, receives 41 write–in votes. January 31 – The Pittsburgh Pirates sign outfielder Barry Bonds to a one-year contract worth $4.7 million, the largest-ever one-year deal. February 20 – The Simpsons episode Homer at the Bat airs on the Fox Network, featuring guest appearances by Roger Clemens, Wade Boggs, Ken Griffey, Jr. Steve Sax, Ozzie Smith, José Canseco, Don Mattingly, Darryl Strawberry, Mike Scioscia. March 2 – Chicago Cubs second baseman Ryne Sandberg becomes the highest-paid player in major league history when he agrees to a four-year contract extension worth $28.4 million. March 17 – Pitcher Hal Newhouser and umpire Bill McGowan are elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame by the Veterans Committee. March 30 – In one of the biggest cross-town trades in Chicago baseball history, the Chicago Cubs trade George Bell to the Chicago White Sox, while the Sox send Sammy Sosa to the Cubs. April 6 – A crowd of 44,568 sees the Baltimore Orioles defeat the Cleveland Indians 2–0 in the first game at Oriole Park at Camden Yards.
Rick Sutcliffe hurls the shutout for Baltimore. May 17 – The Minnesota Twins trade regarded pitching prospect Denny Neagle to the Pittsburgh Pirates for pitcher John Smiley. July 7 – Andy Van Slyke of the Pittsburgh Pirates becomes the first outfielder in nearly 18 years to record an unassisted double play, in the Pirates' 5–3 win over the Houston Astros. Van Slyke races in from center field to catch a fly ball continues in to double up Ken Caminiti, running from second base on the play. July 14 – The American League pounds out a record 19 hits in defeating the National League by a score of 13–6 in the All-Star Game, it is the AL's fifth straight win. Seattle Mariners outfielder Ken Griffey, Jr. who hit a single, a double and a home run, is named the MVP, 12 years after his father Ken Sr. won the same honor. August 28 – The Milwaukee Brewers lash 31 hits in a 22–2 drubbing of the Toronto Blue Jays, setting a record for the most hits by a team in a single nine-inning game. Darryl Hamilton leads the way for the Brewers, going 4-for-7 with 5 RBI.
September 7 – After receiving an 18–9 no-confidence vote from the owners, Commissioner Fay Vincent is forced to resign. Vincent is soon replaced by Milwaukee Brewers president Bud Selig on what is meant to be an interim basis. September 9 – Robin Yount becomes the 17th player to reach 3,000 hits in the Milwaukee Brewers' 5–4 loss to the Cleveland Indians. Yount singles to right center off Cleveland's José Mesa in the seventh inning. September 20 – Philadelphia Phillies second baseman Mickey Morandini completes the first unassisted triple play in the National League in 65 years against their in-state rivals, the Pittsburgh Pirates. In the bottom of the sixth inning, Morandini snares Jeff King's line drive, steps on second to double off Andy Van Slyke, tags Barry Bonds out before he can return to first, it is the ninth unassisted triple play since 1901, but only the second to be pulled off by a second baseman. September 23 – Bip Roberts of the Cincinnati Reds hits safely in his tenth consecutive at-bat.
He ends his streak in the game against the Los Angeles Dodgers. September 26 – Bill Pecota becomes the first position player for the New York Mets to pitch in a game, giving up a home run in the 8th inning as the Pittsburgh Pirates defeat the Mets 19-2. September 27 – The Pittsburgh Pirates seal their third consecutive National League East championship with a 4–2 victory over the New York Mets. September 28 – The idle Oakland Athletics clinch their fourth American League West crown in five years when the second-place Minnesota Twins fall to the Chicago White Sox 9–4. September 29 – The Atlanta Braves wrap up the National League West with a 6–0 shutout of the San Francisco Giants. September 30 – George Brett of the Kansas City Royals collects his 3,000th hit, an infield single off Tim Fortugno in the seventh inning of a 4–0 Royals victory over the California Angels. October 3 – The Toronto Blue Jays clinch their second straight American League East title with a 3–1 win o
KTXA, virtual channel 21, is an independent television station licensed to Fort Worth, United States and serving the Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex. The station is owned by the CBS Television Stations subsidiary of CBS Corporation, as part of a duopoly with CBS owned-and-operated station KTVT licensed to Fort Worth; the two stations share primary studio facilities on Bridge Street, east of downtown Fort Worth, advertising sales offices at CBS Tower on North Central Expressway in Dallas. The UHF channel 21 allocation in the Dallas–Fort Worth market was occupied by KFWT, an independent station licensed to Fort Worth that signed on the air on September 19, 1967. Windson, owner of radio station and KFWT-FM. KFWT featured an Easy Listening format, it was the first UHF television station to sign on in the Dallas–Fort Worth market. Broadcasting nightly from 6:00 to 10:00, the station's programming consisted of public domain movies. KFWT operated from studios located on Broadcast Hill at 3900 Barnett Street in Fort Worth, adjacent to the studios of WBAP-TV in a transmitter building, used as the studios for radio station WBAP.
KFWT's call letters stood for Texas. Some of the television station's programming included The Oscar Argumedo Show, TV 21 – Country Style and Green Valley Raceway. Notables included Oscar Argumedo, Durline Dunham, Don Shook, Jim "Shootin'" Newton, Bob Hart and Bob Weatherford. Cameramen and production staff included Tony Mieczynski and Ed Hullum. With the station's quiet, remote location and rolling hills for dune buggy sponsor, Sandman Sales, programs were shot outdoors with the distant D/FW Turnpike and Fort Worth skyline as a scenic backdrop. On his way home from the station in May 1969, Program Director Gary Windsor died shortly after his vehicle was struck in a head-on collision by a drunk driver, driving on the Turnpike in the wrong direction; the station was in financial trouble by 1969. In August of that year, the station went dark for one week due to a power failure. Windson asked the Federal Communications Commission's permission to sign off for three months, a request that the Commission denied.
KFWT resumed broadcasting for one week before permanently ceasing operations on September 5. The station filed for bankruptcy on March 27, 1970; the FM radio station was retained, the call letters were changed to KFWD. KTXA first signed on the air on October 6, 1980; the station's original studio facilities were located on Randol Mill Road, adjacent to Six Flags Over Texas and Arlington Stadium in Arlington. It ran a general entertainment format of cartoons and sitcoms during the daytime hours, while at night it broadcast the over-the-air subscription television service ONTV, which required a set-top decoder and a subscription fee in order to receive the ONTV signal during programming hours. By 1983, it became a general entertainment station full-time, added classic movies and off-network drama series. Grant Broadcasting signed on a formatted station, KTXH in Houston, in 1982. In 1984, both KTXA and KTXH were sold to Gulf Broadcasting, which itself was subsequently purchased by the Taft Television and Radio Company that same year.
From 1985 to 1989, KTXA operated the "Channel 21 Kids' Club". They were blue on the front side and white on the back, with a "KTXA Channel 21 Kids' Club" logo appearing on the front in red and white along with the line "I turned 21"; the hostess of these shorts, K. D. Fox, was featured in many other local promotions for various businesses in the Dallas–Fort Worth area; the station was unprofitable throughout the 1980s. In February 1987, Taft sold its independent stations—including KTXA—to the TVX Broadcast Group. In 1989, Paramount Pictures purchased a minority stake in TVX. Viacom acquired the stations in 1994 as part of its purchase of Paramount Pictures. Around this time, the station moved its operations to the Paramount Building in the West End district of downtown Dallas. On January 16, 1995, KTXA became a charter affiliate of the United Paramount Network. After independent station KTVT affiliated with CBS in July 1995, it acquired various syndicated programs that it could not air due to its new network-heavy schedule.
It became a UPN owned-and-operated station when Viacom acquired a 50% stake in the network from Chris-Craft Industries in 1996 (up t
In baseball and softball, second baseman is a fielding position in the infield, between second and first base. The second baseman possesses quick hands and feet, needs the ability to get rid of the ball and must be able to make the pivot on a double play. In addition, second basemen are right-handed. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the second baseman is assigned the number 4. Good second basemen need to have good range, since they have to field balls closer to the first baseman, holding runners on, or moving towards the base to cover. On a batted ball to right field, the second baseman goes out towards the ball for the relay. Due to these requirements, second base is sometimes a defensive position in the modern game, but there are hitting stars as well; the second baseman catches line drives or pop flies hit near him, fields ground balls hit near him and throws the ball to a base to force out a runner. In this case, if the runner is to be forced out at second base that base is covered by the shortstop.
With a runner on first base, on a ground ball to the shortstop or third baseman the second baseman will cover second base to force out the runner coming from first. Moreover, if there are fewer than two outs he will attempt to turn the double play: that is, he will receive the throw from the other player with his foot on second base, in one motion pivot toward first base and throw the ball there. If a runner on first base attempts to steal second base, or if the pitcher attempts to pick off a runner at second base either the second baseman or the shortstop will cover second base; the following second basemen have been elected to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum: Notes Bill Mazeroski: 11 Nellie Fox: 10 Bobby Doerr: 9 Red Schoendienst: 8 Charlie Gehringer: 7 Joe Gordon: 7 Billy Herman: 5 Jackie Robinson: 4 Roberto Alomar: 3 Craig Biggio: 2 Frankie Frisch: 2 Rogers Hornsby: 2 Joe Morgan: 2 Ryne Sandberg: 2 Tony Lazzeri: 1 Bid McPhee: 1Source: baseball-reference.com
The Oakland Athletics referred to as the A's, are an American professional baseball team based in Oakland, California. They compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League West division; the team plays its home games at the Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum. They have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of all current MLB teams; the 2018 season was the club's 50th while based in Oakland. One of the American League's eight charter franchises, the team was founded in Philadelphia in 1901 as the Philadelphia Athletics, they won three World Series championships from 1910 to 1913 and back-to-back titles in 1929 and 1930. The team's owner and manager for its first 50 years was Connie Mack and Hall of Fame players included Chief Bender, Frank "Home Run" Baker, Jimmie Foxx, Lefty Grove; the team left Philadelphia for Kansas City in 1955 and became the Kansas City Athletics before moving to Oakland in 1968. They won three consecutive World Championships between 1972 and 1974, led by players including Vida Blue, Catfish Hunter, Reggie Jackson, ace reliever Rollie Fingers, colorful owner Charlie O. Finley.
After being sold by Finley to Walter A. Haas Jr. the team won three consecutive pennants and the 1989 World Series behind the "Bash Brothers", Jose Canseco and Mark McGwire, as well as Hall of Famers Dennis Eckersley, Rickey Henderson and manager Tony La Russa. From 1901 to 2018, the Athletics' overall win–loss record is 8,931–9,387; the history of the Athletics Major League Baseball franchise spans the period from 1901 to the present day, having begun in Philadelphia before moving to Kansas City in 1955 and to its current home in Oakland, California, in 1968. The A's made their Bay Area debut on Wednesday, April 17, 1968, with a 4-1 loss to the Baltimore Orioles at the Coliseum, in front of an opening-night crowd of 50,164; the Athletics' name originated in the term "Athletic Club" for local gentlemen's clubs—dates to 1860 when an amateur team, the Athletic of Philadelphia, was formed. The team turned professional through 1875, becoming a charter member of the National League in 1876, but were expelled from the N.
L. after one season. A version of the Athletics played in the American Association from 1882 to 1891. After New York Giants manager John McGraw told reporters that Philadelphia manufacturer Benjamin Shibe, who owned the controlling interest in the new team, had a "white elephant on his hands", team manager Connie Mack defiantly adopted the white elephant as the team mascot, presented McGraw with a stuffed toy elephant at the start of the 1905 World Series. McGraw and Mack had known each other for years, McGraw accepted it graciously. By 1909, the A's were wearing an elephant logo on their sweaters, in 1918 it turned up on the regular uniform jersey for the first time. In 1963, when the A's were located in Kansas City, then-owner Charlie Finley changed the team mascot from an elephant to a mule, the state animal of Missouri; this is rumored to have been done by Finley in order to appeal to fans from the region who were predominantly Democrats at the time. Since 1988, the Athletics' 21st season in Oakland, an illustration of an elephant has adorned the left sleeve of the A's home and road uniforms.
Beginning in the mid 1980s, the on-field costumed incarnation of the A's elephant mascot went by the name Harry Elephante. In 1997, he took Stomper. Through the seasons, the Athletics' uniforms have paid homage to their amateur forebears to some extent; until 1954, when the uniforms had "Athletics" spelled out in script across the front, the team's name never appeared on either home or road uniforms. Furthermore, neither "Philadelphia" nor the letter "P" appeared on the uniform or cap; the typical Philadelphia uniform had only a script "A" on the left front, the cap had the same "A" on it. In the early days of the American League, the standings listed the club as "Athletic" rather than "Philadelphia", in keeping with the old tradition; the city name came to be used for the team, as with the other major league clubs. After buying the team in 1960, owner Charles O. Finley introduced new road uniforms with "Kansas City" printed on them, as well as an interlocking "KC" on the cap. Upon moving to Oakland, the "A" cap emblem was restored, although in 1970 an "apostrophe-s" was added to the cap and uniform emblem to reflect the fact that Finley was in the process of changing the team's name to the "A's".
While in Kansas City, Finley changed the team's colors from their traditional red and blue to what he termed "Kelly Green, Wedding Gown White and Fort Knox Gold". It was here that he began experimenting with dramatic uniforms to match these bright colors, such as gold sleeveless tops with green undershirts and gold pants; the innovative uniforms only increased after the team's move to Oakland, which came at the time of the introduction of polyester pullover uniforms. During their dynasty years in the 1970s, the A's had dozens of uniform combinations with jerseys and pants in all three team colors, in fact did not wear the traditional gray on the road, instead wearing green or gold, which helped to contribute to their nickname of "The Swingin' A's". After the team's sale to the Haas family, the team changed its primary color to a more subdued forest green and began a move back to more traditional uniforms; the team wears home uniforms with "Athletics" spelled out in script writing and road uniforms wit
1990 Major League Baseball season
The 1990 Major League Baseball season saw the Cincinnati Reds upset the favored Oakland Athletics in the World Series, for their first title since 1976. Baseball Hall of Fame Joe Morgan Jim Palmer Most Valuable Player Rickey Henderson, Oakland Athletics Barry Bonds, Pittsburgh Pirates Cy Young Award Bob Welch, Oakland Athletics Doug Drabek, Pittsburgh Pirates Rookie of the Year Sandy Alomar, Jr. Cleveland Indians David Justice, Atlanta Braves Manager of the Year Award Jeff Torborg, Chicago White Sox Jim Leyland, Pittsburgh Pirates Gold Glove Award Mark McGwire Harold Reynolds Kelly Gruber Ozzie Guillén Gary Pettis Ellis Burks Ken Griffey Jr. Sandy Alomar Jr. Mike Boddicker World Series: Cincinnati Reds over Oakland Athletics. February – The 1990 Major League Baseball lockout begins, it lasts 32 days, as a result wipes out all of spring training and pushes Opening Day back a week to April 9. In addition, the 1990 season has to be extended by three days in order to accommodate the normal 162-game schedule.
April 14 – CBS begins broadcasting Major League Baseball games. April 15 - Sunday Night Baseball debuts on ESPN. April 20 – After retiring the first 26 Oakland Athletics batters, Brian Holman loses a perfect game when Ken Phelps hits a home run in an eventual 6–1 Seattle Mariners win. May 22 – Andre Dawson of the Chicago Cubs is intentionally walked by Cincinnati Reds' pitching five times, he is the first player to do so in Major League history. June 6 – The highest-profile managerial firing of 1990 season happens when the New York Yankees fire Bucky Dent before a game against their rivals at Fenway Park, where he hit his famous three-run home run in a one-game playoff game in 1978, making Fenway Park the scene of his greatest moment as a player and worst moment as manager. June 11 – Nolan Ryan pitches the sixth no-hitter of his career by defeating the Oakland Athletics in Oakland, 5–0. June 14 – It is announced that the National League will be expanding by two teams for the 1993 season. June 29 – For the first time in major league history, two no-hitters are thrown on the same day in both leagues.
Dave Stewart of the Oakland Athletics pitches a 5–0 no-hitter against his future team, the Toronto Blue Jays, at SkyDome. Hours Dodger pitcher Fernando Valenzuela no-hits the St. Louis Cardinals at Dodger Stadium, 6–0. July 1 – While no longer recognized as such, the New York Yankees' Andy Hawkins pitches a no-hitter at old Comiskey Park; however and errors lead to four unearned runs as the Chicago White Sox win 4–0. July 10 – Six American League pitchers combine for a two-hitter and a 2–0 victory over the National League in a rain-delayed All-Star Game at Wrigley Field in Chicago. Texas Rangers second baseman Julio Franco drives in both runs in the seventh inning and is named MVP. July 11 – The Chicago White Sox host Major League Baseball's first-ever Turn Back the Clock Day game against the Milwaukee Brewers; the White Sox wear modified versions of the uniforms worn in 1917, the year of their most recent World Series at the time. The promotion is aimed at celebrating Comiskey Park's final season.
Ballpark ushers and grounds crew wear uniforms from the time period and some use megaphones to announce lineups. Ticket prices for the contest were as low as $.50. The White Sox fall 12–9 to the Brewers in 13 innings. July 12 – Barry Bonds hits his 100th career home run. July 17 – The Minnesota Twins turn two triple plays in a single game against the Boston Red Sox, yet still lose the game 1–0 on an unearned run. July 31 – Nolan Ryan of the Texas Rangers earns his 300th career win, an 11–3 pounding of the Milwaukee Brewers. August 31 – Ken Griffey and his son Ken Griffey, Jr. start for the Seattle Mariners in a game against the Kansas City Royals. It marks the first time a father and son have played in the same Major League game. September 2 – After coming close on numerous occasions, Dave Stieb of the Toronto Blue Jays hurls his team's first no-hitter, blanking the Cleveland Indians 3–0 at Cleveland Stadium. September 3 – Reliever Bobby Thigpen sets a major league record with his 47th save in a 4–2 Chicago White Sox victory over the Kansas City Royals.
The previous record was set by Dave Righetti of the New York Yankees in 1986. September 14 – Ken Griffey and Ken Griffey, Jr. hit back-to-back home runs for the Seattle Mariners in a 7–5 loss to the California Angels. Pitcher Kirk McCaskill gives up the historic home runs. September 15 – Bobby Thigpen of the Chicago White Sox saves his fiftieth game, becoming the first pitcher to reach that mark; the White Sox defeat the Boston Red Sox 7–5. September 22 – Andre Dawson of the Chicago Cubs steals his 300th base in an 11–5 loss to the New York Mets, becoming only the second player in major league history with 300 home runs, 300 steals, 2,000 hits. Willie Mays is the first, though they will be joined by Barry Bonds. September 25 – The Oakland Athletics secure their third straight American League West championship with a 5–0 shutout of the Royals in Kansas City; the A's would finish with the best record in baseball at 103–59, the third consecutive year they have done so. September 29 – While waiting through a rain delay, the Cincinnati Reds watch the Los Angeles Dodgers lose to th
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball is a professional baseball organization, the oldest of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. A total of 30 teams play with 15 teams in each league; the NL and AL were formed as separate legal entities in 1901 respectively. After cooperating but remaining separate entities beginning in 1903, the leagues merged into a single organization led by the Commissioner of Baseball in 2000; the organization oversees Minor League Baseball, which comprises 256 teams affiliated with the Major League clubs. With the World Baseball Softball Confederation, MLB manages the international World Baseball Classic tournament. Baseball's first all-professional team was founded in Cincinnati in 1869; the first few decades of professional baseball were characterized by rivalries between leagues and by players who jumped from one team or league to another. The period before 1920 in baseball was known as the dead-ball era. Baseball survived a conspiracy to fix the 1919 World Series, which came to be known as the Black Sox Scandal.
The sport rose in popularity in the 1920s, survived potential downturns during the Great Depression and World War II. Shortly after the war, Jackie Robinson broke baseball's color barrier; the 1950s and 1960s were a time of expansion for the AL and NL new stadiums and artificial turf surfaces began to change the game in the 1970s and 1980s. Home runs dominated the game during the 1990s, media reports began to discuss the use of anabolic steroids among Major League players in the mid-2000s. In 2006, an investigation produced the Mitchell Report, which implicated many players in the use of performance-enhancing substances, including at least one player from each team. Today, MLB is composed of 1 in Canada. Teams play 162 games each season and five teams in each league advance to a four-round postseason tournament that culminates in the World Series, a best-of-seven championship series between the two league champions that dates to 1903. Baseball broadcasts are aired on television and the Internet throughout North America and in several other countries throughout the world.
MLB has the highest season attendance of any sports league in the world with more than 73 million spectators in 2015. MLB is governed by the Major League Baseball Constitution; this document has undergone several incarnations since its creation in 1876. Under the direction of the Commissioner of Baseball, MLB hires and maintains the sport's umpiring crews, negotiates marketing and television contracts. MLB maintains a unique, controlling relationship over the sport, including most aspects of Minor League Baseball; this is due in large part to the 1922 U. S. Supreme Court ruling in Federal Baseball Club v. National League, which held that baseball is not interstate commerce and therefore not subject to federal antitrust law; this ruling has been weakened only in subsequent years. The weakened ruling granted more stability to the owners of teams and has resulted in values increasing at double-digit rates. There were several challenges to MLB's primacy in the sport between the 1870s and the Federal League in 1916.
The chief executive of MLB is the commissioner Rob Manfred. The chief operating officer is Tony Petitti. There are five other executives: president, chief communications officer, chief legal officer, chief financial officer, chief baseball officer; the multimedia branch of MLB, based in Manhattan, is MLB Advanced Media. This branch oversees each of the 30 teams' websites, its charter states that MLB Advanced Media holds editorial independence from the league, but it is under the same ownership group and revenue-sharing plan. MLB Productions is a structured wing of the league, focusing on video and traditional broadcast media. MLB owns 67 percent of MLB Network, with the other 33 percent split between several cable operators and satellite provider DirecTV, it operates out of studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, has editorial independence from the league. In 1920, the weak National Commission, created to manage relationships between the two leagues, was replaced with the much more powerful Commissioner of Baseball, who had the power to make decisions for all of professional baseball unilaterally.
From 1901 to 1960, the American and National Leagues fielded eight teams apiece. In the 1960s, MLB expansion added eight teams, including the first non-U. S. Team. Two teams were added in the 1970s. From 1969 through 1993, each league consisted of an West Division. A third division, the Central Division, was formed in each league in 1994; until 1996, the two leagues met on the field only during the All-Star Game. Regular-season interleague play was introduced in 1997. In March 1995 two new franchises, the Arizona Diamondbacks and Tampa Bay Devil Rays, were awarded by MLB, to begin play in 1998; this addition brought the total number of franchises to 30. In early 1997, MLB decided to assign one new team to each league: Tampa Bay joined the AL and Arizona joined the NL; the original plan was to have an odd number of teams in each league, but in order for every team to be able to play daily, this would have required interleague play to be scheduled throughout the entire season. However, it