2009–10 Wellington Phoenix FC season
The 2009–10 season is the Wellington Phoenix's third season of football in the Hyundai A-League, making it the longest running New Zealand team in the competition, surpassing the defunct New Zealand Knights. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Player Started Player Subbed In Player Suspended Player Injured/sick Player on International Duty Player Left Club/Not Signed/Loan Expired Goal scored from penalty kick First team Coach: Ricki Herbert Goalkeeping Coach: Jonathan Gould Technical Analyst: Luciano Trani First team Physiotherapist: Adam Crump Masseur: Dene Carroll Strength & Conditioning Coach: Ed Baranowski The team kit for the 2009-10 season was produced by Reebok; the home kit was changed to a yellow vertically striped shirt with black shorts and socks. The away kit features black sleeves with yellow trim on a white background, while the shorts are white with a yellow and black side trim, with white socks.
Sony remained the club's major sponsor. Supplier: ReebokSponsor: Sony See List of Wellington Phoenix FC End of Season AwardsSony Player of the Year: Andrew Durante Members' Player of the Year: Paul Ifill Players' Player of the Year: Paul Ifill Media Player of the Year: Paul Ifill Golden Boot: Paul Ifill - 12 goals Under-23 Player of the Year: Troy Hearfield
An exhibition game is a sporting event whose prize money and impact on the player's or the team's rankings is either zero or otherwise reduced. In team sports, matches of this type are used to help coaches and managers select and condition players for the competitive matches of a league season or tournament. If the players play in different teams in other leagues, exhibition games offer an opportunity for the players to learn to work with each other; the games can be held between parts of the same team. An exhibition game may be used to settle a challenge, to provide professional entertainment, to promote the sport, to commemorate an anniversary or a famous player, or to raise money for charities. Several sports leagues hold all-star games to showcase their best players against each other, while other exhibitions games may pit participants from two different leagues or countries to unofficially determine who would be the best in the world. International competitions like the Olympic Games may hold exhibition games as part of a demonstration sport.
In the early days of football, friendlies were the most common type of match. However, since the development of The Football League in England in 1888, league tournaments became established, in addition to lengthy derby and cup tournaments. By the year 2000, national leagues were established in every country throughout the world, as well as local or regional leagues for lower level teams. Since the introduction of league football, most club sides play a number of friendlies before the start of each season. Friendly football matches are considered to be non-competitive and are only used to "warm up" players for a new season/competitive match. There is nothing competitive at stake and some rules may be changed or experimented with; such games take place between a large club and small clubs that play nearby, such as those between Newcastle United and Gateshead. Although most friendlies are one-off matches arranged by the clubs themselves, in which a certain amount is paid by the challenger club to the incumbent club, some teams do compete in short tournaments, such as the Community Shield, Emirates Cup, Teresa Herrera Trophy, International Champions Cup and the Amsterdam Tournament.
Although these events may involve sponsorship deals and the awarding of a trophy and may be broadcast on television, there is little prestige attached to them. International teams play friendlies in preparation for the qualifying or final stages of major tournaments; this is essential, since national squads have much less time together in which to prepare. The biggest difference between friendlies at the club and international levels is that international friendlies take place during club league seasons, not between them; this has on occasion led to disagreement between national associations and clubs as to the availability of players, who could become injured or fatigued in a friendly. International friendlies give team managers the opportunity to experiment with team selection and tactics before the tournament proper, allow them to assess the abilities of players they may select for the tournament squad. Players can be booked in international friendlies, can be suspended from future international matches based on red cards or accumulated yellows in a specified period.
Caps and goals scored count towards a player's career records. In 2004, FIFA ruled that substitutions by a team be limited to six per match in international friendlies in response to criticism that such matches were becoming farcical with managers making as many as 11 substitutions per match. Matches in multinational football tournaments such as the King's Cup, the Kirin Cup, the China Cup are considered international friendlies by FIFA. In the UK and Ireland, "exhibition match" and "friendly match" refer to two different types of games; the types described above as friendlies are not termed exhibition matches, while annual all-star matches such as those held in the US Major League Soccer or Japan's Japanese League are called exhibition matches rather than friendly matches. A one-off match for charitable fundraising involving one or two all-star teams, or a match held in honor of a player for contribution to his/her club, may be described as exhibition matches but they are referred to as charity matches and testimonial matches respectively.
A bounce game is a non-competitive football match played between two sides as part of a training exercise or to give players match practice. Managers may use bounce games as an opportunity to observe a player in action before offering a contract; these games are played on a training ground rather than in a stadium with no spectators in attendance. Exhibition fights were once common in boxing. Jack Dempsey fought many exhibition bouts after retiring. Joe Louis fought a charity fight on his rematch with Buddy Baer, but this was not considered an exhibition as it was for Louis' world Heavyweight title. Muhammad Ali fought many exhibitions, including one with Lyle Alzado. In more modern times, Mike Tyson, Julio Cesar Chavez Sr. Jorge Castro, Óscar de la Hoya and Floyd Mayweather Jr. have been involved in exhibition fights. Although not fought for profit, amateur bouts and sparring sessions are not considered to be exhibition fights. Prior to the
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city, it was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, to avoid the vying factions of the ruling Iranian dynasties; the capital has been moved several times throughout the history, Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.
Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century. Tehran is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran were seated. Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower, completed in 2007; the Tabiat Bridge, a newly-built landmark, was completed in 2014. The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language. Tehran has an international airport, a domestic airport, a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, a large network of highways.
There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of life. According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations. October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907; the origin of the name Tehran is uncertain. Prior to Tehran being the capital of Iran Isfahan was the capital. Isfahan has a significant Armenian Population; the settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years. Tehran is situated within the historical region of Media in northwestern Iran. By the time of the Median Empire, a part of the territory of present-day Tehran was a suburb of the prominent Median city of Rhages.
In the Avesta's Videvdat, Rhages is mentioned as the 12th sacred place created by Ohrmazd. In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhages appears as a province. From Rhages, Darius I sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, putting down the rebellion in Parthia. In some Middle Persian texts, Rhages is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Šāhnāme, the Iranian epic poem, based on the ancient legends of Iran, it appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk, the place where Arash shot his arrow from. During the reign of the Sassanian Empire, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rhages, before fleeing to Khorasan.
Rhages was dominated by the Parthian Mehran family, Siyavakhsh—the son of Mehran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the 7th-century Muslim invasion of Iran. Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebuilt anew by traitor aristocrat Farrukhzad. In the 9th century, Tehran was a well-known village, but less known than the city of Rhages, flourishing nearby. Rhages was described in detail by 10th-century Muslim geographers. Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad displayed in Rhages, the number of Arabs in the city remained insignificant and the population consisted of Iranians of all classes; the Oghuz Turks invaded Rhages discretely in 1035 and 1042, but the city was recovered under the reigns of the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians. Medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rhages about 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rhages, laid the city in ruins, massacred many of its inhabitants.
Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran. In July 1404, Castilian ambassador Ruy González de Clavijo visited Tehran while on a journey to Samarkand, the capital of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, who ruled Iran at the time. In his diary, Tehran was described as an unwalled region. Ital
Paraguay national football team
The Paraguay national football team is controlled by the Paraguayan Football Association and represents Paraguay in men's international football competitions. Paraguay is a member of CONMEBOL; the Albirroja has qualified for eight FIFA World Cup competitions, with their best performance coming in 2010 when they reached the quarter-finals. A regular participant at the Copa América, Paraguay have been crowned champions of the competition on two occasions. Paraguay's highest FIFA World Rankings was 8th and their lowest was 103. Paraguay was awarded second place with Best Move of the Year in 1996 for their rise in the FIFA Rankings; the national team's most successful period was under the coaching of Argentine Gerardo Martino, awarded with the South American Coach of the Year in 2007 and took Paraguay to the quarter-final stages of a FIFA World Cup competition for the first time in history and to the final of the 2011 Copa América, where Paraguay finished as runners-up. In the entire national team's history at the FIFA World Cup, both Carlos Gamarra and José Luis Chilavert hold the distinction of being selected as part of the All-Star Team, being for the 1998 edition.
Paulo da Silva holds the most appearances for the national team with 150 matches and Roque Santa Cruz is the all-time leading goal scorer with 32 goals. Denis Caniza, present with the national team from 1996 to 2010, is the only player to have represented Paraguay in four consecutive FIFA World Cup competitions. Soon after the introduction of football in Paraguay by Williams Paats, the Liga Paraguaya de Futbol was created in 1906; the first national football team was organized in 1910 when an invitation by the Argentine club Hércules of Corrientes was received to play a friendly match. Members of that first national team where F. Melián, G. Almeida, A. Rodríguez, M. Barrios, P. Samaniego, J. Morín, Z. Gadea, D. Andreani, C. Mena Porta, B. Villamayor, M. Rojas and E. Erico; the match ended in a 0–0 draw. Because of the increasing number of invitations to play matches and international tournaments, the Asociación Paraguaya de Fútbol decided to create the national team and select the striped red and white jerseys that until this date remain as the official colours.
In late 1919, Paraguay accepted the invitation to play the 1921 Copa América and in order to prepare for that occasion a number of friendly matches were played between 1919 and the start of the tournament in 1921. The first of those friendly matches was a 5–1 loss against Argentina, it marked the first international game by the Paraguayan national football team; when the 1921 Copa América arrived, Paraguay surprised everybody by beating three-time South American champions Uruguay by 2–1, being this the first match in an official competition for the Paraguayan football team. Paraguay finished fourth in the tournament and became a regular participant of the tournament for the next editions. In 1930, Paraguay participated in the first World Cup, organized by Uruguay. In the first round, Paraguay debuted and lost to the United States, to defeat Belgium with a goal by Luis Vargas Peña. Only one team was to advance from the group stage, the U. S. left Paraguay behind. After strong participations in the Copa América tournaments of 1929, 1947 and 1949, Paraguay was ready for their next World Cup competition.
The return to the World Cup was in 1950, where Paraguay faced Sweden and Italy in Group 3. Paraguay failed to advance to the next round after a 2–2 draw against Sweden and a 2–0 loss against Italy; the first big success came in 1953. In their road to the championship, Paraguay defeated Chile and Brazil. Since Paraguay and Brazil were tied in points at the end of the tournament, a final playoff match was played between them, with Paraguay winning the final by 3–2. Key players of the campaign included Heriberto Herrera and Rubén Fernández; the coach was Manuel Fleitas Solich. For the 1958 World Cup, Paraguay qualified ahead of Uruguay with a team that contained a formidable attacking lineup with stars such as Juan Bautista Agüero, José Parodi, Jorge Lino Romero, Cayetano Ré and Florencio Amarilla. In their first game in Sweden, Paraguay were 3–2 up against France in a game they lost 7–3. A 3 -- 2 win over Scotland and a 3 -- 3 draw with Yugoslavia saw; the departure of several of their stars for European football resulted in a weakening of Paraguay's football fortunes somewhat, but they were only edged out by Mexico in the 1962 qualifiers.
Paraguay fell short in subsequent World Cup qualifying campaigns, but Copa América success in 1979 shored up Paraguay as a solid player on the continent. The 1979 Copa América was won by Paraguay after finishing first in Group C with two wins and two draws. In the semi-finals, Paraguay defeated Brazil by an aggregate score of 4–3. In the finals, Paraguay defeated Chile by an aggregate score of 3–1 to claim its second continental crown. Players such as Romerito, Carlos Alberto Kiese, Alicio Solalinde, Roberto Paredes, Hugo Ricardo Talavera and Eugenio Morel where an important part of the team, coached by Ranulfo Miranda. Paraguay ended a 28-year absence from the World Cup in 1986 with a team starring Roberto Fernández in goal.
The Azadi Stadium known as Aryamehr Stadium, is an all-seater football stadium in Tehran, Iran. The stadium was designed by SOM, an American architectural, urban planning, engineering firm, it was inaugurated on 18 October 1971 under the last Shah of Iran. It is the home stadium of the Iran national football team, it has a capacity of 76,807 spectators, as the result of conversion to all-seater stadium. The stadium is part of the much larger Azadi Sport Complex, is surrounded by a rowing river, football training pitches, a weightlifting complex, swimming facilities and indoor volleyball and futsal courts, among many other amenities. Aryamehr was the title of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, it was renamed after the Iranian Revolution to Azadi, is the 27th largest association football stadium in the world, it has hosted the 1976 AFC Asian Cup. The stadium hosted Asian Club Competitions Finals: AFC Champions League final on three occasions: in 1999, 2002 and 2018 and Asian Cup Winners Cup final on two occasions: in 1991 and 1993.
Azadi Stadium hosted WAFF Championship Tournament in 2004 and 2008. Because of the loud sound of a vuvuzels, similar to the sound of bees, the stadium is sometimes called a "Bee swarm"; the stadium is located in the West of Tehran, near Ekbatan district, is accessible for most people living in the city. The stadium has two entrances; the West entrance is located on Ferdous street and the East entrance is on Farhangian street. The Azadi Stadium was constructed by Arme Construction Company and designed by Skidmore and Merrill for the 7th Asian Games in 1974 with international criteria, its land measurement is 450 Hectares and it is located in West Tehran. It replaced the Amjadieh Stadium as the new home of Iran's national football team; the stadium was built as part of a much larger complex which included numerous Olympic-sized venues for various sports, laying the groundwork for ambitious plans for Tehran to make a bid to host the Summer Olympics. In August 1975, Iran's Shah, Tehran's Mayor and the Iranian Olympic Committee submitted a formal letter to the IOC, notifying it of Iran's interest in hosting the 1984 Summer Games.
The stadium was the focal point for the bid, in which it would have only required slight modifications to become the main Olympic Stadium. But political unrest in the late-1970s saw Tehran drop its bid for Games, leaving the eventual host, Los Angeles, the only city left bidding. Renovations first began on the stadium in 2002, when the lower level had seats installed and the pitch was replanted along with the installation of an underground heating system. Stadium management planned to install seats in the upper level of the stadium; those renovations were completed in 2003, brought down the capacity of the stadium to well under 100,000. Upgrades to the stadium brought it down to its current capacity of 78,116. Despite its reduced capacity, Azadi Stadium has been filled over capacity at times such as the Iran-Japan World Cup 2006 qualification match in March 2005 which resulted in the deaths of seven people. In 2004 a large jumbotron television was added; this giant screen with a total area of about 300 square meters and screen area of 104 square meters is one of the biggest in the world.
The stadium hosted two West Asian Football Federation Championship in 2004 and 2008. In 2008, AFC forced Sepahan to play the home matches in AFC Champions League in this stadium after their home stadium Naghsh-e-Jahan Stadium was closed for renovation; the stadium is the regular host for Iran U-23 for the Olympics football qualifying. In recent years the Iranian Football Federation has submitted bids to host the AFC Asian Cup, which Iran last hosted in 1976, but some officials have hinted that rules in Iran banning women from stadiums like Azadi have kept international sports organizations from staging events there. Iranian women have been banned from watching matches at Azadi Stadium since 1982. In November 1975, Frank Sinatra held a concert at Aryamehr Stadium; the famous 2006 film, "Offside" directed by Jafar Panahi and starring Sima Mobarak Shahi and Ida Sadeghi, about girls trying to get into the stadium to watch a football match, was filmed there. Azadi Stadium hosted Ferdousi festival, organized by Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization and two major concerts in May 2013.
2015 Women's Islamic Games were held at the stadium. The architect of the stadium were Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. At the beginning, the stadium had a maximum capacity of 120,000 visitors but was decreased to 84,000 after renovations in 2003. On the big occasions the crowd swells well beyond that; the design of the stadium amplifies the noise across the pitch. Opposing teams find it difficult to play their best game, when the stadium is full, as the noise level becomes high. According to Goal.com, Azadi Stadium was voted most intimidating in Asia. The structural engineer and project manager for the building of the stadium was James Raymond Whittle from England. There is enough parking for 400 cars inside the stadium, an additional 10,000 parking spots are available outside; the nearest metro station is the Varzeshgah-e Azadi Metro Station. The record attendance at Azadi Stadium is over 128,000 during a 1998 FIFA World Cup qualifier against Australia. List of association football stadia by capacity Football in Iran Azadi Sport Complex Az
Walsall Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Walsall, West Midlands, England. The team play in the third tier in the English football league system; the club was founded in 1888 as Walsall Town Swifts, an amalgamation of Walsall Town F. C. and Walsall Swifts F. C; the club was one of the founder members of the Second Division in 1892, but have spent their entire existence outside English football's top division. Their first match at Wembley Stadium was the 2015 Football League Trophy Final, which they lost to Bristol City. Walsall moved into their Bescot Stadium in 1990, having played at nearby Fellows Park for a century; the team play in a red and white kit and their club crest features a swift. The club's nickname, "The Saddlers", reflects Walsall's status as a traditional centre for saddle manufacture. Walsall were formed as Walsall Town Swifts in 1888 when Walsall Town F. C. and Walsall Swifts F. C. amalgamated. Walsall Town had been founded in 1877 and Walsall Swifts in 1879.
Both clubs had played at the Chuckery, the new club remained at the same ground. Walsall Town Swifts' first match was a draw against Aston Villa. Two players from this early era received international caps. In 1882, Alf Jones won the first two of his three caps while with Walsall Swifts, in 1889 Albert Aldridge received the second of his two caps while playing for Walsall Town Swifts; the club were first admitted to the Football League in 1892, as founder members of the new Second Division. They moved to the West Bromwich Road ground in 1893. After finishing 14th out of 16 teams in 1894–95 the club failed to be re-elected to the Football League. At the start of the 1895 season the club moved to Hilary Street renamed Fellows Park. In 1896 they changed their name to Walsall F. C. and joined the Midland League. A year they returned to the Second Division, three teams having failed re-election in 1896; the team finished in sixth place in 1898–99, but once again failed re-election two years dropping back into the Midland League.
A move to the Birmingham League followed in 1903, in 1910, the club were elected to the Southern League. With the expansion of the Football League after World War I, Walsall became a founding member of the Third Division North in 1921. Walsall's highest "home" attendance was set in 1930, when they played in of front of 74,646 fans against Aston Villa in the FA Cup Fourth Round Although a home match for Walsall, the tie was played at their opponents' Villa Park ground, it remains the highest attendance that Walsall have played in front of. In 1933, Walsall won 2–0 in the FA Cup against Arsenal at Fellows Park. Arsenal went on to win the First Division that season, the cup defeat to Third Division North side Walsall is still regarded as one of the greatest upsets in FA Cup history. In 1958, following a reorganisation of the Football League, Walsall became founder members of the Fourth Division. Under the management of Bill Moore, the club achieved successive promotions, scoring 102 goals on their way to winning Division Four in 1959–60 and finishing as Division Three runners-up in 1960–61 to reach the second tier of English football for the first time since the early 1900s.
Players such as Bill'Chopper' Guttridge, Tony Richards and Colin Taylor were intrinsically important to the success of the side. After just two seasons in the Second Division, the club were relegated back to Division Three in 1962–63, remained there until a further demotion to the Fourth Division, in 1978–79; the club has always had a rich history of producing players. Allan Clarke went on to win the League Championship under Don Revie at Leeds United after beginning life at Fellows Park. Bert Williams and Phil Parkes both became England goalkeepers in the years after they progressed from their roots in Walsall. David Kelly had a long career at the top level after leaving Walsall in 1988, representing the Republic of Ireland at the highest level of international football. More Michael Ricketts represented England after blossoming at Bolton Wanderers. In recent years, Matty Fryatt and Ishmel Demontagnac have both represented England age-groups; the 1980s were a period of considerable activity for Walsall.
In 1983–84 they defeated First Division club Arsenal in the League Cup at Highbury, advanced to the semi-final, where an estimated 10,000 Saddlers saw a 2–2 draw against Liverpool at Anfield, however a second leg 2–0 defeat in front of 19,591 at Fellows Park saw Walsall lose the tie 4–2 on aggregate. This cup run saw Walsall famously only 90 minutes away from playing in Europe, once the name of a Fanzine no longer running. Walsall narrowly missed out on promotion to the Second Division in the same season. In 1986 plans were announced to move Walsall to Birmingham; the town rallied behind Barrie Blower. Walsall were subsequently bought by millionaire entrepreneur and racehorse owner Terry Ramsden and with his money came high-profile signings and the attention of the national media. In 1986–87, under new manager Tommy Coakley, Walsall narrowly missed the play-offs, but made considerable progress in the FA Cup as they defeated First Division Charlton Athletic and Birmingham City and took Watford to two replays in the fifth round.
Walsall earned promotion through the old Division Three play-offs in 1988, beating Bristol City in a replayed final at Fellows Park, 13,007 where there to see it. 1988–89 saw the club relegated from Division Two and Ramsden's business empire collapsed alongside the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Walsall were minutes from being taken over by Jap
Surabaya is the capital of East Java province, the second-largest city in Indonesia. The city has a population of over 3 million within the city proper and over 10 million in the Greater Surabaya metropolitan area, known as Gerbangkertosusila. Located on northeastern Java on the Madura Strait, it is one of the earliest port cities in Southeast Asia; the city was settled in 10th century by Kingdom of Janggala, one of the two Javanese kingdoms, formed in 1045 when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons. But City Government of Surabaya took 31 May 1293, the date of failed Mongol or Tar-tar invasion to Java, as well as victory of Raden Wijaya on northeast coast of Java. In the late 15th and 16th centuries, Surabaya grew to be a duchy, a major political and military power as well as a port in eastern Java under Majapahit empire. At that time, Surabaya was a major trading port, owing to its location on the River Brantas delta and on the trade route between Malacca and the Spice Islands via the Java Sea.
During the decline of Majapahit, the lord of Surabaya resisted the rise of the Demak Sultanate, only submitted to its rule in 1530. Surabaya became independent after the death of Sultan Trenggana of Demak in 1546. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Surabaya was the largest city in the Dutch East Indies, larger than Batavia and the centre of trading in the nation, a competitor of Shanghai and Hong Kong; the city is known as Kota Pahlawan due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanizing Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution. Today the city remains one of the important entertainment, industrial and commercial hubs of the Indonesian archipelago, arguably second only to Jakarta, the Port of Tanjung Perak is Indonesia's second-busiest seaport located on northern Surabaya. In 2016, Surabaya received seven consecutive times Adipura Kencana Award from 2010 as number one among 20 cities in Indonesia. Surabaya awarded by a Singaporean Lee Kuan Yew World City Prize as city's special mention.
Surabaya alludes to a prophecy of Jayabaya, a 12th-century psychic king of Kediri Kingdom, foreseeing a fight between a giant white shark and a giant white crocodile taking place in the area, sometimes interpreted as foretelling the Mongol invasion of Java, a major conflict between the forces of Kublai Khan, Mongol ruler of China, those of Raden Wijaya's Majapahit in 1293. The two animals are now used as the city's symbol, with the two facing and circling each other, as depicted in a statue appropriately located near the entrance to the city zoo. Alternate derivations proliferate: from the Javanese sura ing baya, meaning "bravely facing danger"; some people consider Jayabaya's prophecy as being about the great war between native Surabayan people and foreign invaders at the start of the war of independence in 1945. Another story tells of two heroes; the two heroes were named Baya. These folk etymologies, though embraced enthusiastically by its people and city leaders, are unverifiable; the Kingdom of Janggala was one of the two Javanese kingdoms, formed in 1045 when Airlangga abdicated his throne in favour of his two sons.
The earliest historical record of Surabaya was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu. The name Janggala was originated from the name "Hujung Galuh", or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Brantas River and today is the part of modern Surabaya city and Sidoarjo Regency; the earliest historical record of Surabaya was in the 1225 book Zhu fan zhi written by Zhao Rugua, in which it was called Jung-ya-lu. The name Janggala was originated from the name "Hujung Galuh", or "Jung-ya-lu" according to Chinese source. Hujung Galuh was located on the estuarine of Mas River, one of tributaries of Brantas River and today is the part of modern Surabaya and Sidoarjo. By the 14th to 15th centuries, Surabaya seems to be one of Majapahit ports or coastal settlements, together with Tuban and Hujung Galuh. Ma Huan documented the early 15th-century visit of Zheng He's treasure ships in his 1433 book Yingya Shenglan: "after traveling south for more than 20 li, the ship reached Sulumayi, whose foreign name is Surabaya.
At the estuary, the outflowing water is fresh". Tomé Pires mentioned that a Muslim lord was in power in Surabaya in 1513, though still a vassal of the Majapahit. Ma Huan visited Java during Zheng He's fourth expedition in the 1413, during the reign of Majapahit king Wikramawardhana, he describes his travel to Majapahit capital, first he arrived to the port of Tu-pan where he saw large numbers of Chinese settlers migrated from Guangdong and Chou Chang. He sailed east to thriving new trading town of Ko-erh-hsi, Su-pa-erh-ya, sailing inland into the river by smaller boat to southwest until reached the Brantas river port of Chang-ku. Continuing to travel by land to the southwest, he arrived in Man-che-po-I, where the Javanese king stayed. By late 15th century, Islam began to take its root in Surabaya; the settlement of Ampel Denta, located around Ampel Mosque in today Ampel subdistrict, Semampir district, north Surabaya, was established by a charismatic Islamic proselytizer Sunan Ampel. In the late 15th and 16th centurie