John Lyon, better known by his stage name Southside Johnny, is an American singer-songwriter who fronts his band Southside Johnny and the Asbury Jukes. Southside Johnny has long been considered the Grandfather of "the New Jersey Sound." Jon Bon Jovi has acknowledged Southside Johnny as his "reason for singing." Lyon was born in Neptune, New Jersey, grew up in Ocean Grove, New Jersey. He grew up in a home full of music and with his parents big record collection of blues and jazz and his father played bass in bands. "I grew up on music. We listened to T-Bone Walker, Muddy Waters and Big Joe Turner. My parents loved the louder the better. My father played in bands for years, my mother went into labor with me at some seedy New Jersey club. I guess some things were just meant to be.” Lyon graduated from Neptune High School with Garry Tallent and Vini Lopez, two future musical cohorts of his, in 1967. Southside Johnny first achieved prominence in the mid-1970s as the second act to emerge from the Jersey Shore music scene and be considered part of the Jersey Shore sound, following Bruce Springsteen.
Southside Johnny's first three albums, I Don't Want to Go Home, This Time It's for Real, Hearts of Stone, were Stax-influenced R&B, arranged and produced by the co-founder of the band and Springsteen confederate Steven Van Zandt, featured songs written by Van Zandt and/or Springsteen. The Van Zandt-written "I Don't Want To Go Home" became Southside Johnny's signature song, an evocative mixture of horn-based melodic riffs and sentimental lyrics. Other notable songs included "The Fever", "Talk to Me", "This Time It's For Real", "Love on the Wrong Side of Town", a cover of Springsteen's "Hearts of Stone". In 1977, Southside Johnny and the Asbury Jukes were featured as a bar band in the movie Between the Lines. In 1979, Southside Johnny and Asbury Jukes appeared on the Canadian sketch comedy television show SCTV, featured as a "wedding band". Johnny and the band played three full songs, including "The Fever", performed many truncated versions of their other tunes. Johnny acted in one sketch, the entire band was featured as a plot point in another.
On August 8, 1979, Southside Johnny and Asbury Jukes performed a homecoming concert in Asbury Park, the subject of a documentary film directed and produced by Neal Marshad called Southside Johnny & The Asbury Jukes at the Asbury Park Convention Center. The film was first shown in January 1980 on Warner Cable's QUBE in Ohio. In 1979, the band was dropped by its record company. Now working without Van Zandt, they released The Jukes in 1979 and Love is a Sacrifice in 1980. Neither of these achieved much success either; the band's first official live release came out in 1980, the double live album Reach Up and Touch the Sky. In 1982 Rolling Stone voted the album Hearts of Stone among the top 100 albums of the 1970s and 1980s. In 1983, Southside Johnny served as a technical advisor on the film Eddie and the Cruisers. During the 1980s Southside Johnny's recording contracts continued to change by album, but he continued to release records: Trash It Up, a Latin freestyle-influenced album written by Billy Rush and produced by Nile Rodgers.
Songwriting credits on At Least We Got Shoes contain a song co-written by Bandiera and singer Patti Scialfa, known as a Jukes collaborator since the 1980 album Love is a Sacrifice and who became a member of Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band in 1984. In 1985, Southside Johnny contributed the title track to the film Tuff Turf. In 1986, Southside contributed the track "Let Me at'Em" to the soundtrack for the film Karate Kid II. In 1987, Southside Johhny and the Jukes were featured in the film Adventures in Babysitting performing at a college frat party, they performed the songs "Future in Your Eyes" and "Expressway to Your Heart". In 1988 Southside Johnny released his first solo record Slow Dance containing ballads and love songs like "On the Air", but "Little Calcutta", a rare political song, describing the life of the homeless in New York City. In 1990, Southside Johnny contributed the songs "Memories of You" and "Written in the Wind" to the film Captain America. Additionally, he performed the song "Please Come Home for Christmas" for the 1990 film Home Alone.
His recording career was re-launched with the album Better Days, which featured production by Van Zandt, songs by Springsteen, vocal performances from Van Zandt and Jon Bon Jovi. With Bobby Bandiera driving the band, the Jukes were gaining new energy for a worldwide tour supporting the album, but once again, Southside Johnny's bad luck with the industry was shown when the record label went bankrupt while the tour was still rolling. Southside Johnny performed the theme song for the 1990s television sitcom Dave's World, a cover of Billy Joel's "You May Be Right." In 1992, Johnny contributed the song "Shake'Em Down" to the film The Mighty Ducks. Southside Johnny relocated to Nashville, taking a break from the music business. A few members of the Asbury Jukes would end up being part of The Max Weinberg 7 on the Late Night with Conan O'Brien television show, while some others went on tour and into the recording studio with artists such as Jon Bon Jovi, Mink DeVille, Graham Parker, Robert Cray. In 1998, Johnny came back into the spotlight with an independent release titled Spittin' Fire, a live record with a semi-acoustic Jukes lineup released in France containing a 20-song set recorded during a seri
James Columbus "Jay" McShann was a jazz pianist and bandleader. He led bands in Kansas City, that included Charlie Parker, Bernard Anderson, Ben Webster, Walter Brown. McShann was born in Muskogee and was nicknamed Hootie. Musically, his education came from Earl Hines's late-night broadcasts from Chicago's Grand Terrace Cafe: "When'Fatha' went off the air, I went to bed", he began working as a professional musician in 1931, performing around Tulsa and neighboring Arkansas. McShann moved to Kansas City, Missouri, in 1936, set up his own big band, which variously featured Charlie Parker, Al Hibbler, Ben Webster, Paul Quinichette, Bernard Anderson, Gene Ramey, Jimmy Coe, Gus Johnson, Harold "Doc" West, Earl Coleman, Walter Brown, Jimmy Witherspoon, among others, his first recordings were all with Charlie Parker, the first as the Jay McShann Orchestra on August 9, 1940. The band played blues on most of its records; the group disbanded when McShann was drafted into the Army in 1944. The big-band era being over, he was unable to restart his career after the war ended.
Jay told the Associated Press in 2003 "You'd hear some cat play, somebody would say he's from Kansas City.' It was Kansas City Style. They knew if on the East Coast, they knew it on the West Coast. They knew it up north, they knew it down South." After World War II McShann began to lead small groups featuring the blues shouter Jimmy Witherspoon. Witherspoon started fronting McShann's band; as well as writing much material, Witherspoon continued recording with McShann's band, which featured Ben Webster. McShann had a modern rhythm and blues hit with "Hands Off", featuring a vocal by Priscilla Bowman, in 1955. In the late 1960s, McShann became popular as a singer as well as a pianist performing with violinist Claude Williams, he continued touring through the 1990s. Well into his 80s, McShann still performed particularly in the Kansas City area and Toronto, where he made his last recording, "Hootie Blues", in February 2001, after a recording career of 61 years. In 1979, he appeared prominently in The Last of the Blue Devils, a documentary film about Kansas City jazz.
McShann died on December 7, 2006, in Kansas City, Missouri, at the age of 90. He was survived by his companion of more than 30 years, Thelma Adams, three daughters; the Rolling Stones recorded a cover version of "Confessin' the Blues" on their album Five by Five. The song was written by Walter Brown in the 1940s; the crime-fiction writer Elmore Leonard featured McShann as a character in his 2005 novel The Hot Kid. Member, Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame, 1998 Member, Blues Hall of Fame Member, Oklahoma Jazz Hall of Fame, 1989 Pioneer Award and Blues Foundation Grammy nomination, Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance, Paris All-Star Blues, 1991 Grammy nomination, Best Traditional Blues Album, Goin' to Kansas City, 2003 American Jazz Masters Grant from National Endowment for the Arts, 1986 1941-43: New York – 1208 Miles 1947-49: The Band that Jumps the Blues 1954: Kansas City Memories, Jay McShann Orchestra, with Charlie Parker, Walter Brown, Al Hibbler and Paul Quinichette 1957: Goin' to Kansas City Blues with Jimmy Witherspoon 1967: McShann's Piano 1969: Confessin' the Blues 1970: Jumpin' the Blues with Milt Buckner 1973: Kansas City Memories 1974: Vine Street Boogie - live at Montreux Jazz Festival 1976: Kansas City Joys with Buddy Tate and Paul Quinichette 1976: Crazy Legs & Friday Strut with Buddy Tate 1977: Kansas City On My Mind 1977: After Hours, released 1982 1977: The Last of the Blue Devils 1978: A Tribute to Fats Waller 1978: Kansas City Hustle 1978: The Big Apple Bash 1979: Last of the Whorehouse Piano Players with Ralph Sutton - released on 2 LPs as The Last of the Whorehouse Piano Players: Two Pianos Vol.
I & Vol. II 1980: Tuxedo Junction 1982: Blowin' in from K. C. with Joe Thomas 1984: Just a Lucky So and So 1989: Last of the Whorehouse Piano Players with Ralph Sutton 1989: Paris All-Star Blues: A Tribute to Charlie Parker 1991: Blue Pianos with Axel Zwingenberger 1991: My Baby with the Black Dress On - released 1998 1990-92: Some Blues 1992: The Missouri Connection, with John Hicks Free MIDI sequences of five piano solos published by Jay McShann in 1942: "Confessin' the Blues", "Dexter Blues", "Vine Street Boogie", "Hootie Blues", "Jumpin' the Blues" Interview with Jay McShann for the NAMM Oral History Program October 11, 2005
Soul music is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the 1950s and early 1960s. It combines elements of African-American gospel music and blues and jazz. Soul music became popular for dancing and listening in the United States, where record labels such as Motown and Stax were influential during the Civil Rights Movement. Soul became popular around the world, directly influencing rock music and the music of Africa. According to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, soul is "music that arose out of the black experience in America through the transmutation of gospel and rhythm & blues into a form of funky, secular testifying". Catchy rhythms, stressed by handclaps and extemporaneous body moves, are an important feature of soul music. Other characteristics are a call and response between the lead vocalist and the chorus and an tense vocal sound; the style occasionally uses improvisational additions and auxiliary sounds. Soul music reflected the African-American identity and it stressed the importance of an African-American culture.
The new-found African-American consciousness led to new styles of music, which boasted pride in being black. Soul music dominated the U. S. R&B chart in the 1960s, many recordings crossed over into the pop charts in the U. S. Britain and elsewhere. By 1968, the soul music genre had begun to splinter; some soul artists developed funk music, while other singers and groups developed slicker, more sophisticated, in some cases more politically conscious varieties. By the early 1970s, soul music had been influenced by psychedelic rock and other genres, leading to psychedelic soul; the United States saw the development of neo soul around 1994. There are several other subgenres and offshoots of soul music; the key subgenres of soul include a rhythmic music influenced by gospel. Soul music has its roots in traditional African-American gospel music and rhythm and blues and as the hybridization of their respective religious and secular styles – in both lyrical content and instrumentation – that began in the 1950s.
The term "soul" had been used among African-American musicians to emphasize the feeling of being an African-American in the United States. According to musicologist Barry Hansen,Though this hybrid produced a clutch of hits in the R&B market in the early 1950s, only the most adventurous white fans felt its impact at the time. According to AllMusic, "oul music was the result of the urbanization and commercialization of rhythm and blues in the'60s." The phrase "soul music" itself, referring to gospel-style music with secular lyrics, was first attested in 1961. The term "soul" in African-American parlance has connotations of African-American culture. Gospel groups in the 1940s and'50s used the term as part of their names; the jazz style that originated from gospel became known as soul jazz. As singers and arrangers began using techniques from both gospel and soul jazz in African-American popular music during the 1960s, soul music functioned as an umbrella term for the African-American popular music at the time.
Important innovators whose recordings in the 1950s contributed to the emergence of soul music included Clyde McPhatter, Hank Ballard, Etta James. Ray Charles is cited as popularizing the soul music genre with his series of hits, starting with 1954's "I Got a Woman". Singer Bobby Womack said, "Ray was the genius, he turned the world onto soul music." Charles was open in acknowledging the influence of Pilgrim Travelers vocalist Jesse Whitaker on his singing style. Little Richard, who inspired Otis Redding, James Brown both were influential. Brown was nicknamed the "Godfather of Soul Music", Richard proclaimed himself as the "King of Rockin' and Rollin', Rhythm and Blues Soulin'", because his music embodied elements of all three, since he inspired artists in all three genres. Sam Cooke and Jackie Wilson are acknowledged as soul forefathers. Cooke became popular as the lead singer of the gospel group The Soul Stirrers, before controversially moving into secular music, his recording of "You Send Me" in 1957 launched a successful pop music career.
Furthermore, his 1962 recording of "Bring It On Home To Me" has been described as "perhaps the first record to define the soul experience". Jackie Wilson, a contemporary of both Cooke and James Brown achieved crossover success with his 1957 hit "Reet Petite", he was influential for his dramatic delivery and performances. Writer Peter Guralnick is among those to identify Solomon Burke as a key figure in the emergence of soul music, Atlantic Records as the key record label. Burke's early 1960s songs, including "Cry to Me", "Just Out of Reach" and "Down in the Valley" are considered classics of the genre. Guralnick wrote: "Soul started, in a sense, with the 1961 success of Solomon Burke's "Just Out Of Reach". Ray Charles, of course, had enjoyed enormous success, as had James Brown and Sam Cooke — in a pop vein. E
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
A trumpet is a brass instrument used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group contains the instruments with the highest register in the brass family. Trumpet-like instruments have been used as signaling devices in battle or hunting, with examples dating back to at least 1500 BC. Trumpets are used in art music styles, for instance in orchestras, concert bands, jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music, they are played by blowing air through nearly-closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have been constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded rectangular shape. There are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, whereas modern instruments have three valves in order to change their pitch. There are eight combinations of three valves, making seven different tubing lengths, with the third valve sometimes used as an alternate fingering equivalent to the 1-2 combination.
Most trumpets have valves of the piston type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, although this practice varies by country; each valve, when engaged, increases the length of lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called trumpeter; the English word "trumpet" was first used in the late 14th century. The word came from Old French "trompette", a diminutive of trompe; the word "trump", meaning "trumpet," was first used in English in 1300. The word comes from Old French trompe "long, tube-like musical wind instrument", cognate with Provençal tromba, Italian tromba, all from a Germanic source, of imitative origin." The earliest trumpets date earlier. The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamun's grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, metal trumpets from China date back to this period. Trumpets from the Oxus civilization of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, considered a technical wonder.
The Shofar, made from a ram horn and the Hatzotzeroth, made of metal, are both mentioned in the Bible. They were played in Solomon's Temple around 3000 years ago, they were said to be used to blow down the walls of Jericho. They are still used on certain religious days; the Salpinx was a straight trumpet 62 inches long, made of bronze. Salpinx contests were a part of the original Olympic Games; the Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to AD 300. The earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance led to an increased usefulness of the trumpet as a musical instrument; the natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube without valves and therefore could only produce the notes of a single overtone series. Changing keys required the player to change crooks of the instrument; the development of the upper, "clarino" register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era known as the "Golden Age of the natural trumpet."
During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters. The art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art around the world. Many modern players in Germany and the UK who perform Baroque music use a version of the natural trumpet fitted with three or four vent holes to aid in correcting out-of-tune notes in the harmonic series; the melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a secondary role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844: Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded. Down to Beethoven and Weber, every composer – not excepting Mozart – persisted in confining it to the unworthy function of filling up, or in causing it to sound two or three commonplace rhythmical formulae; the attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, but this was a unsuccessful venture due to the poor quality of its sound.
Although the impetus for a tubular valve began as early as 1793, it was not until 1818 that Friedrich Bluhmel and Heinrich Stölzel made a joint patent application for the box valve as manufactured by W. Schuster; the symphonies of Mozart, as late as Brahms, were still played on natural trumpets. Crooks and shanks as opposed to keys or valves were standard, notably in France, into the first part of the 20th century; as a consequence of this late development of the instrument's chromatic ability, the repertoire for the instrument is small compared to other instruments. The 20th century saw an explosion in the variety of music written for the trumpet; the trumpet is constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded oblong shape. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound into the mouthp
Super Bowl XLIII
Super Bowl XLIII was an American football game between the American Football Conference champions Pittsburgh Steelers and the National Football Conference champions Arizona Cardinals to decide the National Football League champion for the 2008 season. The Steelers defeated the Cardinals by the score of 27–23; the game was played on February 2009 at Raymond James Stadium in Tampa, Florida. With this victory, the Steelers became the first team to win six Super Bowl championships; the win was Pittsburgh's second Super Bowl victory in three years, after winning Super Bowl XL at the end of the 2005 season. The Cardinals entered the game seeking their first NFL title since 1947, the longest championship drought in the league; the club became an unexpected winner during the regular season, compiling a 9–7 record, the playoffs with the aid of head coach Ken Whisenhunt, the Steelers' offensive coordinator in Super Bowl XL, the re-emergence of quarterback Kurt Warner, the Super Bowl MVP in Super Bowl XXXIV with his former team, the St. Louis Rams.
Pittsburgh jumped to a 17–7 halftime lead, aided by linebacker James Harrison's Super Bowl-record 100-yard interception return for a touchdown. Trailing 20–7 at the start of the fourth quarter, Arizona scored 16 consecutive points, including a safety by Pittsburgh that led to wide receiver Larry Fitzgerald's 64-yard touchdown reception, to take the first lead of the game with 2:37 remaining, but the Steelers marched 78 yards to score on wide receiver Santonio Holmes' 6-yard game-winning touchdown catch with 35 seconds left. Holmes, who caught nine passes for 131 yards and a touchdown, including four receptions for 73 yards on that final game-winning drive, was named Super Bowl MVP, he became the sixth wide receiver to win the award. The NBC television network broadcast attracted an average U. S. audience of 98.7 million viewers, making it the most watched Super Bowl in history at that time. Tampa was selected for the game site on May 25, 2005, beating out three other finalists: Atlanta and Miami.
Super Bowl XLIII was the fourth overall in that city. In February 2008, the Tampa Bay Super Bowl Host Committee unveiled the Super Bowl XLIII logo, featuring an abstract representation of a football stadium, with blue and green colors representing the regional waterways and landscapes of Tampa Bay. Eight yards of playing field are shown, alluding to the game's status as the championship of the 2008 NFL season. In a tradition starting with the Super Bowl XL logo, two stars — one red, representing the AFC, one blue, representing the NFC — are flanked on either side of the Super Bowl XLIII logo; the tagline for Super Bowl XLIII as well as the 2008 NFL season is "Believe In Now". The seeds of Super Bowl XLIII can be traced back to the end of the 2006 season. After winning Super Bowl XL in 2005, the Pittsburgh Steelers fell to an 8–8 record the following year. At the end of 2006, Bill Cowher ended his 15-year tenure as their head coach, leaving with a 149–90–1 regular season record and a 12–9 record in the playoffs.
Both offensive coordinator Ken Whisenhunt and assistant head coach Russ Grimm were considered the front-runners to succeed Cowher in Pittsburgh. Without waiting to see if Pittsburgh would hire him, Whisenhunt accepted the head coaching job with the Arizona Cardinals, a team that held the second-longest championship drought in U. S. had never advanced to the Super Bowl in their franchise history. In the 60 years since their last national championship, the team had won just one playoff game; the Steelers passed over Grimm and instead hired Minnesota Vikings defensive coordinator Mike Tomlin. Once Tomlin was hired by the Steelers, Grimm joined Whisenhunt in Arizona in the same position as assistant head coach as he had in Pittsburgh, the two of them began to remodel the perennial losing club into a winner like the Steelers. Of historical note the game matched up two franchises merged into a single team, "Card-Pitt", for the 1944 season in response to the depleted rosters during World War II. Pittsburgh was going for its sixth Super Bowl win, which would place it in sole possession of the record for most Super Bowl wins, while the Cardinals were seeking their first league title since 1947 and only the second undisputed league championship in their history.
It was the third Super Bowl in history to feature two pre-expansion era teams, joining Super Bowl XIV and Super Bowl XLI. This game featured the oldest franchise in the NFC playing the oldest franchise in the AFC; the Cardinals were founded in 1898 as an independent amateur team in Chicago. The Steelers, founded in 1933 as the Pittsburgh Pirates, are one of only three AFC teams that pre-date the 1960 NFL season; the Cardinals and Steelers played each other twice per season from 1950 through 1969, first in the American Conference in the Eastern Conference, in the Century Division of the Eastern Conference. It was the first time that two quarterbacks who started for a Super Bowl winning team (Kurt Warner and Ben R
Kansas City, Missouri
Kansas City is the largest city in the U. S. state of Missouri. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city had an estimated population of 488,943 in 2017, making it the 37th most-populous city in the United States, it is the central city of the Kansas City metropolitan area, which straddles the Kansas–Missouri state line. Kansas City was founded in the 1830s as a Missouri River port at its confluence with the Kansas River coming in from the west. On June 1, 1850 the town of Kansas was incorporated. Confusion between the two ensued and the name Kansas City was assigned to distinguish them soon after. Sitting on Missouri's western boundary, with Downtown near the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri Rivers, the modern city encompasses some 319.03 square miles, making it the 23rd largest city by total area in the United States. Most of the city lies within Jackson County, but portions spill into Clay and Platte counties. Along with Independence, one of its major suburbs, it serves as one of the two county seats of Jackson County.
Other major suburbs include the Missouri cities of Blue Springs and Lee's Summit and the Kansas cities of Overland Park and Kansas City. The city is composed of several neighborhoods, including the River Market District in the north, the 18th and Vine District in the east, the Country Club Plaza in the south. Kansas City is known for its long tradition of jazz music and culture, for its cuisine, its craft breweries. Kansas City, Missouri was incorporated as a town on June 1, 1850, as a city on March 28, 1853; the territory straddling the border between Missouri and Kansas at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers was considered a good place to build settlements. The Antioch Christian Church, Dr. James Compton House, Woodneath are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the first documented European visitor to Kansas City was Étienne de Veniard, Sieur de Bourgmont, the first European to explore the lower Missouri River. Criticized for his response to the Native American attack on Fort Détroit, he had deserted his post as fort commander and was avoiding French authorities.
Bourgmont lived with a Native American wife in a village about 90 miles east near Brunswick, where he illegally traded furs. To clear his name, he wrote Exact Description of Louisiana, of Its Harbors and Rivers, Names of the Indian Tribes That Occupy It, the Commerce and Advantages to Be Derived Therefrom for the Establishment of a Colony in 1713 followed in 1714 by The Route to Be Taken to Ascend the Missouri River. In the documents, he describes the junction of the "Grande Riv des Cansez" and Missouri River, making him the first to adopt those names. French cartographer Guillaume Delisle used the descriptions to make the area's first reasonably accurate map; the Spanish took over the region in the Treaty of Paris in 1763, but were not to play a major role other than taxing and licensing Missouri River ship traffic. The French continued their fur trade under Spanish license; the Chouteau family operated under Spanish license at St. Louis in the lower Missouri Valley as early as 1765 and in 1821 the Chouteaus reached Kansas City, where François Chouteau established Chouteau's Landing.
After the 1804 Louisiana Purchase and Clark visited the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers, noting it was a good place to build a fort. In 1831, a group of Mormons from New York settled in, they built the first school within Kansas City's current boundaries, but were forced out by mob violence in 1833 and their settlement remained vacant. In 1833 John McCoy, son of missionary Isaac McCoy, established West Port along the Santa Fe Trail, 3 miles away from the river. In 1834 McCoy established Westport Landing on a bend in the Missouri to serve as a landing point for West Port. Soon after, the Kansas Town Company, a group of investors, began to settle the area, taking their name from an English spelling of "Cansez." In 1850, the landing area was incorporated as the Town of Kansas. By that time, the Town of Kansas and nearby Independence, had become critical points in the United States' westward expansion. Three major trails – the Santa Fe, Oregon – all passed through Jackson County. On February 22, 1853, the City of Kansas was created with a newly elected mayor.
It had an area of 0.70 square miles and a population of 2,500. The boundary lines at that time extended from the middle of the Missouri River south to what is now Ninth Street, from Bluff Street on the west to a point between Holmes Road and Charlotte Street on the east; the Kansas City area was rife with animosity just prior to the U. S. Civil War. Kansas petitioned the U. S. to enter the Union as a free state that did not allow slavery under the new doctrine of popular sovereignty. Missouri had many slaves, slavery sympathizers crossed into Kansas to sway the state towards allowing slavery, at first by ballot box and by bloodshed. During the Civil War, the city and its immediate surroundings were the focus of intense military activity. Although the First Battle of Independence in August 1862 resulted in a Confederate States Army victory, the Confederates were unable to leverage their win in any significant fashion, as Kansas City was occupied by Union troops and proved too fortified to assault.
The Second Battle of Independence, which occurred on October 21–22, 1864 as part of Sterling Price's Missouri expedition of 1864 resulted in a Confederate triumph. Once again their victory proved hollow, as Price was decisively defeated in the pivotal Battle of Westport the next day ending Confederate e