George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Air Command and Staff College
The Air Command and Staff College is located at Maxwell Air Force Base in Montgomery, Alabama and is the United States Air Force's intermediate-level Professional Military Education school. It is a subordinate command of the Air University located at Maxwell AFB, is part of the Air Education and Training Command headquartered at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas. ACSC prepares field grade or equivalent level commissioned officers of all U. S. military services in pay grade O-4, equivalent rank international military officers, U. S. Department of Defense and Department of the Air Force civil servants of at least GS-12/GM-12 level, to assume positions of higher responsibility within the military and other government organizations. Officers in pay grade O-4 and DoD/DAFC civilians in grades GS-12/GM-12 may complete ACSC via distance learning options, either via a seminar program at an active USAF installation or via a correspondence course program in CD-ROM format. Successful completion of ACSC or an equivalent command and staff college of another service is considered a de facto requirement for all majors in the U.
S. Air Force (to include Air Force Reserve and Air National Guard to promote to lieutenant colonel. Eligible senior members of the Civil Air Patrol, the civilian U. S. Air Force Auxiliary, who hold the rank of major or above are entitled to attend ACSC; the curriculum is accessed by CAP student officers through the ACSC distance learning platform. ACSC is geared toward teaching the skills necessary for air and space operations in support of a joint campaign, as well as leadership and command at the USAF squadron level or its equivalent in the other services. Prepare warriors to lead air and cyberspace forces in joint/combined operations ACSC has three deans: education and curriculum services and support distance learningThey provide academic leadership to the school's faculty and student body; the dean of education and curriculum, assisted by the vice dean for academic affairs and vice dean for operations, coordinates the integration of the final curriculum content and directs the planning and implementation of the academic programs.
The dean of distance learning is responsible for planning and delivering the non-resident program of instruction through the departments of Curriculum and Operations. The dean of services and support leads the efforts of cross-cutting organizations including personnel, technology and security; the commander and staff of the 21st Student Squadron are responsible for the health and welfare of 500 resident students and their families. The present 10-month curriculum focuses on expanding understanding of air and space power and on the growth of mid-career officers, it is meant to: facilitate the air and space minded thinking of students develop and enhances abilities for higher-level command and staff responsibilities, enhance students' abilities to think critically about operational air and space concepts in a dynamic international environment, broaden students' understanding of the nature of conflict and current and future threats to the United States and its allies, develop and enhances students' abilities to plan and execute the joint campaign planning process and air and space operations to support the joint force commander.
There are five curriculum departments at the ACSC: International Security and Military Studies Joint Warfare Studies Leadership and Communication Studies Airpower Studies Specialized Studies ACSC is located in Spaatz Hall on Chennault Circle at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama. The building contains a 600-seat auditorium for lectures by distinguished speakers, a smaller 135-seat auditorium for special presentations, plus a variety of conference rooms and administrative offices, lounge areas. Seminar sessions are held in specially designed rooms featuring closed-circuit television, an array of multimedia equipment, student access to a school-wide computer network and the Internet. Students are issued more than 80 books to expand their professional capabilities and a personal laptop computer to use to keep track of the academic schedules, on-line reading assignments, for use in examinations throughout the academic year; the Air Command & Staff College traces its roots to the Air Corps Tactical School located at Langley Field, from 1926 to 1931, Maxwell Field from 1931 to 1946.
After World War II, with the establishment of an independent U. S. Air Force in 1947, as the service grew and developed, the requirements and expectations of the renamed Air Command and Staff School evolved to fulfill the service's educational needs. In 1952, Major Jeanne M. Holm became the first woman to attend the Air Staff School, she was the first female USAF officer to achieve the rank of brigadier general and major general. In 1962, the school became known by Air Command and Staff College. During academic year 1994, the school undertook the most significant change to its educational program since its inception; the school transitioned from a lecture-based to a seminar-centered, active environment with an integrated curriculum geared to problem solving across the continuum from peace to war. In academic year 1999, the school began efforts to align its curriculum under the Air University commander's Strategic Guidance for the Continuum of Education; that program now functions as a portion of a comprehensive and integra
National Transportation Safety Board
The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent U. S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation. In this role, the NTSB investigates and reports on aviation accidents and incidents, certain types of highway crashes and marine accidents, pipeline incidents, railroad accidents; when requested, the NTSB will assist the military and foreign governments with accident investigation. The NTSB is in charge of investigating cases of hazardous materials releases that occur during transportation; the agency is based in Washington, D. C; as of December 2014, it has four regional offices located in Alaska. The agency operates a national training center at its Ashburn facility; the origin of the NTSB was in the Air Commerce Act of 1926, which assigned the United States Department of Commerce responsibility for investigating domestic aviation accidents. Before the NTSB, the FAA independence was questioned as it was investigating itself and would be biased to find external faults, coalescing with the 1931 crash killing Notre Dame coach Knute Rockne.
The USA's first "independent" Air Safety Board was established in 1938: it lasted only fourteen months. In 1940, this authority was transferred to the Civil Aeronautics Board's newly formed Bureau of Aviation Safety. In 1967, Congress created a separate cabinet-level Department of Transportation, which among other things established the Federal Aviation Administration as an agency under the DOT. At the same time, the NTSB was established as an independent agency which absorbed the Bureau of Aviation Safety's responsibilities. However, from 1967 to 1975, the NTSB reported to the DOT for administrative purposes, while conducting investigations into the Federal Aviation Administration a DOT agency. To avoid any conflict, Congress passed the Independent Safety Board Act, on April 1, 1975, the NTSB became a independent agency; as of 2015, the NTSB has investigated over 140,000 aviation incidents and several thousand surface transportation incidents. Formally, the "National Transportation Safety Board" refers to a five-manager investigative board whose five members are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate for five-year terms.
No more than three of the five members may be from the same political party. One of the five board members is nominated as the Chairman by the President and approved by the Senate for a fixed 2-year term; this board is authorized by Congress under Chapter 11, Title 49 of the United States Code to investigate civil aviation, marine and railroad accidents and incidents. This five-member board is authorized to establish and manage separate sub-offices for highway, aviation, railroad and hazardous materials investigations. Collectively, "National Transportation Safety Board", the "Safety Board" or "NTSB" is used to refer to the entire investigative agency established and managed by this five-member board; as of 2017, Robert Sumwalt is chairman of the NTSB. Since its creation, the NTSB's primary mission has been "to determine the probable cause of transportation accidents and incidents and to formulate safety recommendations to improve transportation safety". Based on the results of investigations within its jurisdiction, the NTSB issues formal safety recommendations to agencies and institutions with the power to implement those recommendations.
The NTSB considers safety recommendations to be its primary tool for preventing future civil transportation accidents. However, the NTSB does not have the authority to enforce its safety recommendations. Robert L. Sumwalt Bruce Landsberg Earl F. Weener Jennifer Homendy The NTSB is the lead agency in the investigation of a civil transportation accident or incident within its sphere. An investigation of a major accident within the United States starts with the creation of a "go team," composed of specialists in fields relating to the incident who are deployed to the incident location; the "go team" can have as few as 3–4 people or as many as a dozen, depending on the nature of the incident. Following the investigation, the agency may choose to hold public hearings on the issue, it will publish a final report which may include safety recommendations based on its findings. The NTSB has no legal authority to implement or impose its recommendations, which must be implemented by regulators at either the federal or state level or individual transportation companies.
Aviation: The NTSB has primary authority to investigate every civil aviation accident in the United States. For certain accidents, due to resource limitations, the Board will ask the FAA to collect the factual information at the scene of the accident. Surface Transportation: The NTSB has the authority to investigate all highway accidents and incidents, including incidents at railway grade crossings, "in cooperation with a State"; the NTSB has primary jurisdiction over railway accidents and incidents which result in death or significant property damage, or which involve a passenger train. Marine: For marine investigations, jurisdiction into investigations is divided between the NTSB and the U. S. Coast Guard; the division of investigative jurisdiction and responsibilities is prescribed in a detailed Memorandum of Understanding between the two agencies. Pipeline: The NTSB has primary jurisdiction over pipel
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Marion Clifton Blakey is a former president and chief executive officer of Rolls-Royce North America. Prior to joining Rolls-Royce, she served as the eighth full-time chief executive of the Aerospace Industries Association, an American defense industry trade association from 2007-2015. Before this, she served a five-year term as the 15th Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. Blakey was the second woman to hold the position, serving as a successor to Jane Garvey, the first woman to hold the Administrator title, she was the second Administrator, not a licensed pilot. She was awarded the Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy in 2013. Blakey was born in Alabama, she received her bachelor's degree with honors in international studies from Mary Washington College of the University of Virginia. She attended the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University for graduate work in Middle East Affairs, she is married to William Ryan Dooley. From 1993 to 2001, Blakey was the principal of Blakey & Associates, now Blakey & Agnew, a Washington, D.
C. public affairs consulting firm with a particular focus on transportation issues and traffic safety. Prior to being named FAA Administrator, Blakey served as chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board from September 26, 2001, to September 13, 2002. During her tenure, she led a number of accident investigations including the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 in November 2001, dealing with both the technical aspects of the investigation as well as the charged public interest in the accident. Blakey worked to improve the Board's accident reporting process and increased industry and regulatory responsiveness to NTSB safety recommendations. Additionally, Blakey strengthened the Board's advocacy and outreach programs to promote safer travel throughout all modes of transportation, she furthered development of the NTSB Academy as an international resource to enhance aviation safety and accident investigations. Blakey has held six previous Presidential appointments, four of which required Senate confirmation.
From 1992 to 1993, Blakey served as administrator of the Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. As the nation's leading highway safety official, she was charged with reducing deaths and economic losses resulting from motor vehicle crashes. Prior to her service at NHTSA, she held key positions at the United States Department of Commerce, the United States Department of Education, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the White House, the United States Department of Transportation. For instance, in 1989 Blakey was appointed as a member of the Commission on Presidential Scholars. Prior to that, she was Deputy Assistant to the President for Public Affairs and Communications Planning at the White House. Prior to this Blakey was director of public affairs and special assistant to the Secretary at the U. S. Department of Education. From 1982 to 1984, she was director of public affairs at the National Endowment for the Humanities. Blakey served as director of that agency's youth programs and in its Office of Planning and Policy Assessment.
Blakey was sworn in on September 13, 2002 as the 15th Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, following her appointment by George W. Bush during his first term in office, her commission as FAA Administrator ended on September 13, 2007. During Blakey's tenure as Administrator, the National Airspace System absorbed major air traffic growth, which contributed to flight delays during early implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System, slated to replace the aging air traffic control system. Just prior to departure as administrator, she attributed the increased delays on poor scheduling by the airlines at busy airports. Blakey attributed delays to bad weather, increased regional jet traffic, fewer air traffic controllers in the system and failures or delays attributed to the antiquated air traffic system which she worked to replace with NextGen. Senator Charles Schumer of the opposition Democratic Party publicly blamed the FAA for the delays, called for Blakey's resignation.
Shortly after her tenure ended, on September 25, 2007, the Office of the Inspector General issued a report stating, "Based on the first 7 months of the year, it is clear that 2007 may be the busiest travel period since the peak of 2000 and may surpass the 2000 record levels for flight delays and diversions."The FAA declared an impasse over contract negotiations and imposed work rules including partial pay caps for veteran controllers and an alternative, lower pay scale for new hires on the air traffic controller workforce, represented by the National Air Traffic Controllers Association. The five-year labor contract in dispute was imposed on Labor Day in 2006 after Congress failed to intervene; the FAA thus imposed a unilateral reduction in pay scale of 30 percent on active air traffic controllers only—all other FAA employees, including air traffic staff and supervisors/management retained their pay scales. The following year the Federal Labor Relations Authority ruled against NATCA's 2006 grievance.
In 2006, Blakey said the agency's final proposal would result in current controllers earning an average of $187,000 a year in pay and benefits after five-years, up from the current $166,000 average. NATCA disputed those figures. In May 2006, she did not anticipate increased retirements saying, "I was surprised that the union said that there would be retirements triggered under the current proposal." Howe
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Deborah A. P. Hersman is a former board member of the U. S. National Transportation Safety Board who served as its 12th chairman, she completed two terms as chairman and was confirmed by the U. S. Senate on October 16, 2013, for a third term. On March 11, 2014, she announced she would join the National Safety Council as its president and CEO, she is the eldest daughter of retired Air Force Brig. Gen. Walter C Hersman, who served as a fighter pilot and test pilot, she has two sisters. She was born in California and lived with her family in places such as Amman, Madrid, Spain, as well as Woodbridge and numerous states, she attended 4 different high schools. By the time she turned 17, the Hersmans had settled in Northern Virginia where she attended Chantilly High School, she did not complete her training. She has a motorcycle endorsement. In 1992, she earned Bachelor of Arts degrees in Political Science and International Studies from Virginia Tech. In 2000, she earned an M. S. in Conflict Analysis and Resolution from George Mason University.
Hersman is married to Niel Plummer. They have three sons, she began her government career on the staff of West Virginia Congressman Bob Wise as an unpaid intern during the summer of her sophomore year at Virginia Tech. She rose from intern to office manager and to senior legislative aide. While working for Wise, Hersman dealt with a series of coal train derailments near Point Pleasant, West Virginia. Wise said, "She has a backbone. Don't think that you are going to push her over."In 1999, she left Wise's office to join the staff of the United States Senate Committee on Commerce and Transportation. Her efforts contributed to the passage of milestone bills such as the Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999, Pipeline Safety Improvement Act of 2002, Transportation Equity Act of the 21st Century and Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act. In 2004, Hersman was appointed as a board member of the NTSB by President George W. Bush. In 2009, President Barack Obama reappointed her to a second five-year term and appointed her to a two-year term as chairman, making her, at age 39, one of the youngest to to fill that position.
President Obama reappointed Hersman as chairman in 2011, in August 2013, he nominated her for a third term as chairman and for a third term as a board member. Pending Senate confirmation, the President designated Hersman to serve as vice chairman, making her acting chairman of the NTSB, her nomination was confirmed by voice vote on October 16, 2013. As a board member, Hersman traveled with NTSB teams investigating major accidents ranging from the collision of two Washington Metro trains to the mid-air collision of a sightseeing helicopter and single-engine airplane over the Hudson River in New York City, she investigated over 25 major transportation incidents during her tenure at the NTSB. Among her many initiatives as chairman, Ms. Hersman focused on distracted driving, child passenger safety and helping victims and their families. Since 2014, Hersman has led the nonprofit National Safety Council, based in Itasca, Illinois as its president and CEO, she was awarded the 2015 Sentinel of Safety Award by the National Air Traffic Controllers Association for her dedication to transportation and aviation safety.
She was recognized by NHTSA Public Service Award in 2016. In 2017, Hersman was appointed by former Transportation Secretary Anthony Foxx to serve on the Department of Transportation Advisory Committee on Automation in Transportation; the advisory panel was established to provide counsel regarding technology implementation that can save lives and help eliminate preventable fatalities in all modes of transportation. Hersman is chairing the Road to Zero Coalition led by the National Safety Council, The U. S. Department of Transportation's National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Federal Highway Administration and Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration; the Coalition aims to end roadway fatalities within 30 years by a strategy that combines education, engineering and emergency medical services. 2009-07-08 Senate confirmation hearing