Rugby union positions
In the game of rugby union, there are 15 players on each team, comprising eight forwards and seven backs. In addition, there may be up to eight replacement players "on the bench", numbered 16–23. Players are not restricted to a single position, although they specialise in just one or two that suit their skills and body types. Players that play multiple positions are called "utility players"; the scrum must consist of eight players from each team: the "front row", the "second row", a "back row". The players outside the scrum are called "the backs": half back, first five, second five, two wings, a fullback. Early names, such as "three-quarters" and "outside-halves" are still used by many in the Northern Hemisphere, while in the Southern Hemisphere the fly-half and inside centre are colloquially called "first five-eighth" and "second five-eighth" while the scrum-half is known as the "half-back"; the backs play behind the forwards and are more built and faster. Successful backs are skilful at kicking.
Full-backs need to be good defenders and kickers, have the ability to catch a kicked ball. The wingers are among the fastest players in a team and score many of the tries; the centres' key attacking roles are to break through the defensive line and link with wingers. The fly-half can be a good kicker and directs the backline; the scrum-half retrieves the ball from the forwards and needs a quick and accurate pass to get the ball to the backs. Forwards compete for the ball in scrums and line-outs and are bigger and stronger than the backs. Props push in the scrums. Locks jump for the ball at the line-out after the hooker has thrown it in; the flankers and number eight should be the first forwards to a tackle and play an important role in securing possession of the ball for their team. There are a maximum of 15 players from each team on a rugby field at one time; the players' position at the start of the game are indicated by the numbers on the back of their shirts, 1 to 15. The positions are divided into two main categories.
In international matches, there are eight substitutes. The substitutes, numbered 16 to 23, can either take up the position of the player they replace or the on-field players can be shuffled to make room for this player in another position; the replacement players will have a number that corresponds with their intended replacement position with the numbers from 16 to 20 being forwards and 21 to 23 being backs. There are no personal squad numbers and a versatile player's position and number may change from one game to the next. Players can change positions with players on the field during the match, and, as long as the laws are followed, any player can change positions with another player during the match. Common examples are the fly-half playing the full-back's position in defence or a prop taking the hooker's position at line-outs. Different positions on the field suit certain skill sets and body types leading to players specialising in a limited number of positions; each position has certain roles to play on the field, although most have been established through convention rather than law.
During general play, as long as they are not offside, the players may be positioned anywhere on the field. It is during the set pieces and line-out, when the positions are enforced. During early rugby union games there were only two positions; the attacking possibilities of playing close behind the scrimmage were recognised. The players who stationed themselves between the forwards and tends became known as "half-tends", it was observed that the players outside scrimmage were not limited to a defensive role, so the tends and half-tends were renamed "backs" and "half-backs". As the game became more sophisticated, the backs positioned at different depths behind the forwards, they were further differentiated into half-backs, three-quarter-backs, full-back. Specialised roles for the scrum evolved with "wing-forward" being employed to protect the half-back; the first international between England and Scotland was played in 1871 and consisted of twenty players on each side: thirteen forwards, three half-backs, one three-quarter and three full-backs.
The player numbers were reduced to fifteen in 1877. Numbers were added to the backs of players' jerseys in the 1920s as a way for coaches and selectors to rate individual players; the various positions have changed names over time and many are known by different names in different countries. Players in the flanker positions were known as "wing forwards", while in the backs, "centre three-quarter" and "wing three-quarter" were used to describe the outside centre and wing The names used by World Rugby tend to reflect Northern Hemisphere usage although fly-half is still known as "outside-half" or "stand-off" in Britain, "outhalf" in Ireland. In New Zealand, the scrum-half is still referred to as the "half-back", the fly-half is referred to as the "first five-eighth", the inside centre is called the "second five-eighth" and t
Trinity College Dublin
Trinity College the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland. The college was founded in 1592 by Queen Elizabeth I as the "mother" of a new university, modelled after the collegiate universities of Oxford and Cambridge, but unlike these other ancient universities, only one college was established; the college is incorporated by "the Provost, Foundation Scholars and other members of the Board" as outlined by its founding charter. It is one of the seven ancient universities of Britain and Ireland, as well as Ireland's oldest surviving university. Trinity College is considered the most prestigious university in Ireland and amongst the most elite in Europe, principally due to its extensive history, reputation for social elitism and unique relationship with both the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. In accordance with the formula of ad eundem gradum, a form of recognition that exists among the three universities, a graduate of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin can be conferred with the equivalent degree at either of the other two universities without further examination.
Trinity College, Dublin is a sister college to St John's College and Oriel College, Oxford. Trinity was established outside the city walls of Dublin in the buildings of the outlawed Catholic Augustinian Priory of All Hallows. Trinity College was set up in part to consolidate the rule of the Tudor monarchy in Ireland, as a result was the university of the Protestant Ascendancy for much of its history. While Catholics were admitted from 1793 certain restrictions on membership of the college remained as professorships and scholarships were reserved for Protestants; these restrictions were lifted by Act of Parliament in 1873. However, from 1871 to 1970, the Catholic Church in Ireland in turn forbade its adherents from attending Trinity College without permission. Women were first admitted to the college as full members in January 1904. Trinity College is now surrounded by central Dublin and is located on College Green, opposite the historic Irish Houses of Parliament; the college proper occupies 190,000 m2, with many of its buildings ranged around large quadrangles and two playing fields.
Academically, it is divided into three faculties comprising 25 schools, offering degree and diploma courses at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Library of Trinity College is a legal deposit library for Ireland and Great Britain, containing over 6.2 million printed volumes and significant quantities of manuscripts, including the Book of Kells. The first University of Dublin was created by the Pope in 1311, had a Chancellor and students over many years, before coming to an end at the Reformation. Following this, some debate about a new university at St. Patrick's Cathedral, in 1592 a small group of Dublin citizens obtained a charter by way of letters patent from Queen Elizabeth incorporating Trinity College at the former site of All Hallows monastery, to the south east of the city walls, provided by the Corporation of Dublin; the first provost of the college was the Archbishop of Dublin, Adam Loftus, he was provided with two initial Fellows, James Hamilton and James Fullerton.
Two years after foundation, a few Fellows and students began to work in the new college, which lay around one small square. During the following fifty years the community increased the endowments, including considerable landed estates, were secured, new fellowships were founded, the books which formed the foundation of the great library were acquired, a curriculum was devised and statutes were framed; the founding Letters Patent were amended by succeeding monarchs on a number of occasions, such as by James I in 1613 and most notably in 1637 by Charles I and supplemented as late as the reign of Queen Victoria. During the eighteenth century Trinity College was seen as the university of the Protestant Ascendancy. Parliament, meeting on the other side of College Green, made generous grants for building; the first building of this period was the Old Library building, begun in 1712, followed by the Printing House and the Dining Hall. During the second half of the century Parliament Square emerged.
The great building drive was completed in the early nineteenth century by Botany Bay, the square which derives its name in part from the herb garden it once contained. Following early steps in Catholic Emancipation, Catholics were first allowed to apply for admission in 1793, prior to the equivalent change at the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. Certain disabilities remained. In December 1845 Denis Caulfield Heron was the subject of a hearing at Trinity College. Heron had been examined and, on merit, declared a scholar of the college but had not been allowed to take up his place due to his Catholic religion. Heron appealed to the Courts which issued a writ of mandamus requiring the case to be adjudicated by the Archbishop of Dublin and the Primate of Ireland; the decision of Richard Whately and John George de la Poer Beresf
Dr Karl Daniel Mullen was an Irish rugby union player and consultant gynaecologist who captained the Irish rugby team and captained the British Lions on their 1950 tour to Australia and New Zealand. Mullen was born in Co.. Wexford and educated at Belvedere College and the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, he played youth rugby with New Ross RFC. He played as hooker, winning 25 caps for Ireland from 1947 to 1952, he captained the Irish team to their first Grand Slam in the 1948 Five Nations Championship and was one of eight players from that team who lived to see the country's next Grand Slam in 2009. He was selected to captain the 1950 Lions Tour to Australia and New Zealand, during which the Lions lost the Test series against the All Blacks 3-0, with one game drawn, but won the test series against Australia 2-0, he played four tests for the Lions on that tour. He missed the third and fourth tests against New Zealand through injury
New South Wales Waratahs
The New South Wales Waratahs ( or. The Riverina and other southern parts of the state, are represented by the Brumbies, who are based in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory; the "Waratahs" name has been the name for the New South Wales Rugby Union representative team, became the name for the New South Wales team when it entered the Super Six, Super 10 and Super 12 competitions. The name and emblem comes from the state flower for New South Wales; until 2019, their home ground was Sydney Football Stadium in Sydney. With this closed for demolition and rebuilding, in 2019 home games will be played at the Sydney Cricket Ground and Western Sydney Stadium; the NSWRU was established in 1874, the first club competition took place that year. By 1880 the SRU had over 100 clubs in its governance in the metropolitan area. In 1882 the first New South Wales team was selected to play Queensland in a two-match series. NSW would go on to win both the games; that same year the first NSW touring squad was selected to play in New Zealand.
In 1907, several of the New South Wales rugby union team's players defected to play for the New South Wales rugby league team against a visiting rebel New Zealand rugby team. This was the birth of rugby league in Australia. During World War I, the NSW Rugby Unions ceased senior competition; the Queensland body however would not reform until 1929, which saw NSW have more responsibilities for Australian rugby. In 1921 the Waratahs toured New Zealand again, out of their 10 fixtures, won nine games, including the Test; the most famous Waratah team was the 1927/28 Waratahs who toured the United Kingdom and North America, introducing a style of open, running rugby never seen before, but, the stamp of the Australian game since. They drew two of their 31 official matches. Seven members of this 1927/8 side were from the Drummoyne Rugby Club. Upon returning home, were greeted with a parade through Sydney and a reception at Town Hall. Matches against Queensland would soon resume also; the 1930s were a successful time for NSW.
The height of the success of NSW is best represented by the defeat of the South African Springboks in 1937 at the SCG. NSW Rugby Union would perform throughout the following decades as well, which included the emergence of footballers such as Trevor Allan, David Brockhoff, Tony Miller, Nick Shehadie, Eddie Stapleton, Ken Catchpole, John Thornett, Peter Crittle and Ron Graham. In 1963 the Sydney Rugby Union was established for the growth of the game in the city area; the NSW Rugby Union would celebrate its 100th anniversary in 1974. As part of the anniversary celebrations, a match was played at the SCG on 18 May against the All Blacks, though the Waratahs lost nil to 20. In their inaugural Super 12 season of 1996, the Waratahs won just under half of their games, finishing mid table, with the two other Australian teams finishing above them; the following season of 1997 saw the Waratahs end in a 9th place. In the 1998 season the Waratahs won a best six out of 11 games, ending up in 6th position on the ladder at the end of the season, despite obvious improvements the team had still yet to make a finals appearance.
The Waratahs won four fixtures the next season. They won five games in the 2000 season and the'Tahs finished their season in 9th place. In 2001 after replicating their 2000 performance, the Waratahs were still out of reach of finals contention, in 8th position. 2002 was a record breaking season for the Waratahs, as the team won eight out of their 11 season games and finished in second place behind the Crusaders – making the semis. However, in the final game of the regular season the Waratahs lost 96–19, they were defeated by their Australian rivals the Brumbies, 51–10, in the Waratahs' first semi-final. The combined score over the two weeks was Brumbies/Crusaders 147 v. Waratahs 29. In the 2003 season the Waratahs missed a place in the finals, finishing in 6th position on the ladder at the end of the regular season. In 2004 the Waratahs made a promising start to their season with three straight wins; the team finished 8th six points out of the finals. That year coach Ewen McKenzie re-introduced the end of season tour, taking place in Argentina that year.
In 2005, they had their best regular season, finishing second in the table, before losing to the Crusaders in the 2005 Super 12 Final. The Waratahs finished 3rd on the regular season table for the 2006 Super 14 season, in which two new teams entered the expanding tournament, the Force and Cheetahs. In the last home match of the regular season, the Waratahs hosted the Hurricanes, which they lost 14 to 29; the news that star league recruit Wendell Sailor had tested positive to an illegal substance and thus faced a career ending ban from the game was an unwelcome intrusion on the Waratahs semifinal build up. The following week, the semi-finals, they again faced the Hurricanes; the Waratahs made their exit, losing 16 to 14. Wendell Sailor received a two-year ban from the game, marring a season that had promised so much; the 2007 Super 14 season was the most disappointing for the team and its supporters with the Waratahs winning only three games, against the lions, the wooden spoon winning Reds, the Hurricanes in the final round gaining a final placing of 13th out of 14.
Despite the poor performance the 2007 season saw the emergence of teenage rugby prodigy Kurtley Beale and proved to be a vital rebuilding stage in the Waratahs super 14 championship run. The 2008 season began well
Jim McCarthy (rugby)
James Stephen McCarthy was an Irish rugby union player who played for Munster, the Irish national team, the British and Irish Lions. He was a member of the Grand Slam winning Irish squad in the 1948 Five Nations Championship. Jim McCarthy at ESPNscrum
Leek is a market town and civil parish in the county of Staffordshire, England, on the River Churnet. It is situated about 10 miles north east of Stoke-on-Trent, it is an ancient borough and was granted its royal charter in 1214. It is the administrative centre for the Staffordshire Moorlands District Council. King John granted Ranulph de Blondeville, 6th Earl of Chester, the right to hold a weekly Wednesday market and an annual seven-day fair in Leek in 1207. Leek's coat of arms is made up of a Saltire Shield. On the top is the Stafford Knot, either side is the Leek "Double Sunset" and below a gold garb; the crest is a mural crown with three Mulberry leaves on a Mount of Heather on top of which a Moorcock is resting his claw on a small-weave Shuttle. The motto'ARTE FAVENTE NIL DESPERANDUM' translates to: Our skill assisting us, we have no cause for despair; the town had a regular cattle market for hundreds of years, reflecting its role as a centre of local farming. Following the Industrial Revolution it was a major producer of textiles, with silk working in particular coming to dominate the industrial landscape.
However, this industry has now ceased. The mills from the town's textile era remain and many have now been converted into housing. Britannia, the former Building Society, has its headquarters in the town and was a large local employer. Most of the town is at or above 600 feet and is surrounded by the higher countryside of the Staffordshire Moorlands, situated on the southern uplands of the Pennines. Leek is built on the slope and crown of a hill, situated just a few miles south of the Roaches. Leek is situated at the foot of the Peak District National Park and is therefore referred to as the Gateway to the Peak District, although the town is more referred to as the Queen of the Moorlands. Listed buildings include the original parish church, St Edward the Confessor's, a Victorian church, All Saints', designed by Richard Norman Shaw. Many Victorian period buildings still stand in the town. Many of Leek's buildings were built by the family architectural practice of the Sugdens. In 1849 William Sugden came to Leek.
He was an architect and his work on the design of the railway stations for the Churnet Valley Railway brought him to the area. In the following year William’s son, Larner Sugden, was born. After schooling in Yorkshire, Larner returned to Leek in 1866 to be apprenticed to his father as an architect, thus was formed the famous Sugden & Son, whose influence on the town was to be profound; the firm had offices in Derby Street. The building still survives. Larner was a great supporter of the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, so Leek’s development was in sympathetic hands; the architectural output from Sugden & Son was both varied. Some of the buildings designed by the Sugdens are as follows: the Congregational Church with its 130’ spire, built in the Victorian Gothic Revival style Myatt’s Mill in Earl Street Mill Street Methodist Chapel and Ragged School, the Cottage Hospital, in memory of silk manufacturer James Allsop, their own houses in Queen Street, complete with monograms for William and for Larner’s French wife, West Street School, the District Bank, which exhibits a strong Richard Norman Shaw influence the Leonard Street Police Station in Scottish Baronial style.
This last was the last joint venture of the father-and-son team because William Sugden died in 1892. The Sugden masterpiece was the Nicholson Institute, built in the Queen Anne style, in 1882; the fact that this building is tucked away behind the 17th century ‘Greystones’ is a further indication of Larner’s regard for old buildings. Larner would not countenance demolition of the old building, so, as the Nicholsons owned the land to the rear, where the Institute was built. Larner cleverly incorporated the busts of Shakespeare, Newton and Tennyson into the building representing 400 years of artistic and scientific achievement from the 16th to the 19th century and embracing literature, science and poetry. In 1899 came the Technical Schools and the Co-operative Society Hall. Although the original town centre cattle market was demolished and replaced with a bus station and shopping centre in the 1960s, the new cattle market was built on the edge of town adjacent to the railway station; this was one of the stations closed following Dr. Beeching's recommendations, a supermarket now stands on the site.
The Nicholson War Memorial was dedicated in 1925. Leek offers some contemporary architecture, most notably the alterations and refurbishment to Trinity Church on Derby Street and new teaching building on Horton Street for Leek College. Leek was the home of the 18th century canal engineer, he built a water-powered corn mill in 1752. This watermill is now preserved as Museum. William Morris, founder of the Arts and Crafts movement and worked in Leek between 1875 and 1878, he studied dyeing with Thomas Wardle, owner of a dyeworks in the town, it was Leek which provided his firm with silk. It was through the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings, which he founded in 1877, that he came into contact with Larner Sugden, the local architect, who went on to publish some of Morris' speeches and essays in a series called the Bijour of Leek. Dame Averil Cameron Professor of Late Antique and Byzantine History in the University of Oxford and former Warden of Keble College grew up in Leek. Dave Hill, vocalist for English new wave of British heavy metal band De