The Mozilla Organization rewrote the entire browser's source code based on the Gecko rendering engine. The Gecko engine would be used to power the Mozilla Foundation's Firefox browser. Under AOL, Netscape's browser development continued until December 2007 when AOL announced that the company would stop supporting the Netscape browser as of early 2008; as of 2011, AOL has continued to use the Netscape brand to market a discount Internet service provider. AOL renamed the Netscape Communications Corporation to New Aurora Corporation, transferred the Netscape brand to themselves. AOL sold the former Netscape company, now known as New Aurora Corporation, to Microsoft, who in turn sold them again to Facebook; the former Netscape company is a non-operating subsidiary of Facebook, still known as New Aurora Corporation. The Netscape brand remained with AOL. Netscape Communications is now part of America Online. AOL envisioned the Netscape Web site as a Web portal, providing a source of revenue through advertising and e-commerce.
After the antitrust ruling found that Microsoft had held and abused monopolistic power, Microsoft settled with AOL for $750 million. As part of the settlement, AOL gained the rights to distribute Internet Explorer. Entrepreneur Jason Calcanis leveraged the Netscape brand to create Propeller, a social bookmarking and news site similar to Digg.com. Netscape was the first company to attempt to capitalize on the nascent World Wide Web, it was founded under the name Mosaic Communications Corporation on April 4, 1994, the brainchild of Jim Clark who had recruited Marc Andreessen as co-founder and Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers as investors. The first meeting between Clark and Andreessen was never about a software or service like Netscape, but more about a product, similar to Nintendo. Clark recruited other early team members from NCSA Mosaic. Jim Barksdale came on board as CEO in January 1995. Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen created a 20-page concept pitch for an online gaming network to Nintendo for the Nintendo 64 console, but a deal was never reached.
Marc Andreessen explains, "If they had shipped a year earlier, we would have done that instead of Netscape."The company's first product was the web browser, called Mosaic Netscape 0.9, released on October 13, 1994. Within four months of its release, it had taken three-quarters of the browser market, it became the main browser for Internet users in such a short time due to its superiority over other competition, like Mosaic. This browser was subsequently renamed Netscape Navigator, the company took the "Netscape" name on November 14, 1994, to avoid trademark ownership problems with NCSA, where the initial Netscape employees had created the NCSA Mosaic web browser; the Mosaic Netscape web browser did not use any NCSA Mosaic code. The internal codename for the company's browser was Mozilla, which stood for "Mosaic killer", as the company's goal was to displace NCSA Mosaic as the world's number one web browser. A cartoon Godzilla-like lizard mascot was drawn by artist-employee Dave Titus, which went well with the theme of crushing the competition.
The Mozilla mascot featured prominently on Netscape's website in the company's early years. However, the need to project a more "professional" image led to this being removed. On August 9, 1995, Netscape made an successful IPO; the stock was set to be offered at US$14 per share, but a last-minute decision doubled the initial offering to US$28 per share. The stock's value soared to US$75 during the first day of trading, nearly a record for first-day gain; the stock closed at US$58.25. While it was somewhat unusual for a company to go public prior to becoming profitable, Netscape's revenues had, in fact, doubled every quarter in 1995; the success of this IPO subsequently inspired the use of the term "Netscape moment" to describe a high-visibility IPO that signals the dawn of a new industry. During this period, Netscape pursued a publicity strategy packaging Andreessen as the company's "rock star." The events of this period landed Andreessen, barefoot, on the cover of Time magazine. The IPO helped kickstart widespread investment in internet companies that created the dot-com bubble.
Netscape advertised that "the web is for everyone" and stated one of its goals was to "level the pl
Fast Company is a monthly American business magazine published in print and online that focuses on technology and design. It publishes eight print issues per year. Fast Company was launched in November 1995 by Alan Webber and Bill Taylor, two former Harvard Business Review editors, publisher Mortimer Zuckerman; the publication's early competitors included Business 2.0 and The Industry Standard. In 1997, Fast Company created an online social network, the "Company of Friends" which spawned a number of groups that began meeting in person. At one point the Company of Friends had over 40,000 members in 120 cities, although by 2003 that number had declined to 8,000. In 2000, Zuckerman sold Fast Company to Gruner + Jahr, majority owned by media giant Bertelsmann, for $550 million. Just as the sale was completed, the collapse of the dot-com bubble burst, leading to significant losses and a decline in circulation. Webber and Taylor left the magazine two years in 2002, John A. Byrne a senior writer and former management editor with BusinessWeek, was brought in as the new editor.
Under Byrne, the magazine won its first Gerald Loeb Award, the most prestigious honor in business journalism. But the magazine could not reverse its financial decline in the wake of the dot-com bust. Although the magazine was not about Internet commerce, advertising pages continued to drop until they were one-third the 2000 numbers. In 2005, Gruner + Jahr put the magazine, as well as Inc. magazine, up for sale. Through a contact, Byrne helped guide him through the sale. A bidding war ensued, pitting The Economist against Mansueto's company Mansueto Ventures. Mansueto, the only bidder who promised to keep Fast Company alive won the contest, buying both magazine titles for $35 million. Under former editor-in-chief Robert Safian, Fast Company was named by the American Society of Magazine Editors as the magazine of the year in 2014. Stephanie Mehta was named editor-in-chief in February 2018, having worked at Vanity Fair, Bloomberg and The Wall Street Journal. Fast Company is headquartered in New York, New York.
Launched in 1995, FastCompany.com covers leadership and innovation in business and social issues and marketing, through its Co. Design site, the intersection of business and design, from architecture to electronics, consumer products to fashion. Fast Company previously operated sites called Co. Labs, Co. Exist, Co. Create. Co. Exist and Co. Create were rebranded as Ideas and Entertainment sections in 2017. Co. Labs was shut down in early 2015. Fast Company operates a number of franchises such as "Most Innovative Companies", "World Changing Ideas", "Innovation By Design", "Most Creative People". For their Most Innovative Companies feature, Fast Company assesses thousands of businesses to create a list of 50 companies it considers the most innovative; the Most Creative People in Business is a list of 100 people from different industries. The Fast Company Innovation Festival is an event hosted in New York City each year since 2015. In 2017, 10,000 attendees attended keynotes and Fast Tracks hosted in corporate offices centered on design, social good, leadership and creativity.
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Transparency, as used in science, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed. Transparency implies openness and accountability. Transparency is practiced in companies, organizations and communities. For example, a cashier making change after a point of sale transaction by offering a record of the items purchased as well as counting out the customer's change on the counter demonstrates one type of transparency; the term transparency has a different meaning in information security where it is used to describe security mechanisms that are intentionally in-detectable or hidden from view. Examples include hiding utilities and tools which the user does not need to know in order to do their job, like keeping the remote re-authentication operations of Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol hidden from the user. In Norway and in Sweden, tax authorities annually release the "skatteliste" or "tax list".
Regulations in Hong Kong require banks to list their top earners – without naming them – by pay band. In 2009, the Spanish government for the first time released information on how much each cabinet member is worth, but data on ordinary citizens is private. Radical transparency is a management method where nearly all decision making is carried out publicly. All draft documents, all arguments for and against a proposal, all final decisions, the decision making process itself are made public and remain publicly archived; this approach has grown in popularity with the rise of the Internet. Two examples of organizations utilizing this style are Indymedia. Corporate transparency, a form of radical transparency, is the concept of removing all barriers to —and the facilitating of— free and easy public access to corporate information and the laws, social connivance and processes that facilitate and protect those individuals and corporations that join and improve the process. Accountability and transparency are of high relevance for non-governmental organisations.
In view of their responsibilities to stakeholders, including donors, programme beneficiaries, staff and the public, they are considered to be of greater importance to them than to commercial undertakings. Yet these same values are found to be lacking in NGOs; the International NGO Accountability Charter, linked to the Global Reporting Initiative, documents the commitment of its members international NGOs to accountability and transparency, requiring them to submit an annual report, among others. Signed in 2006 by 11 NGOs active in the area of humanitarian rights, the INGO Accountability Charter has been referred to as the “first global accountability charter for the non-profit sector”. In 1997, the One World Trust created an NGO Charter, a code of conduct comprising commitment to accountability and transparency. Media transparency is the concept of determining how and why information is conveyed through various means. If the media and the public knows everything that happens in all authorities and county administrations there will be a lot of questions and suggestions coming from media and the public.
People who are interested in a certain issue will try to influence the decisions. Transparency creates an everyday participation in the political processes by the public. One tool used to increase everyday participation in political processes is freedom of information legislation and requests. Modern democracy builds on such participation of the media. There are, for anybody, interested, many ways to influence the decisions at all levels in society; the right and the means to examine the process of decision making is known as transparency. In politics, transparency is used as a means of holding public officials accountable and fighting corruption; when a government's meetings are open to the press and the public, its budgets may be reviewed by anyone, its laws and decisions are open to discussion, it is seen as transparent. It is not clear however if this provides less opportunity for the authorities to abuse the system for their own interests; when military authorities classify their plans as secret, transparency is absent.
This can be seen as either negative. While a liberal democracy can be a plutocracy, where decisions are made behind locked doors and the people have fewer possibilities to influence politics between the elections, a participative democracy is more connected to the will of the people. Participative democracy, built on transparency and everyday participation, has been used in northern Europe for decades. In the northern European country Sweden, public access to government documents became a law as early as 1766, it has been adopted as an ideal to strive for by the rest of EU, leading to measures like freedom of information laws and laws for lobby transparency. To promote transparency in politics, Hans Peter Martin, Paul van Buitenen and Ashley Mote decided to cooperate under the name Platform for Transparency in 2005. Similar organizations that promotes transparency are Transparency International and the Sunlight Foundation. A recent political movement to emerge in conjunction with the demands for transparency is the Pirate Party, a label for a number of political parties across different countries who advocate freedom of information, direct democracy, network neutrality, the free sharing of knowledge.
21st century culture affords a h
4-H is a U. S.-based network of youth organizations whose mission is "engaging youth to reach their fullest potential while advancing the field of youth development". Its name is a reference to the occurrence of the initial letter H four times in the organization's original motto ‘head, heart and health’, incorporated into the fuller pledge adopted in 1927. In the United States, the organization is administered by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture of the United States Department of Agriculture. 4-H Canada is an independent non-profit organization overseeing the operation of branches throughout Canada. Throughout the world, 4-H organizations exist in over 50 countries; each of these programs operates independently but cooperatively through international exchanges, global education programs, communications. The goal of 4-H is to develop citizenship, leadership and life skills of youth through experiential learning programs and a positive youth development approach. Though thought of as an agriculturally focused organization as a result of its history, 4-H today focuses on citizenship, healthy living, science and technology programs.
Clubs in today’s 4-H world consist of a wide range of options each allowing for personal growth and career success. The 4-H motto is "To make the best better", while its slogan is "Learn by doing"; as of 2016, the organization had nearly 6 million active participants and more than 25 million alumni. The foundations of 4-H began in 1902 with the work of several people in different parts of the United States; the focal point of 4-H has been the idea of practical and hands-on learning, which came from the desire to make public school education more connected to rural life. Early programs incorporated private resources. 4-H was founded with the purpose of instructing rural youth in improved farming and farm-homemaking practices. By the 1970s, it was broadening its goals to cover a full range of youth, including minorities, a wide range of life experiences. During this time researchers at experiment stations of the land-grant universities and USDA saw that adults in the farming community did not accept new agricultural discoveries, but educators found that youth would experiment with these new ideas and share their experiences and successes with the adults.
So rural youth programs became a way to introduce new agriculture technology to the adults. Club work began wherever a public-spirited person did something to give rural children respect for themselves and their ways of life and it is difficult to credit one sole individual. Instances of work with rural boys and girls can be found all throughout the 19th century. In the spring of 1882, Delaware College announced a statewide corn contest for boys, in which each boy was to plant a quarter of an acre, according to instructions sent out from the college, cash prizes and subscriptions to the American Agriculturalist were rewarded. In 1892, in an effort to improve the Kewaunee County Fair, Ransom Asa Moore, President of the Kewaunee Fair, the Agricultural Society, Superintendent of the Kewaunee County Schools in Wisconsin, organized a "youth movement", which he called "Young People's Contest Clubs", in which he solicited the support of 6,000 young farm folks to produce and exhibit fruits and livestock.
The fairs were successful. In 1904, while working for the University of Wisconsin–Madison and trying to repeat what he had accomplished in Kewaunee County over a decade before but with different intentions, "Daddy" R. A. Moore convinced R. H. Burns Superintendent of Schools of Richland County, Wisconsin, to have the Richland County Boys and Girls organize and assist in a corn-project activity to help market and distribute improved seeds to the farmers in the state of Wisconsin. A. B. Graham started one of the youth programs in Clark County, Ohio, in 1902, considered one of the births of the 4-H program in the United States; the first club was called "The Tomato Club" or the "Corn Growing Club". T. A. "Dad" Erickson of Douglas County, started local agricultural after-school clubs and fairs in 1902. Jessie Field Shambaugh developed the clover pin with an H on each leaf in 1910, and, by 1912, they were called 4-H clubs. Early 4-H programs in Colorado began with youth instruction offered by college agricultural agents as early as 1910, as part of the outreach mission of the Colorado land grant institutions.
The national 4-H organization was formed in 1914, when the United States Congress created the Cooperative Extension Service of the USDA by passage of the Smith-Lever Act of 1914, it included within the CES charter the work of various boys' and girls' clubs involved with agriculture, home economics and related subjects. The Smith-Lever Act formalized the 4-H programs and clubs that began in the midwestern region of the United States. Although different activities were emphasized for boys and girls, 4-H was one of the first youth organizations to give equal attention to both genders; the first appearance of the term "4-H Club" in a federal document was in "Organization and Results of Boys' and Girls' Club Work," by Oscar Herman Benson and Gertrude L. Warren, in 1920. By 1924, these clubs became organized as 4-H clubs, the clover emblem was adopted. Warren expanded the scope of girls' activities under the program, wrote extensive training materials; the first 4-H camp was held in West Virginia.
These camps were for what was referred
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
An editorial, leading article or leader, is an article written by the senior editorial staff or publisher of a newspaper, magazine, or any other written document unsigned. Australian and major United States newspapers, such as The New York Times and The Boston Globe classify editorials under the heading "opinion". Illustrated editorials may appear in the form of editorial cartoons. A newspaper's editorial board evaluates which issues are important for their readership to know the newspaper's opinion on. Editorials are published on a dedicated page, called the editorial page, which features letters to the editor from members of the public. However, a newspaper may choose to publish an editorial on the front page. In the English-language press, this occurs and only on topics considered important. Many newspapers publish their editorials without the name of the leader writer. Tom Clark, leader-writer for The Guardian, argues that it ensures that readers discuss the issue at hand rather than the author.
On the other hand, an editorial does reflect the position of a newspaper and the head of the newspaper, the editor, is known by name. Whilst the editor will not write the editorial themselves, they maintain oversight and retain responsibility; when The Press, a New Zealand newspaper based in Christchurch, changed after 157 years from broadsheet to compact in 2018, they published a list of editorials where current thinking differs from opinions expressed at the time. The starkest example was their view on women's suffrage in New Zealand after the government gave women the vote in 1893, where the editorial proclaimed that women would "much prefer staying at home and attending to their household duties" than going to the polling booths. In the field of fashion publishing, the term is used to refer to photo-editorials – features with full-page photographs on a particular theme, model or other single topic, with or without accompanying text. Column The dictionary definition of editorial at Wiktionary Editorial Writing Examples