Ohio State University Moritz College of Law
The Michael E. Moritz College of Law is a public law school founded in 1891 and located in Drinko Hall on the main campus of the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio; the school is accredited by the American Bar Association and is a charter member of the Association of American Law Schools. The Moritz College of Law is ranked the 30th best law school in the United States and 2nd in dispute resolution by U. S. News & World Report. In addition, Moritz is ranked the 18th best law school and 5th best public law school in the United States by Business Insider. According to the Moritz College of Law's official 2016 ABA-required disclosures, 77% of the Class of 2016 obtained full-time, long-term, bar passage-required employment nine months after graduation, excluding solo-practitioners; this ranked Moritz 24th in the United States and 1st in Ohio for job placement of recent law graduates. The board of trustees of the Ohio State University sanctioned a law school in June 1885 after approving a resolution introduced by trustee Peter H. Clark, an early African-American civil rights activist.
However, it was not until October 1891 that the law school was formally opened to 33 students, including 1 woman, in the basement of the original Franklin County Courthouse. Marshall Jay Williams, a Justice of the Ohio Supreme Court served as the first dean of the law school and lectured for two years before resigning in 1893. In 1896, the University elevated the law school to its present-day College of Law status. In 1903, the College of Law moved to Page Hall, its first permanent building on the main campus of the University, named in honor of Henry F. Page, a prominent Ohio attorney who had left his estate to the University. Over the next four decades, the College of Law experienced rapid growth under the successive leadership of deans William F. Hunter, Joseph H. Outhwaite, John Jay Adams and Herschel Arant. Today, the College of Law continues its growth in national stature under the successive leadership of deans Gregory H. Williams, Nancy H. Rogers and now Alan C. Michaels; the modern day building that now houses the Moritz College of Law since 1958, Drinko Hall, is named after internationally known attorney and College of Law benefactor John Deaver Drinko, former Managing Partner of BakerHostetler in Cleveland, Ohio.
Drinko received his law degree from the College of Law in 1944 and received a Distinguished Alumnus Award in 1991. In 2001, the College of Law received a $30 million donation from benefactor Michael E. Moritz, former partner of BakerHostetler in Columbus, Ohio. Moritz received his undergraduate degree from the Ohio State University Fisher College of Business in 1941 and law degree from the College of Law in 1944, where he graduated at the top of his class. At the time, it was the largest single gift to the Ohio State University; the donation provided full tuition grants with stipends to 30 law students, 4 endowed faculty chairs, 3 service awards for students, a fund for use by the dean. The College of Law completed a supplemental campaign to raise an additional $30 million to match Moritz's gift and make further improvements; the Ohio State University continues to recognize the Moritz College of Law through its Selective Investment Grants as a unit worthy of funding for innovative programs and top faculty.
Further, Moritz College of Law's faculty have been awarded University-wide teaching and scholarship awards. The Moritz College of Law has experienced a significant increase in its academic reputation over the past decade and is now ranked among the top 30 law schools in America. Above the Law ranked the Moritz College of Law as the 29th best law school in America in 2018. Business Insider ranked the Moritz College of Law as the 18th best law school in America and the 5th best public law school in America in 2016. U. S. News & World Report ranked the Moritz College of Law full-time Juris Doctor program the 32nd best law school in America and 1st for dispute resolution in 2015. Further adding to the growing national stature of the Moritz College of Law is the scholarly writings and activities of the Moritz faculty. According to professor Brian Leiter's "Scholarly Impact Score," the Moritz College of Law faculty ranks 19th amongst the top 40 law faculties in scholarly impact in 2015, as measured by the amount of law journal citations of Moritz faculty articles over the past five years.
In particular, professors Michelle Alexander, noted civil rights activist, Ruth Colker, the Distinguished University Professor and the Heck-Faust Memorial Chair in Constitutional Law, were amongst the most-cited critical theory law faculty between 2010 and 2014. Students have the opportunity to write and edit works published in a variety of peer-reviewed journals, which are permanently archived and available online at the Ohio State University Knowledge Bank. Five legal journals are published by The Ohio State Moritz College of Law; these leading publications publish innovative and relevant scholarly articles by law professors and legal scholars from across the country and around the world as well as student written notes and comments of professional interest to lawyers and policy makers. The Ohio State Law Journal was founded in 1935 as the "Law Journal of the Student Bar Association" and was a "section" of the Student Bar Association and funded by student contributions. Robert E. Leach'35, former Chief Justice of the Ohio Supreme Court, was the first editor of the Law Journal.
Today, the journal publishes eight issues each year. In April 2012, OSLJ launched Furthermore, it is the highest-ranked law re
First Amendment to the United States Constitution
The First Amendment to the United States Constitution prevents the government from making laws which respect an establishment of religion, prohibit the free exercise of religion, or abridge the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or the right to petition the government for redress of grievances. It was adopted on December 15, 1791, as one of the ten amendments that constitute the Bill of Rights; the Bill of Rights was proposed to assuage Anti-Federalist opposition to Constitutional ratification. The First Amendment applied only to laws enacted by the Congress, many of its provisions were interpreted more narrowly than they are today. Beginning with Gitlow v. New York, the Supreme Court applied the First Amendment to states—a process known as incorporation—through the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. In Everson v. Board of Education, the Court drew on Thomas Jefferson's correspondence to call for "a wall of separation between church and State", though the precise boundary of this separation remains in dispute.
Speech rights were expanded in a series of 20th and 21st-century court decisions which protected various forms of political speech, anonymous speech, campaign financing and school speech. The Supreme Court overturned English common law precedent to increase the burden of proof for defamation and libel suits, most notably in New York Times Co. v. Sullivan. Commercial speech, however, is less protected by the First Amendment than political speech, is therefore subject to greater regulation; the Free Press Clause protects publication of information and opinions, applies to a wide variety of media. In Near v. Minnesota and New York Times v. United States, the Supreme Court ruled that the First Amendment protected against prior restraint—pre-publication censorship—in all cases; the Petition Clause protects the right to petition all branches and agencies of government for action. In addition to the right of assembly guaranteed by this clause, the Court has ruled that the amendment implicitly protects freedom of association.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof. In 1776, the second year of the American Revolutionary War, the Virginia colonial legislature passed a Declaration of Rights that included the sentence "The freedom of the press is one of the greatest bulwarks of liberty, can never be restrained but by despotic Governments." Eight of the other twelve states made similar pledges. However, these declarations were considered "mere admonitions to state legislatures", rather than enforceable provisions. After several years of comparatively weak government under the Articles of Confederation, a Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia proposed a new constitution on September 17, 1787, featuring among other changes a stronger chief executive. George Mason, a Constitutional Convention delegate and the drafter of Virginia's Declaration of Rights, proposed that the Constitution include a bill of rights listing and guaranteeing civil liberties.
Other delegates—including future Bill of Rights drafter James Madison—disagreed, arguing that existing state guarantees of civil liberties were sufficient and that any attempt to enumerate individual rights risked the implication that other, unnamed rights were unprotected. After a brief debate, Mason's proposal was defeated by a unanimous vote of the state delegations. For the constitution to be ratified, nine of the thirteen states were required to approve it in state conventions. Opposition to ratification was based on the Constitution's lack of adequate guarantees for civil liberties. Supporters of the Constitution in states where popular sentiment was against ratification proposed that their state conventions both ratify the Constitution and call for the addition of a bill of rights; the U. S. Constitution was ratified by all thirteen states. In the 1st United States Congress, following the state legislatures' request, James Madison proposed twenty constitutional amendments, his proposed draft of the First Amendment read as follows: The civil rights of none shall be abridged on account of religious belief or worship, nor shall any national religion be established, nor shall the full and equal rights of conscience be in any manner, or on any pretext, infringed.
The people shall not be deprived or abridged of their right to speak, to write, or to publish their sentiments. The people shall not be restrained from peaceably consulting for their common good; this language was condensed by Congress, passed the House and Senate with no recorded debate, complicating future discussion of the Amendment's intent. The First Amendment, along with the rest of the Bill of Rights, was submitted to the states for ratification on September 25, 1789, adopted on December 15, 1791. Thomas Jefferson wrote with respect to the First Amendment and its restriction on the legislative branch of the federal government in an 1802 letter to the Danbury Baptists: Believing with you that religion is a matter which lies between Ma
Georgetown University Law Center
The Georgetown University Law Center is one of the professional graduate schools of Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. Established in 1870, it is the second largest law school in the United States and receives more full-time applications than any other law school in the country. Georgetown ranks among the top and prestigious law schools in the United States and the world. For both 2017 and 2018, the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Georgetown Law as the 6th-best law school in the world. According to the 2019 QS World University Rankings, Georgetown Law is the 8th-best law school in the U. S. and 17th best in the world. In the 2019 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Georgetown Law was ranked 12th in the U. S. and 26th in the world. From 1996 to 2017, Georgetown has held an average rank of 13.82 on the U. S. News & World Report's annual ranking of best law schools. According to the 2019 USNWR's rankings by sub-category, Georgetown is #1 in the country for clinical programs, #2 in tax law, #3 in international law, #5 in trial advocacy.
In 2017, Georgetown ranked 6th in the U. S. in terms of graduates with the highest salaries. It is one of the top feeder schools for big law firms in the U. S. Opened as Georgetown Law School in 1870, Georgetown Law was the first law school run by a Jesuit institution within the United States. Georgetown Law has been separate from the main Georgetown campus since 1890, when it moved near what is now Chinatown; the Law Center campus is located on New Jersey Avenue, several blocks north of the Capitol, a few blocks west of Union Station. The school added the Edward Bennett Williams Law Library in 1989 and the Gewirz Student Center in 1993, providing on-campus living for the first time; the "Campus Completion Project" finished in 2005 with the addition of the Hotung International Building and the Sport and Fitness Center. Georgetown Law's original wall is preserved on the quad of the present-day campus. From 1996 to 2017, Georgetown Law held an average rank of 13.82 on the U. S. News & World Report's annual ranking, making it one of the 14 law schools that place at the top since the magazine began the rankings in 1987.
Georgetown's part-time J. D. program is ranked #1. The school is ranked #1 in clinical programs, #2 in tax law, #3 in international law, #5 in trial advocacy, #8 in legal writing, #9 in healthcare law, #11 in environmental law. Georgetown Law was ranked 5th in the 2010 Super Lawyers ranking, which measures the number of graduates from each law school who are voted Super Lawyers. In an exclusive study conducted by The National Jurist in 2011, Georgetown Law ranked #2 in terms of the total number of partners at the nation's largest law firms. In December 2014, Business Insider ranked Georgetown as the 7th best law school in the U. S. In a recent law school ranking by law professor Brian Leiter, Georgetown Law ranked within the top ten law schools in selectivity, student quality, Supreme Court clerkship placements respectively. Professor Leiter ranked Georgetown Law #9 among U. S. law schools with respect to the total number of students who secured clerkships with the United States Supreme Court between 2003-2013.
The 2018 Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked Georgetown Law as the #6 best law school in the world. According to the 2019 QS World University Rankings, Georgetown Law is the 8th best law school in the U. S. and 17th best in the world. In the 2019 Times Higher Education World University Rankings, Georgetown Law was ranked 12th in the U. S. and 26th in the world. Georgetown Law receives the most J. D. applications of any law school in the United States. Georgetown Law was ranked #1 in a 2019 revealed preferences ranking of law schools where students choose to matriculate. In 2010, Georgetown Law was the tenth most selective law school in the United States, as measured by LSAT scores of the 2009 entering class. For the class entering in the fall of 2018, 2,143 out of 10,093 J. D. applicants were offered admission, with 581 matriculating. The 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2018 entering class were 163 and 168 with a median of 167; the 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.56 and 3.90 with a median of 3.80.
In the 2018-19 academic year, Georgetown Law had 2,013 J. D. students, of which 24% were minorities and 54% were female. Of the 656 graduates in the Georgetown Law class of 2017, 504 held long-term, full-time positions that required bar exam passage and were not school-funded nine months after graduation. 616 graduates overall were employed, 9 graduates were pursuing a graduate degree, 29 graduates were unemployed.429 graduates were employed in the private sector, with 334 at law firms with over 250 attorneys. 186 graduates entered the public sector, with 71 employed in public interest positions, 61 employed by the government, 49 in federal or state clerkships, 5 in academic positions. 61 graduates received funding from Georgetown Law for their positions. The median reported starting salary for a 2017 graduate in the private sector was $180,000; the median reported starting salary for a 2017 graduate in the public sector was $55,000.234 graduates in the class of 2017 were employed in Washington, DC, 147 in New York, 45 in California.
14 were employed outside the United States. As of 2011, Georgetown Law alumni account for the second highest number of partners at NLJ 100 firms, it is among the top ten feeder schools in eight of the ten largest legal market
W. W. Norton & Company
W. W. Norton & Company is an American publishing company based in New York City, it has been owned wholly by its employees since the early 1960s. The company is known for its Norton Anthologies and its texts in the Norton Critical Editions series, both of which are assigned in university literature courses; the roots of the company date back to 1923, when William Warder Norton founded the firm with his wife Mary Norton, became its first president. In the 1960s, Mary Norton offered most of her stock to its leading managers. Storer D. Lunt took over in 1945 after Norton's death, was succeeded by George Brockway, Donald S. Lamm, W. Drake McFeely, Julia A. Reidhead. Reidhead was vice president and publishing director of Norton's College division and a former editor of the Norton Anthologies. W. W. Norton & Company is an employee-owned publisher in the United States, which publishes fiction, poetry, college textbooks, art books, professional books. Norton Anthologies collect canonical works from various literatures.
Norton Anthologies offer general headnotes on each author, a general introduction to each period of literature, annotations for every anthologized text. Like Penguin Classics, Norton Critical Editions provide reprints of classic literature. However, unlike most critical editions, all Norton Critical Editions provide a selection of contextual documents, critical essays along with an edited text. Annotations to the text are provided as footnotes, rather than endnotes as well. Oxford World's Classics Verso Book's Radical Thinkers Albatross Publishing House Boni & Liveright Official website Making the Cut - Chronicle of Higher Education
Unitarianism is a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one person, as opposed to the Trinity which in many other branches of Christianity defines God as three persons in one being: the Father and Holy Spirit. Unitarian Christians, believe that Jesus was inspired by God in his moral teachings, he is a savior, but he was not a deity or God incarnate. Unitarianism does not constitute one single Christian denomination, but rather refers to a collection of both extant and extinct Christian groups, whether related to each other or not, which share a common theological concept of the oneness nature of God. While the uncompromising theological monotheism at the heart of Christian Unitarianism distinguishes it from the major Christian denominations which subscribe to Trinitarian theology, Christian Unitarianism is analogous to the more austere monotheistic understandings of God in Judaism, nearer to the concept of the oneness of God in Islam. Unitarianism is known for the rejection of several other Western Christian doctrines, including the doctrines of original sin and the infallibility of the Bible.
Unitarians in previous centuries accepted the doctrine of punishment in an eternal hell, but few do today. Unitarianism might be considered a part of Protestantism, depending on one's stance or viewpoint, some exclude it from that term due to its Nontrinitarian nature. Despite common origins during the Protestant Reformation, some scholars call it a part of Nontrinitarianism, while others consider it both Protestant and Nontrinitarian, seeing no contradiction between those two terms. None of the three views are universally accepted; the Unitarian movement is tied to the more radical critiques of the Reformation. First organized in Eastern Europe during the Reformation, Unitarian communities have developed in Britain, South Africa, Canada, the United States, Jamaica and Japan. Unitarians began simultaneously in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and in Transylvania in the mid-16th century. Among the adherents were a significant number of Italians who took refuge in Poland. In the 17th century, significant repression in Poland led many Unitarians to flee or be killed for their faith, notably Katarzyna Weiglowa.
From the 16th to 18th centuries, Unitarians in Britain faced significant political persecution, including John Biddle, Mary Wollstonecraft, Theophilus Lindsey. In England, the first Unitarian Church was established in 1774 on Essex Street, where today's British Unitarian headquarters are still located. In the United States, different schools of Unitarian theology first spread in New England and the mid-Atlantic states; the first official acceptance of the Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation in America was by King's Chapel in Boston, from where James Freeman began teaching Unitarian doctrine in 1784, was appointed rector and revised the prayer book according to Unitarian doctrines in 1786. In India, three different schools of Unitarian thought influenced varying movements, including the Brahmo Samaj, the Unitarian Church of the Khasi Hills, the Unitarian Christian Church of Chennai, in Madras, founded in 1795. Unitarians place emphasis on the ultimate role of reason in interpreting sacred scriptures, thus freedom of conscience and freedom of the pulpit are core values in the tradition.
Reformation is an ongoing process. Constant study and new experiences can lead to new insights for teachings and community practice. In varying contexts, Unitarians seek to affirm the use of reason in religion and freedom of conscience. In J. Gordon Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions, the Unitarian tradition is classified among "the'liberal' family of churches". Unitarianism is a proper noun and follows the same English usage as other theologies that have developed within a religious movement; the term existed shortly before it became the name of a religious movement, thus it is used as a common noun that would describe any understanding of Jesus Christ that denies the Trinity or which believes that God is only one person. In that case, it would be a nontrinitarian belief system not associated with the Unitarian religious movement. For example, the Unitarian movement has never accepted the Godhood of Jesus, therefore does not include those nontrinitarian belief systems that do, such as Oneness Pentecostalism, United Pentecostal Church International and the True Jesus Church and the writings of Michael Servetus, all of which maintain that Jesus is God as a single person.
Although these groups are unitarians in the common sense, they are not in the proper sense. To avoid confusion, this article is about Unitarianism as a religious movement. For the generic form of unitarianism, see Nontrinitarianism; some religious groups have adopted the 19th-century term biblical unitarianism to distinguish their theology from Unitarianism. These have no direct relation to the Unitarian movement; the term Unitarian is sometimes applied today to those who belong to a Unitarian church but do not hold a Unitarian theological belief. In the past, the vast majority of members of Unitarian churches were Unitarians in theology. Over time, some Unitarians and Unitarian Universalists moved away from the traditional Christian roots of Unitarianism. For example, in the 1890s the American Unitarian Association began to allow non-Christian and non-theistic churches and individuals to be part of their fellowship; as a result, people who held no Unitarian belief began to be called Unitarians because they
Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and one of the most prestigious in the world; the school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. Three years the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate. Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton; the school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period."The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board.
Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, it was styled Harvard University as Harvard College was thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular. Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, housing, student life, athletics – all undergraduate matters except instruction, the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences; the body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women.
About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing between five and ten percent of those applying. Few transfers are accepted. Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration. Joint concentrations and special concentrations are possible. Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus completed in four years, though students leaving high school with substantial college-level coursework may finish in three. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus. There are special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music. Undergraduates must fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in eight designated fields: Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding Culture and Belief Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning Ethical Reasoning Science of Living Systems Science of the Physical Universe Societies of the World United States in the WorldEach student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well."In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course.
The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend, including room and board. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. In 2009, Harvard offered grants totaling $414 million across all eleven divisions. Grants total 88 percent of Harvard's aid for undergraduate students, with aid provided by loans and work-study. Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a incohesive and administratively daunting university environment; each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.
The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, Junior Common Room reflect
Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade, 410 U. S. 113, is a landmark decision issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of the constitutionality of laws that criminalized or restricted access to abortions. The Court ruled 7–2 that a right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that this right must be balanced against the state's interests in regulating abortions: protecting women's health and protecting the potentiality of human life. Arguing that these state interests became stronger over the course of a pregnancy, the Court resolved this balancing test by tying state regulation of abortion to the third trimester of pregnancy. In Planned Parenthood v. Casey, the Court rejected Roe's trimester framework while affirming its central holding that a woman has a right to abortion until fetal viability; the Roe decision defined "viable" as "potentially able to live outside the mother's womb, albeit with artificial aid." Justices in Casey acknowledged that viability may occur at 23 or 24 weeks, or sometimes earlier, in light of medical advances.
In disallowing many state and federal restrictions on abortion in the United States, Roe v. Wade prompted a national debate that continues today about issues including whether, to what extent, abortion should be legal, who should decide the legality of abortion, what methods the Supreme Court should use in constitutional adjudication, what the role should be of religious and moral views in the political sphere. Roe v. Wade reshaped national politics, dividing much of the United States into pro-life and pro-choice camps, while activating grassroots movements on both sides. Roe received significant criticism in the legal community, with the decision being seen as an extreme form of judicial activism. In a cited 1973 article in the Yale Law Journal, the American legal scholar John Hart Ely criticized Roe as a decision that "is not constitutional law and gives no sense of an obligation to try to be." Ely added: "What is frightening about Roe is that this super-protected right is not inferable from the language of the Constitution, the framers’ thinking respecting the specific problem in issue, any general value derivable from the provisions they included, or the nation's governmental structure."
Professor Laurence Tribe had similar thoughts: "One of the most curious things about Roe is that, behind its own verbal smokescreen, the substantive judgment on which it rests is nowhere to be found." According to the Court, "the restrictive criminal abortion laws in effect in a majority of States today are of recent vintage." Providing a historical analysis on abortion, Justice Harry Blackmun noted that abortion was "resorted to without scruple" in Greek and Roman times. Blackmun addressed the permissive and restrictive abortion attitudes and laws throughout history, noting the disagreements among leaders in those eras and the formative laws and cases. In the United States, in 1821, Connecticut passed the first state statute criminalizing abortion; every state had abortion legislation by 1900. In the United States, abortion was sometimes considered a common law crime, though Justice Blackmun would conclude that the criminalization of abortion did not have "roots in the English common-law tradition."
Rather than arresting the women having the abortions, legal officials were more to interrogate these women to obtain evidence against the abortion provider in order to close down that provider's business. In 1971, Shirley Wheeler was charged with manslaughter after Florida hospital staff reported her illegal abortion to the police, she received a sentence of two years' probation and, under her probation, had to move back into her parents' house in North Carolina. The Boston Women's Abortion Coalition held a rally for Wheeler in Boston to raise money and awareness of her charges as well as had staff members from the Women's National Abortion Action Coalition speak at the rally. Wheeler was the first woman to be held criminally responsible for submitting to an abortion, her conviction was overturned by the Florida Supreme Court. In June 1969, 21-year-old Norma McCorvey discovered, she returned to Dallas, where friends advised her to assert falsely that she had been raped in order to obtain a legal abortion.
However, this scheme failed. In any case, the Texas statute allowed abortion only ”for the purpose of saving the life of the mother”, she attempted to obtain an Illegal abortion, but found that the unauthorized facility had been closed down by the police. She was referred to attorneys Linda Coffee and Sarah Weddington. In 1970, Coffee and Weddington filed suit in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Texas on behalf of McCorvey; the defendant in the case was Dallas County District Attorney Henry Wade, who represented the State of Texas. McCorvey was no longer claiming her pregnancy was a result of rape, acknowledged that she had lied about having been raped. "Rape" is not mentioned in the judicial opinions in the case. On June 17, 1970, a three-judge panel of the District Court, consisting of Northern District of Texas Judges Sarah T. Hughes, William McLaughlin Taylor Jr. and Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals Judge Irving Loeb Goldberg, unanimously declared the Texas law unconstitutional, finding that it violated the right to privacy found in the Ninth Amendment.
In addition, the court relied on Justice Arthur Go