The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located in Europe. It has an area of an estimated population of about 513 million; the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, only those matters, where members have agreed to act as one. EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods and capital within the internal market, enact legislation in justice and home affairs and maintain common policies on trade, agriculture and regional development. For travel within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished. A monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002 and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency; the EU and European citizenship were established when the Maastricht Treaty came into force in 1993. The EU traces its origins to the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community, established by the 1951 Treaty of Paris and 1957 Treaty of Rome.
The original members of what came to be known as the European Communities were the Inner Six: Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany. The Communities and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit; the latest major amendment to the constitutional basis of the EU, the Treaty of Lisbon, came into force in 2009. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the United Kingdom signified the intention to leave after a membership referendum in June 2016 and is negotiating its withdrawal. Covering 7.3% of the world population, the EU in 2017 generated a nominal gross domestic product of 19.670 trillion US dollars, constituting 24.6% of global nominal GDP. Additionally, all 28 EU countries have a high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme. In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. Through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence.
The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7 and the G20. Because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. During the centuries following the fall of Rome in 476, several European States viewed themselves as translatio imperii of the defunct Roman Empire: the Frankish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire were thereby attempts to resurrect Rome in the West; this political philosophy of a supra-national rule over the continent, similar to the example of the ancient Roman Empire, resulted in the early Middle Ages in the concept of a renovatio imperii, either in the forms of the Reichsidee or the religiously inspired Imperium Christianum. Medieval Christendom and the political power of the Papacy are cited as conducive to European integration and unity. In the oriental parts of the continent, the Russian Tsardom, the Empire, declared Moscow to be Third Rome and inheritor of the Eastern tradition after the fall of Constantinople in 1453.
The gap between Greek East and Latin West had been widened by the political scission of the Roman Empire in the 4th century and the Great Schism of 1054. Pan-European political thought emerged during the 19th century, inspired by the liberal ideas of the French and American Revolutions after the demise of Napoléon's Empire. In the decades following the outcomes of the Congress of Vienna, ideals of European unity flourished across the continent in the writings of Wojciech Jastrzębowski, Giuseppe Mazzini or Theodore de Korwin Szymanowski; the term United States of Europe was used at that time by Victor Hugo during a speech at the International Peace Congress held in Paris in 1849: A day will come when all nations on our continent will form a European brotherhood... A day will come when we shall see... the United States of America and the United States of Europe face to face, reaching out for each other across the seas. During the interwar period, the consciousness that national markets in Europe were interdependent though confrontational, along with the observation of a larger and growing US market on the other side of the ocean, nourished the urge for the economic integration of the continent.
In 1920, advocating the creation of a European economic union, British economist John Maynard Keynes wrote that "a Free Trade Union should be established... to impose no protectionist tariffs whatever against the produce of other members of the Union." During the same decade, Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, one of the first to imagine of a modern political union of Europe, founded the Pan-Europa Movement. His ideas influenced his contemporaries, among which Prime Minister of France Aristide Briand. In 1929, the latter gave a speech in favour of a European Union before the assembly of the League of Nations, precursor of the United Nations. In a radio address in March 1943, with war still raging, Britain's leader Sir Winston Churchill spoke warmly of "restoring the true greatness of Europe" once victory had been achieved, mused on the post-war creation of a "Council of Europe" which would bring the European nations together to build peace. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the extreme nationalism which had devastated the continent.
In a speech delivered on 19
A bobblehead known as a nodder, wobbler or bobble head, is a type of collectible doll. Its head is oversized compared to its body. Instead of a solid connection, its head is connected to the body by a spring or hook in such a way that a light tap will cause the head to bobble, hence the name. During the seventeenth century, figurines of Buddha and other religious figures called "temple nodders" were produced in Asia; the earliest known Western reference to a bobblehead is thought to be in Nikolai Gogol's 1842 short story "The Overcoat", in which the main character's neck was described as "like the necks of plaster cats which wag their heads". During the nineteenth century, bisque-based bobbleheads were being made in limited quantities for the US market. Many of the bobbleheads in the US were produced in Germany, with an uptick in imports during the 1920s and 30s. By the 1950s, bobbleheads had a substantial surge in popularity, with items made of either plastic or bisque. By 1960, Major League Baseball had gotten in on the action and produced a series of Papier-mâché Bobblehead dolls, one for each team, all with the same cherubic face, a few select players over time.
The World Series held that year brought the first player-specific baseball bobbleheads, for Roberto Clemente, Mickey Mantle, Roger Maris, Willie Mays, still all with the same face. Over the next decade bobbleheads were created with ceramics. Within a few years, they would be produced for other sports, as well as cartoon characters. One of the most famous bobbleheads of all time hails from this era: The Beatles bobblehead set, a valuable collectible today; the next increase in popularity took place during the late 1990s. Although older bobbleheads like the baseball teams and The Beatles were sought after by collectors during this period, new bobblehead dolls were few and far between. What prompted their resurgence was cheaper manufacturing processes, the main bobblehead material switched, this time from ceramic to plastic, it was now possible to make bobbleheads in the limited numbers necessary for them to be viable collectibles. On Aug. 2, 1997, the minor league Birmingham Barons gave away Barons Bobblehead Doll bobbleheads at a game.
The first major league baseball team to offer a bobblehead giveaway was the San Francisco Giants, which distributed 35,000 Willie Mays head nodders at their May 9, 1999 game. The variety of bobbleheads has grown to include relatively obscure popular culture figures and notable people; the new millennium would bring a new type of bobblehead toy, the mini-bobblehead, standing just two or three inches tall and used for cereal prizes and such. Post Cereals in particular packaged 22 million mini-bobble heads of MLB players with its cereal before opening day in 2002. On November 18, 2014, it was announced that the National Bobblehead Hall of Fame and Museum would open in 2016 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin; the National Bobblehead HOF and Museum held a preview exhibit at RedLine Milwaukee from January 7th, 2016 through April 30, 2016, which showcased the largest public display of bobbleheads in history. The 2000s saw the rise of a competitive market for personalized, on-demand bobbleheads 6–7 inches tall, from a number of on-line vendors.
In 2015 the Pope Francis bobblehead became so popular. January 7, 2015 marked the inaugural National Bobblehead Day. In 2016 the Guinness Book of World Records mark for world's largest bobblehead was set at 15 feet tall. Named "Goldie", it was the result of a collaboration between Dino BobbleHeads.com. Thanjavur dolls are a type of Indian bobblehead dolls known as "Thanjavur Thalayatti Bommai" in the Tamil language, meaning "Tanjore Head-Shaking Doll", they are a native art form in the Thanjavur region of Tamil Nadu state in South India. These dolls are 6" to 12" tall, they are made of clay or wood and painted over in bright colors, are dressed up in fancy clothes. They form a part of an elaborate display of dolls known as "Golu", exhibited in Indian houses during the "Dasara" festival in Sep-Oct. Sports teams sometimes give away bobbleheads at their games, for example the Los Angeles Kings gave away some honoring Luc Robitaille on his induction to the Hockey Hall of Fame. In the 1986 "Let's Go Mets" music video, there is a scene where Joe Piscopo, standing outside the New York Mets' dugout at Shea Stadium, taps four Mets bobblehead dolls goes into the dugout and taps the heads of four actual Mets players who "bobble" their heads in a similar fashion.
Piscopo attempts to tap a fifth player but is rebuffed and subsequently tackled by all of the players. In 2001, Audi broadcast commercials in Europe featuring an Elvis impersonator and a prototypical Wackel-Elvis dashboard figure with a wobbling left arm and hip. Due to subsequent demand 165,000 Wackel-Elvis dashboard figures were produced; the figure depicts Elvis wearing the jumpsuit. Since 2003, American law journal The Green Bag has issued bobblehead dolls depicting Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, both present and past. In the season two episode "Valentine's Day" of NBC’s The Office, Dwight is given a bobblehead doll as a Valentine's gift, from Angela. In 2010, 14-year-old Henry Ermer of Brooklyn, New York, attempted to enter the Guinness Book of World Records by building what is believed to be the world's largest bobblehead, standing 16 feet tall. On the 2012 season premiere episode of ABC's The Bachelorette, contestant Chris Bukowski presented bachelorette Emily Maynard with custom bobbleheads of the two of them in an attempt to impres
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
Akureyri is a town in northern Iceland. It is Iceland's fifth largest municipality, after Reykjavík, Hafnarfjörður, Kópavogur, Reykjanesbær. Nicknamed the Capital of North Iceland, Akureyri is an important fishing centre; the area where Akureyri is located was settled in the 9th century but did not receive a municipal charter until 1786. The town was the site of Allied units during World War II. Further growth occurred after the war as the Icelandic population moved to urban areas; the area has a mild climate because of geographical factors, the town's ice-free harbour has played a significant role in its history. The Norse Viking Helgi magri Eyvindarson settled the area in the 9th century; the first mention of Akureyri is in court records from 1562 when a woman was sentenced there for adultery. In the 17th century, Danish merchants based their camps at the current site of Akureyri, one of the numerous spits of land in Pollurinn; the main reasons for choosing this spot for trading operations were the outstanding natural harbour and the fertility of the area.
The merchants returned home in the winter. Permanent settlement at Akureyri started in 1778, eight years the town was granted its municipal charter by the king of Denmark along with five other towns in Iceland; the king hoped to improve the living conditions of Icelanders by this action because at the time, Iceland had never had urban areas. As far as the king was concerned Akureyri was unsuccessful, because it did not grow from its population of 12, it lost its municipal status in 1836 but regained it in 1862. From on Akureyri started to grow because of the excellent port conditions and more because of the productive agricultural region around it. Agricultural products became an important sector of the economy. During World War II, Akureyri was one of three air bases used by the Norwegian-British No. 330 Squadron RNoAF. The squadron, formed on 25 April 1941, flew Northrop N-3PB bombers:'A' flight was based at RAF Reykjavik,'B' flight at Akureyri and'C' flight at Budareyri. On 1 December 1940,'A' and'B' flights ceased operating from Norwegian bases, but'C' flight continued to fly Northrop N-3PBs from Akureyri until 5 April 1943.
No. 330 Squadron RNoAF operated Catalina flying boats from Akureyri, which protected convoys between the United States, the United Kingdom and Murmansk in northern Russia from attack by German submarines. In the 20th century, Iceland experienced an exodus from the countryside to the towns. Commerce and service industries grew to be the primary employers in Akureyri in the 1990s. Jón Sveinsson, a popular author of children's books, was born in Akureyri and died in 1944. In the early 21st century, fishing industries have become more important in Akureyri as two of the major fishing companies of Iceland have become a more important source of revenue and are expected to grow further in coming years; the University of Akureyri is growing rapidly. Since 2004, the former municipality of Hrísey, an island 35 kilometres to the north, has been a part of Akureyri. Hrísey, which has a population of 210, is the second largest island off Iceland and is a site for pet and livestock quarantine; the settlement was the site of fishing processing.
The town is located on the southern part of the island. The northern part consists of owned land that requires passes to enter. Akureyri is located at 65°41′N 18°06′W and positioned on the west side of the inland end of the fjord Eyjafjörður, it is surrounded by mountains, the highest being Kista and another peak of 1,538 metres at the head of Glerádalur, 15 kilometres to the southwest. There is a narrow coastal strip of flat land. In earlier times a few spits of land jutted from the narrow coast, but a lot of land has since been reclaimed from the sea so that today the coastline is more except for the largest spit, formed by the river Glerá which runs through the town, it is thought that the name of the town is derived from the name of a field which may have been situated near some of the sheltered locations by the river. The body of sea between Oddeyri and the end of the fjord is known as Pollurinn and is known for calm winds and a good natural harbour. Akureyri today is centered on Ráðhústorg near the northwest corner of Pollurinn.
The districts of Akureyri are: Innbær, the oldest part of town on the strip of land between the hill and Pollurinn south of the central area. Because of the town's position at the head of a long fjord surrounded by high mountains, the climate is more inland than coastal, with greater variations in temperature than in many other inhabited parts of Iceland. However, the mountains shield the town from strong winds; the warm climate allows the botanical gardens to flourish without need of a greenhouse. The area around Akureyri has one of the warmest climates in Iceland though it is only 100 km from the Arctic Circle. Akureyri has a subarctic climate, with mild summers; the snow cover starts forming in late October and melts in April, yet snow can lie on the mountain peaks around Akureyri for the whole year. Akureyri is a cloudy town, averaging only 1,047
New York University School of Law
The New York University School of Law is the law school of New York University. Established in 1835, it is the oldest law school in New York City; the school offers J. D. LL. M. and J. S. D. degrees in law, is located in Greenwich Village, in Lower Manhattan. NYU Law is regarded as one of the most selective law schools in the world, it is ranked the 4th best law school in the world by Shanghai's Academic Ranking of World Universities by subject Law. NYU Law is consistently ranked in the top 5 by the QS World University Rankings. U. S. News & World Report ranks NYU Law 6th in the nation and has ranked the law school as high as 4th in recent years. Nationally, it is ranked 1st in the country in both international law and tax law by U. S. News & World Report. NYU Law boasts the best overall faculty in the U. S. according to a recent study, with leading renowned experts in all fields of law. NYU Law is well known for its strength in public interest law. According to New York University School of Law's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 93.7% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, J.
D.-required employment nine months after graduation. NYU Law publishes ten student-edited law journals, including the NYU Law Review; the journals appear below in the order of their founding: New York University Law Review NYU Annual Survey of American Law NYU Journal of International Law and Politics Review of Law & Social Change Moot Court Board New York University Environmental Law Journal Journal of Legislation & Public Policy Journal of Law & Liberty Journal of Law & Business Journal of Intellectual Property & Entertainment LawThe law school's Root-Tilden-Kern Scholarship Program is a full-tuition scholarship awarded each year to twenty students committed to public service. NYU Law offers several fellowships to students admitted to the LLM Program; the Hauser Global Scholarship admits eight to ten top LLM students from all over the world. The scholarship includes full tuition waiver and reasonable accommodation costs. In addition, it offers the Hugo Grotius as well as Vanderbilt scholarships for International law studies and other branches of law respectively.
The school has a law and business program in which eight student-leaders in law and business are awarded fellowships in the Mitchell Jacobson Leadership Program. In addition, the NYU Center for Law and Organization administers the Lawrence Lederman Fellowship to facilitate the study of Law & Economics the program provides a $5,000 scholarship to selected students to work with NYU Law faculty and participate in a series of collaborative workshops designed to help students write a substantial research paper. NYU Law hosts the original chapter of the Unemployment Action Center. LL. M is an abbreviation for Master of Laws, an advanced academic degree, pursued by those holding a professional law degree. In general, there are two types of LL. M. Programs in the United States; the majority are programs designed to expose foreign legal graduates to the American Common Law. Other programs involve post doctoral study of a specialized area of the law such as Admiralty, Tax Law and Financial Law, Elder Law, Aeronautical Law or International Law.
NYU Law School's LL. M. in Taxation and in International Taxation programs have been ranked #1 by the U. S. News & World Report magazine since they started ranking specialty law school programs in 1992. Joshua D. Blank is the faculty director of the program. Tax LL. M. Students are permitted to enroll in a general course of study or specialize in specific areas such as business taxation or estate planning. Many of the program's professors are practitioners in their respective fields. NYU has implemented a jointly granted NYU/Osgoode LLB/LLM program in which graduates are granted the LLB as well as an LLM from NYU in only 3 and a half years instead of the required four. More the NYU School of Law has entered into similar dual degree agreements with the National University of Singapore Faculty of Law and the University of Melbourne Law School. Oxford University has a program of academic exchanges with New York University School of Law involving faculty members and research students working in areas of shared interest.
NYU Law offers a dual-degree program with Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. Students may earn a JD/MPA or a JD/MPP. NYU Law offers a dual-degree program with Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Students may earn a JD/MPA. There is a limited amount of cross-registration permitted with Columbia Law School; each year, a limited number of students are permitted to take classes at each other's schools. Columbia Law and NYU Law play a basketball game every spring, the Deans' Cup, to raise money for their public interest and community service organizations. Graduates of the law school obtain employment in elite public and private-sector positions. NYU Law ranks 2nd among all law schools in terms of the number of alumni working in the nation's top 50 law firms, 6th in Supreme Court clerkship placement. According to New York University School of Law's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 93.7% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation.
More than 7,000 applicants compete for 450 seats at the law school. The latest edition of University of Chicago Professor Brian Leiter's ranking of the top law schools by student quality places NYU Law 4th out of the 144 accredited schools in the United States. Admission to the New York University School of Law is competitive; the 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2018 entering class were 167 and 172, respectively
The Bedouin or Bedu are a grouping of nomadic Arab people who have inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant. The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means "desert dweller", is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. Bedouin territory stretches from the vast deserts of North Africa to the rocky sands of the Middle East, they are traditionally divided into tribes, or clans, share a common culture of herding camels and goats. The vast majority of Bedouin adhere to Islam. Bedouins have been referred to by various names throughout history, including Qedarites in the Old Testament and Arabaa by the Assyrians, they are referred to as the ʾAʿrāb in the Quran. While many Bedouins have abandoned their nomadic and tribal traditions for a modern urban lifestyle, many retain traditional Bedouin culture such as retaining the traditional ʿašāʾir clan structure, traditional music, poetry and many other cultural practices and concepts.
Urbanised Bedouins organise cultural festivals held several times a year, in which they gather with other Bedouins to partake in and learn about various Bedouin traditions—from poetry recitation and traditional sword dances to playing traditional instruments and classes teaching traditional tent knitting. Traditions like camel riding and camping in the deserts are still popular leisure activities for urbanised Bedouins who live within close proximity to deserts or other wilderness areas; the English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means "desert dweller", is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. The word bādiyah means visible land, in the sense of "plain" or "desert"; the term "Bedouin" therefore means "those in bādiyah" or "those in the desert". In English usage, the form "Bedouin" is used for the singular term, the plural being "Bedouins", as indicated by the Oxford English Dictionary, second edition; the term "Bedouin" uses the same root word as the Arabic noun for "the beginning".
Most Arabs believe the Bedouins to be the predecessors to settled Arabs, including the Nabataeans Arabs of the more westerly Levant region. According to a hadith, Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab said of the Bedouin, "hey are the origin of the Arabs and the substance of Islam." and the word for the ethnicity itself may be influenced by that. A quoted Bedouin apothegm is "I am against my brother, my brother and I are against my cousin, my cousin and I are against the stranger" sometimes quoted as "I and my brother are against my cousin, I and my cousin are against the stranger." This saying signifies a hierarchy of loyalties based on the proximity of male kinship, beginning with the nuclear family through the lineage and the paternal tribe, and, in principle at least, to an entire genetic or linguistic group. Disputes are settled, interests are pursued, justice and order are dispensed and maintained by means of this framework, organized according to an ethic of self-help and collective responsibility.
The individual family unit consisted traditionally of three or four adults and any number of children. When resources were plentiful, several tents would travel together as a goum. While these groups were sometimes linked by patriarchal lineage, others were just as linked by marriage alliances. Sometimes, the association was based on acquaintance and familiarity, or no defined relation except for simple shared membership within a tribe; the next scale of interaction within groups was the ibn ʿamm or descent group of three to five generations. These were linked to goums, but where a goum would consist of people all with the same herd type, descent groups were split up over several economic activities, thus allowing a degree of'risk management'. Whilst the phrase "descent group" suggests purely a lineage-based arrangement, in reality these groups were fluid and adapted their genealogies to take in new members; the largest scale of tribal interactions is the tribe as a whole, led by a Sheikh, though the title refers to leaders in varying contexts.
The tribe claims descent from one common ancestor—as mentioned above. The tribal level is the level that mediated between the Bedouin and the outside governments and organizations. Distinct structure of the Bedouin society leads to long lasting rivalries between different clans. Bedouin traditionally had strong honor codes, traditional systems of justice dispensation in Bedouin society revolved around such codes; the bisha'a, or ordeal by fire, is a well-known Bedouin practice of lie detection. See also: Honor codes of the Bedouin, Bedouin systems of justice. Urbanized Bedouin are less to continue such traditions, instead opting for the codes of behavior that govern the wider settled community to which they belong. Livestock and herding, principally of goats and dromedary camels comprised the traditional livelihoods of Bedouins; these two animals were used for meat, dairy products, wool. Most of the staple foods that made up th
American Bar Association
The American Bar Association, founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States. The ABA's most important stated activities are the setting of academic standards for law schools, the formulation of model ethical codes related to the legal profession; the ABA has 410,000 members. Its national headquarters are in Illinois. C; the ABA was founded on August 21, 1878, in Saratoga Springs, New York, by 75 lawyers from 20 states and the District of Columbia. According to the ABA website, The legal profession as we know it today existed at that time. Lawyers were sole practitioners who trained under a system of apprenticeship. There was no national code of ethics; the purpose of the original organization, as set forth in its first constitution, was "the advancement of the science of jurisprudence, the promotion of the administration of justice and a uniformity of legislation throughout the country...."In 1918 the first women were admitted to the ABA – Judge Mary Belle Grossman of Cleveland and Mary Florence Lathrop of Denver.
The ABA did not allow African-Americans to join until 1943. This discrimination by the ABA led in 1937, of the National Lawyers Guild. Roberta Cooper Ramo was the first female President of the ABA from 1995–1996. In 2016 ABA introduced a new ethics rule prohibiting attorneys from using sexist and condescending terms; the ABA adopts "policy" on certain legislative and national issues, as voted on by its elected, 589-member House of Delegates. Its Board of Governors, with 44 members, has the authority to act for the ABA, consistent with previous action of the House of Delegates, when the House is not in session; the ABA president, elected to a one-year term, is chief executive officer of the association, while the appointed, longer-serving executive director works as chief operating officer. The conclusion of the ABA Annual Meeting, in August, is when a new president takes office, as well as when the main sessions of the House of Delegates take place; the Annual Meeting gives the general membership the opportunity to participate in educational programs and hear speakers address many issues.
In 2010, Jack L. Rives TJAG, was appointed Executive Director and Chief Operating Officer. One function of the ABA is its maintenance of a code of ethical standards for lawyers; the Model Code of Professional Responsibility and/or the newer Model Rules of Professional Conduct have been adopted in 49 states, the District of Columbia and the United States Virgin Islands. The exception is the State Bar of California. According to the ABA, it "provides law school accreditation, continuing legal education, information about the law, programs to assist lawyers and judges in their work, initiatives to improve the legal system for the public; the Mission of the American Bar Association is to be the national representative of the legal profession, serving the public and the profession by promoting justice, professional excellence and respect for the law." Since 1923, law schools which meet ABA standards are listed as "approved". ABA accreditation is important not only because it affects the recognition of the law schools involved, but it affects a graduate's ability to practice law in a particular state.
In most U. S. jurisdictions, graduation from an ABA-accredited law school is prerequisite towards being allowed to sit for that state's bar exam, for existing lawyers to be admitted to the bar of another state upon motion. States which recognize unaccredited schools within their borders will not recognize such schools from other jurisdictions for purposes of bar admission. For law students attending ABA-accredited schools, memberships are available for free. Students attending non-ABA accredited law schools are permitted to join the ABA as associate members. In June 2009, the ABA Journal reported that the ABA had been working "for months" to change its accreditation standard, where accreditation will be the result of what kind of lawyer an ABA law school produces as opposed to "input" measures such as faculty size and physical plant. In 2012 a non-profit organization called Law School Transparency called upon the ABA to provide meaningful statistics regarding the employment prospects and salary information of graduates of ABA accredited institutions.
On October 17, 2011, the ABA announced it was considering penalties, including loss of accreditation for schools that misreported their graduates employment data. Starting with the Class of 2011, ABA-accredited law schools were required to file Standard 509 Information Reports that included a host of data, ranging from LSAT scores of law students to bar passage rates of graduates. Employment information was filed separately to the Section. On December 12, 2011, despite the ongoing controversy surrounding law school accreditation standards and inability of law school graduates to service their educational debt, the ABA approved another law school. In 1995 the United States Department of Justice accused the ABA of violating Section 1 of the Sherman Act in its law school accreditation proceedings; the case was resolved with a consent decree. In 2006, the ABA acknowledged that it paid DOJ a $185,000 fine; the American Bar Association Center for Continuing Legal Education serves as the ce