Marcus Vitruvius Pollio known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura. His discussion of perfect proportion in architecture and the human body led to the famous Renaissance drawing by Leonardo da Vinci of Vitruvian Man. By his own description Vitruvius served as an artilleryman, the third class of arms in the military offices, he served as a senior officer of artillery in charge of doctores ballistarum and libratores who operated the machines. Little is known about Vitruvius' life. Most inferences about him are extracted from his only surviving work De Architectura, his first name Marcus and his cognomen Pollio are uncertain. Marcus Cetius Faventinus writes of "Vitruvius Polio aliique auctores". An inscription in Verona, which names a Lucius Vitruvius Cordo, an inscription from Thilbilis in North Africa, which names a Marcus Vitruvius Mamurra have been suggested as evidence that Vitruvius and Mamurra were from the same family.
Neither association, however, is borne out by De Architectura, nor by the little, known of Mamurra. Vitruvius was a military engineer, or a praefect architectus armamentarius of the apparitor status group, he is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's table of contents for Naturalis Historia, in the heading for mosaic techniques. Frontinus refers to "Vitruvius the architect" in his late 1st-century work De aquaeductu. Born a free Roman citizen, by his own account, Vitruvius served in the Roman army under Caesar with the otherwise poorly identified Marcus Aurelius, Publius Minidius, Gnaeus Cornelius; these names vary depending on the edition of De architectura. Publius Minidius is written as Publius Numidicus and Publius Numidius, speculated as the same Publius Numisius inscribed on the Roman Theatre at Heraclea; as an army engineer he specialized in the construction of ballista and scorpio artillery war machines for sieges. It is speculated; the locations where he served can be reconstructed from, for example, descriptions of the building methods of various "foreign tribes".
Although he describes places throughout De Architectura, he does not say. His service included north Africa, Hispania and Pontus. To place the role of Vitruvius the military engineer in context, a description of "The Prefect of the camp" or army engineer is quoted here as given by Flavius Vegetius Renatus in The Military Institutions of the Romans: The Prefect of the camp, though inferior in rank to the, had a post of no small importance; the position of the camp, the direction of the entrenchments, the inspection of the tents or huts of the soldiers and the baggage were comprehended in his province. His authority extended over the sick, the physicians who had the care of them, he had the charge of providing carriages and the proper tools for sawing and cutting wood, digging trenches, raising parapets, sinking wells and bringing water into the camp. He had the care of furnishing the troops with wood and straw, as well as the rams, onagri and all the other engines of war under his direction; this post was always conferred on an officer of great skill and long service, and, capable of instructing others in those branches of the profession in which he had distinguished himself.
At various locations described by Vitruvius and sieges occurred. He is the only source for the siege of Larignum in 56 BC. Of the battlegrounds of the Gallic War there are references to: the siege and massacre of the 40,000 residents at Avaricum in 52 BC; the broken siege at Gergovia in 52 BC. The circumvallation and Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, and the siege of Uxellodunum in 51 BC. These are all sieges of large Gallic oppida. Of the sites involved in Caesar's civil war, we find the Siege of Massilia in 49 BC, the Battle of Dyrrhachium of 48 BC, the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, the Battle of Zela of 47 BC and the Battle of Thapsus in 46 BC in Caesar's African campaign. A legion that fits the same sequence of locations is the Legio VI Ferrata, of which ballista would be an auxiliary unit. Known for his writings, Vitruvius was himself an architect. In Roman times architecture was a broader subject than at present including the modern fields of architecture, construction management, construction engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, materials engineering, mechanical engineering, military engineering and urban planning.
Frontinus mentions him in connection with the standard sizes of pipes. He is credited as father of architectural acoustics for describing the technique of echeas placement in theaters; the only building, that we know Vitruvius to have worked on is one he tells us about, a basi
Eric Owen Parry is a British architect, designer and educator. Parry is the founder and principal of Eric Parry Architects established in London in 1983, his built work includes the restoration and renewal of St Martin-in-the-Fields in London, the Holburne Museum in Bath, 50 New Bond Street, 23 Savile Row, One Eagle Place in Piccadilly, Aldermanbury Square by London Wall, 30 Finsbury Square in London, the London Stock Exchange. His projects include a number of residential developments. Eric Parry's architectural work and design has been shown internationally on major exhibitions, including the Royal Academy of Arts, the British School at Rome, the 2012 Venice Biennale of Architecture. Born in Kuwait City, Kuwait on 24 March 1952, to British parents Marion and Eric Parry, Parry's father was Chief Medical Officer in the Kuwaiti health service between 1948 and 1962. In his book Context: Architecture and the Genius of Place, Parry alludes to his memories of growing up in Kuwait within sight of the nomadic life of Bedouin tribes.
Moving to Britain, Parry was educated at Shrewsbury School. From 1970, he attended Newcastle University, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts' degree in Architecture in 1973, he registered with the Royal College of Arts, where he obtained his Master of Arts in 1978. Parry completed his formal architectural education at the Architectural Association School of Architecture, where he was taught by Dalibor Vesely and Peter Carl, both of whom he would again encounter while teaching in Cambridge. Parry obtained his Diploma in Architecture by the Architectural Association in 1980, he taught at the Cambridge Department of Architecture from 1983 to 1997, as a Lecturer in architecture. Parry was conferred an honorary Master of Arts by the University of Cambridge, is a member of Peterhouse, Cambridge. In 2006, Parry was elected at the Royal Academy of Arts, in 2012 received the degree of Doctor of Arts Honoris Causa from the University of Bath. Eric Parry began his professional life as a Lecturer at the Department of Architecture, University of Cambridge from 1983 to 1997.
Since he has taught at numerous universities, including the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, the University of Houston and the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan. He founded Eric Parry Architects in London in 1983, his early work included Artists' Studios in London for Antony Gormley and Tom Phillips, completed in 1988, as well as a private rehabilitation of the Château de Paulin in Tarn, which included the work of sculptor Stephen Cox. From this period dates his masterplan for Pembroke College, Cambridge, followed in 1993 by the project for the College's New Lodge and Student Accommodation; this was accompanied by a number of invited competition entries, namely for the extension of the Fitzwilliam Museum, to rebuild St George's Hall, Windsor Castle after the fire of 1992. Parry's body of work includes the corporate and commercial projects for W3 Stockley Park, completed in 1991, additional offices and conference rooms for the Royal Lancaster Hotel, a complex of apartments for Damai Suria, Kuala Lumpur, completed in 1997.
This work led to further commissions, such as the office buildings in London for 30 Finsbury Square, completed in 2002 as well as 23 Savile Row, 60 Threadneedle Street, 50 New Bond Street, all of which were completed in 2009. This involvement with the corporate world included the project for the new London Stock Exchange. At the same time, on the historical and educational fronts Parry developed a number of projects for schools, from the Bedford School Library and Music School to Wells Cathedral School Cedar's Hall completed in 2017; the cultural side to the practice is reflected in Parry's projects for London art galleries such as the Timothy Taylor Gallery in Dering Street and Carlos Place, as well as the restoration and renewal of St Martin-in-the-Fields, completed in 2008, the Holburne Museum in Bath, Somerset. Parry's work includes the residential building N10 for the East Village, London Olympic Village during the London 2012 Games. In 2013, Parry's completion of One Eagle Place, was announced in the press, featuring a cornice by Turner Prize winner, artist Richard Deacon.
The news was followed by Parry's completion of the neighbouring 8 St James's Square, a building that broke the UK office rent record. The following projects are listed in Eric Parry Architects' monographs Volume 1, Volume 2 and Volume 3: 1986 ‒ Animation Graphic Design Studios, London 1986–1988 ‒ Artists' Studios, London 1987–2002 ‒ Château de Paulin, France, with sculptor Stephen Cox 1988 ‒ Offices for Stanhope, London 1988–1990 ‒ Ferry House, South Cambridgeshire 1989–1991 ‒ Office Building, W3 Stockley Park, London 1989–1991 ‒ Market Rasen, Lincolnshire 1990 ‒'Rediscovering the Public Realm', Heinz Gallery, RIBA 1990–2005 ‒ Old Wardour House, Wiltshire 1991 ‒ Earl Place, entrance 1991 ‒ Lipton Residence, London 1990–2005 ‒ Old Wardour House, Wiltshire 1993–1997 ‒ Pembroke College, New Lodge and Student Accommodation Building 1994 ‒ Ministry of Sound, London 1994–1996 ‒ Sussex Innovation Centre, East Sussex, England 1995 ‒ Offices, Tras Street, Singapore 1996 ‒ Offices, Stornaway House, London 1996–1997 ‒ Damai Suria Apartments, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1997 ‒ Agace Residence, London 1997–2004 ‒ Wimbledon School of Art, London 1997 ‒ Offices for Stanhope, London 1997–1998 ‒ Taylor Residence, London 1997–1999 ‒ Southwark Gateway, London 1997–2000 ‒ Mandarin Oriental Hyde Park, London 1997–2004 ‒ Wimbledon School of Art, London 1997–2004 ‒ Royal Lancaster Hotel, London 1998 ‒ Fashion Store, King's Road, London 1999–2002 ‒ 30 Finsbury Square, London 1999–2002 ‒
World Monuments Fund
World Monuments Fund is a private, non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation of historic architecture and cultural heritage sites around the world through fieldwork, grantmaking and training. Founded in 1965, WMF is headquartered in New York, has offices and affiliates around the world, including Cambodia, Peru, Portugal and the United Kingdom. In addition to hands-on management, the affiliates identify and manage projects, negotiate local partnerships, attract local support to complement funds provided by donors; the International Fund for Monuments was an organization created by Colonel James A. Gray after his retirement from the U. S. Army in 1960. Gray had conceived of a visionary project to arrest the settlement of the Leaning Tower of Pisa by freezing the soil underneath, formed the organization in 1965 as a vehicle for the implementation of this idea. Though this project did not materialize, an opportunity arose for the young organization to participate in the conservation of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia.
In 1966 Gray secured the support of philanthropist Lila Acheson Wallace, who offered $150,000 to the International Fund for Monuments and UNESCO for this project. The project continued until the Communist overthrow of Haile Selassie I and the subsequent expulsion of foreigners from Ethiopia. After Ethiopia, Gray's interests shifted to Easter Island in Chile. Gray formed the Easter Island Committee, with Norwegian ethnographer and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl as its honorary chairman. Gray arranged to have one of the monolithic human figures known as moai exhibited in the United States. With the help of anthropologist William Mulloy, Gray selected an 8-foot-tall, five-ton head, exhibited in front of the Seagram Building in New York and in the Pan American Union building in Washington, D. C. An important chapter for the organization started with its involvement in the broad international effort led by UNESCO for the protection of the city of Venice, Italy from catastrophic flooding. After the high tide of 4 November 1966, the city, including the historic Piazza San Marco, was inundated for more than twenty-four hours.
The International Fund for Monuments set up a Venice Committee, with Professor John McAndrew of Wellesley College as chairman and Gray as executive secretary. On the part of the Committee, appeals were made to the American public, local chapters set up in American cities; this early initiative led to the formation of the independent organization Save Venice in 1971. These efforts helped establish a reputation for IFM. In Spain, the organization formed a Committee for Spain under the leadership of American diplomat and U. S. Ambassador to Spain in 1965–67 Angier Biddle Duke. At the invitation of UNESCO in the 1970s IFM became involved in architectural conservation in Nepal, where the organization adopted the Mahadev temple complex in Gokarna, in Nepal's Kathmandu Valley; the 14th-century temple building was surveyed, rotten timbers were replaced, the foundations were strengthened. Sculpted wooden architectural elements were painstakingly cleaned of layers of a motor oil coating, applied annually for protection.
At the request of UNESCO, IFM launched a project for the preservation of the Citadelle Laferrière, a large mountaintop fortress near Milot, Haiti. The site was the keystone of a defensive system constructed in the early period of Haitian independence to protect the young state from French attempts to reclaim it as a colony. Local artisans reconstructed wooden and tile roofs over the grand gallery and batteries using traditional carpentry methods, consolidated the stone galleries of the fortress. IFM sponsored a traveling exhibition and a film about the history of the Citadelle, used for educational purposes in the United States. Through donations and matching funds, WMF has worked with local community and government partners worldwide to safeguard and conserve places of historic value for future generations. To date, WMF has worked at more than 500 sites in 91 countries, including many UNESCO World Heritage Sites. WMF has worked at internationally famous tourist attractions as well as lesser-known sites.
Prominent projects are many temples at Angkor, starting in 1990, including Preah Khan and Phnom Bakheng. WMF has participated in projects in the United States, including Ellis Island, Taos Pueblo, Mesa Verde National Park, the Mount Lebanon Shaker Society, many sites in New Orleans and the Gulf Coast; every two years WMF publishes the World Monuments Watch. Since the first list was compiled in 1996, this program has drawn international attention to cultural heritage sites around the world threatened by neglect, armed conflict, commercial development, natural disasters, climate change. Through the World Monuments Watch, WMF fosters community support for the protection of endangered sites, attracts technical and financial support for the sites; the sites are nominated by international and local preservation groups and professionals, including local authorities. Sites of all types, including secular and religious architecture, archaeologic
Cosa was a Latin colony founded in southwestern Tuscany in 273 BC, on land confiscated from the Etruscans, to solidify the control of the Romans and offer the Republic a protected port. The Etruscan site may have been; the position of Cosa is distinct, rising some 113 metres above sea level and is sited 140 km northwest of Rome on the Tyrrhenian Sea coast, on a hill near the small town of Ansedonia. The town experienced a hard life and was never a prosperous Roman city, although it has assumed a position of prominence in Roman archaeology owing to the circumstances of its excavation. After the foundation, wars of the 3rd century BC affected the town. New colonists arrived in 197 BC. Cosa seems to have prospered until it was sacked in the 60s BC by pirates - although an earthquake and unrest related to the Catilinarian Conspiracy have been cited as reasons; this led to a re-foundation under Augustus and life continued until the 3rd century. One of the last textual references to Cosa comes from the work of Rutilius Claudius Namatianus in his De reditu suo.
In the passage 1.285-90, Rutilius remarks that by AD 417 the site of Cosa was deserted and could be seen to be in ruins. He further suggests. In the 20th century, Cosa was the site of excavations carried out under the auspices of the American Academy in Rome under the direction of the archaeologist Frank Edward Brown. Excavations have traced the city plan, the principal buildings, the port, have uncovered the Arx, the forum, a number of houses. Unexcavated buildings include a bathing establishment, but no trace of a theatre or an amphitheatre has been found. In the 1990s a series of excavations was carried out under the direction of Elizabeth Fentress associated with the American Academy in Rome; this latter campaign aimed at understanding the history of the site between the imperial period and the Middle Ages. Sample excavations took place over the whole site, with larger excavations on the Arx, the Eastern Height and around the Forum. Fieldwork resumed in 2013 under the auspices of Florida State University.
Within the city walls the urban area was divided into an orthogonal plan, with space allotted for civic and private architecture. The plan represents a subtle adaptation of an orthogonal plan to the complicated topography of the hill; the forum was found on a saddle between two heights, with the sacred area, with the Capitolium, linked to it by a broad street. Recent excavations have suggested that the original layout provided for about 248 houses, of which 20 were intended for the decurions, were double the size of the houses of the ordinary citizens; the larger houses were found on the main processional streets. The vast majority of religious monuments at Cosa were located at the Arx, "an area sacra, abode of those gods, quorum maxime in tutela civitas." The Arx was positioned at the highest and southernmost point of the colony. Its limits were defined by the Town Wall on the S and W sides, by cliffs on the NW side, by the Arx Wall on the NE side. In total, the Arx constituted around one-twentieth of the whole area of the townsite.
Aside from the colony’s walls, the Arx provides us with the site’s most impressive remains, the first American excavation taking place from 1948-1950. Though a religious center, there is some evidence of Republican housing; the Arx reached its fullest development in the early 2nd century BC, consisting of at least three temples and the Capitolium. The arx or citadel of Cosa received some of the first serious treatment by Frank E. Brown and his team when they began the Cosa excavations in 1948; the citadel was a fortified hill on which were built several temples, including the so-called capitolium of Cosa. Brown discovered a pit that he thought was connected to the first rituals of foundation carried out at Cosa in 273 BC. On the arx were two temples, one the triple-cella building dubbed the Capitolium of Cosa, the other a smaller temple; the Capitolium at Cosa marks, as far. It would have been visible for miles at sea. Smaller temples to the left and the right accompany the Capitolium, the entire complex accessible from the Forum by the Via Sacra.
The Capitolium was oriented consisted of three cellae with a deep columnar pronaos. This was preceded by a terraced forecourt. Approaching from this forecourt, one would have faced continuous steps across the entire facade; the temple walls rose from a high podium. It is believed that the Capitolium was modeled after the 6th-century BC Temple of Jupiter and Minerva at Rome, its moldings are similar to the building traditions of early Roman architecture. The Capitolium was built in the 2nd century BC, most as an affirmation of Roman loyalty and identity following the Second Punic War. A square platform is located underneath the Capitolium, cut into the rock but oriented differently than the building. A crevasse/pit with vegetative remains is located here, suggesting some sort of ritual activity with associated with the religious foundation of Cosa; the exact meaning behind this find is undetermined, the source of much skepticism. The remains of an unidentified temple lie on the crest of the Arx by the south wall of the Capitolium.
For the most part, the remains have not been excavated.
Canadian Centre for Architecture
The Canadian Centre for Architecture is a museum of architecture and research centre in Montreal, Canada. It is located at 1920 Baile Street, between Fort Street and Saint-Marc Street in what was once part of the Golden Square Mile. Today it is considered to be located in the Shaughnessy Village neighbourhood of the borough of Ville-Marie. Phyllis Lambert is the founding director emeritus, Bruce Kuwabara is chair of the board of trustees, Mirko Zardini is the director, Giovanna Borasi is the chief curator, it was built by Peter Rose. The CCA contains a large library and archives, is host to various exhibits throughout the year, it is home to a study centre open to the general public. The CCA provides educational programs and cultural activities; the CCA has an architectural garden located on the southern side of René-Lévesque Boulevard. The sculpture garden was realized by architect Melvin Charney; the CCA was founded in 1979 by Montreal architect Phyllis Lambert. The purpose of the centre was to promote public awareness of the role architecture plays in society, as well as to encourage scholarly architectural research and to foster innovative design practices.
The CCA was constructed between 1985 and 1989 by Montreal architect Peter Rose. The design of the museum incorporates the Shaughnessy House mansion, built for Thomas Shaughnessy, a Second Empire-style mansion that Lambert purchased in 1974 to prevent its demolition; the CCA received the Honor Awards for Architecture|Honor Award for Architecture from the American Institute of Architects and the Governor General's Medals in Architecture in 1992. The current building, which opened in 1989, surrounds Shaughnessy House and was designed by Peter Rose, in collaboration with Phyllis Lambert and Erol Argun. Shaughnessy House, located at 1923 Dorchester St. W was at built in 1874 according to plans by William Tutin Thomas, it is one of the few nineteenth century residences, accessible to the public. The CCA building, with a surface area of 12,000 square metres, is home to exhibit halls, Paul Desmarais Theatre, a bookstore, the library and a study centre in the Alcan Wing, it contains restoration laboratories and conservation offices.
The work of conservation and restoration of the Shaughnessy House, with a floor area of over 1,900 square metres, were carried out under the direction of Denis Saint-Louis. Inside is the Devencore Conservatory and reception rooms. Due to its size and use of traditional and modern materials, combining structural aluminum with grey Montreal limestone, the CCA building's architecture blends past and present, its landscapes, including the CCA sculpture Garden facing the building on the south side of René Lévesque Boulevard, were designed according to the ecology of each location. Most of the rooms of the Shaughnessy House have been restored to their original 1874 state; the Van Horne / Shaughnessy House was a listed as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1973 and a Historical Monument of Quebec on February 6, 1974. The CCA has largest collections of books and artifacts touching on the built environment and certain aspects of industrial design. Within the general collections it has special collections such as those pertaining to architectural games for children, universal exhibitions and their architecture, significant architects including Ernest Cormier, Peter Eisenman, Arthur Erickson, John Hejduk, Cedric Price, Aldo Rossi, James Stirling, the artist Gordon Matta-Clark.
The centre mounts regular shows made up of research on thematic subjects, different aspects of its collections, hosts touring exhibits from other museums. The centre offers tours adapted to educational programs for children, it has a bookstore, a concert hall, gardens. The sculpture garden which lies across René Lévesque Boulevard offers a full scale ghost-like lower shell of the bottom part of the Shaughnessy mansion, assorted modernistic sculptures or constructs which are developed around the theme of architecture; the Centre's research library is open to the public by appointment. It celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2009. Over the years, CCA has organized a variety of lectures and presentations, for example by Evgeny Morozov and Johannes Grenzfurthner; the mansion faces a sculpture garden by Melvin Charney on the south side of René Lévesque Boulevard. Located in between René-Lévesque Boulevard and the Ville-Marie Expressway, it is a park in an area of heavy traffic and is at the edge of a cliff.
The park contains a set of sculptures that depict aspects of architecture, include a reproduction of the base of the facade and size of Shaughnessy House. The vegetation is mixed with sections of open walls. Architectural fixtures and furniture items are placed on pedestals; the Museum is affiliated with: CMA, CHIN, Virtual Museum of Canada. Architecture of Canada Examination for Architects in Canada Canadian architecture Modern Architecture Society for the Study of Architecture in Canada CCA homepage in English and French
San Pietro in Montorio
San Pietro in Montorio is a church in Rome, which includes in its courtyard the Tempietto, a small commemorative martyrium built by Donato Bramante. The Church of San Pietro in Montorio was built on the site of an earlier 9th-century church dedicated to Saint Peter on Rome's Janiculum hill, it serves as a shrine. In the 15th century, the ruins were given to the Amadist friars, a reform branch of the Franciscans, founded by the Blessed Amadeus of Portugal, who served as confessor to Pope Sixtus IV from 1472. Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, it is a titular church, whose current title holder, since 1 March 2008, is Cardinal James Francis Stafford. The church is decorated with artworks by prominent 16th- and 17th-century masters; the first chapel on the right contains Transfiguration. Michelangelo, who had befriended Sebastiano in Rome, supplied figure drawings that were incorporated into the Flagellation; the second chapel has a fresco by Niccolò Circignani, some Renaissance frescoes from the school of Pinturicchio, an allegorical sibyl and virtue attributed to Baldassarre Peruzzi.
The fourth chapel has a ceiling fresco by Giorgio Vasari. Although there is no grave marker, tradition has it that Beatrice Cenci—executed in 1599 for the murder of her abusive father and made famous by Percy Bysshe Shelley, among others—is buried either in this chapel or below the high altar; the ceiling of the fifth chapel contains the Conversion of St. Paul, by Vasari; the altarpiece is attributed to Giulio Mazzoni, while the funerary monument of Pope Julius III and Roberto Nobili are by Bartolomeo Ammannati. Buried in the chapel is Julius III's scandalous'nephew', probable lover Cardinal Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte; until 1797, Raphael's final masterpiece, the Transfiguration graced the high altar. The altar displays a copy by Cammuccini of Guido Reni's Crucifixion of St. Peter; the last chapel on the left contains a Baptism of Christ, attributed to Daniele da Volterra, stucco-work and ceiling frescoes by Giulio Mazzoni. A pupil of Antoniazzo Romano frescoed the third chapel with the Saint Anne and Child.
Dirck van Baburen, a central figure of the Dutch Caravaggisti, painted the Entombment for the Pietà Chapel, indebted to Caravaggio's example. Baburen worked with David de Haen in this chapel; the two other paintings, The Mocking of Christ and The Agony in the Garden are variously attributed to either or both of the artists. The second chapel on the left, the Raimondi Chapel, was designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, it includes Francesco Baratta's Saint Francis in Ecstasy and sculptures by Andrea Bolgi and Niccolò Sale. At the high altar are two tombs: that of Hugh O'Neill, The O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone and his son Hugh who predeceased him, the tomb shared by Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell, his brother Cathbharr, both of them younger brothers of Red Hugh O'Donnell; these fled Ireland in 1607. Rory, Lord Tyrconnell, died in 1608, his brother Cathbharr and Hugh, the son of the Great Earl, died in 1609; the cause of death in all cases was fever malaria. Their tombs are covered with marble inscribed slabs with coloured borders and shields.
They are about 12 feet from the altar on the left as you face it and are covered by a carpet. Lord Tyrone himself was buried in the church with much less solemnity; the original simple tombstone was lost in about 1849, but the text of the short inscription was copied: "D. O. M. Hugonis principis ONelli ossa". In 1989, Tomás Cardinal Ó Fiaich laid a new marble plaque with the same inscription in the original place; the so-called Tempietto is a small commemorative tomb built by Donato Bramante as early as 1502, in the courtyard of San Pietro in Montorio. Commissioned by Ferdinand and Isabella, the Tempietto is considered a masterpiece of High Renaissance Italian architecture. After spending his first years in Milan, Bramante moved to Rome, where he was recognized by Cardinal Giuliano della Rovere, the soon-to-be Pope Julius II. In Rome, Bramante was able to study the ancient monuments firsthand; the temple of Vesta at Tivoli was one of the precedents behind the Tempietto. Other antique precedents Bramante was able to study in Rome include the circular temple of the banks of the Tiber, Temple of Hercules Victor, believed at the time to be a temple of Vesta.
However, circular churches had been employed by early Christians for martyriums, like Santa Constanza in Rome. Bramante would have been aware of these early Christian precedents, as a result, the Tempietto is circular; the "Tempietto" is one of the most harmonious buildings of the Renaissance. The temple was constructed from bearing masonry; the circular temple supports a classical entablature, was framed in the shadowy arch of the cloister. It is the earliest example of the Tuscan order in the Renaissance; the Tuscan is a form of the Doric order, well suited for strong male gods so Tuscan was well suited for St. Peter's, it is meant to mark the traditional exact spot of St. Peter's martyrdom, is an important precursor to Bramante's rebuilding of St. Peter's. Given all the transformations of Renaissance and Baroque Rome that were to follow, it is hard now to sense the impact this building had at the beginning of the 16th century, it is a piece of sculpture, for it has little architectonic use. The building reflected Brun
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012