Influencer marketing is a form of marketing in which focus is placed on influential people rather than the target market as a whole on social media. It identifies the individuals who have influence over potential customers, orients marketing activities around these influencers. Influencer content may be framed as testimonial advertising where they play the role of a potential buyer themselves, or they may be third parties; these third parties may be so-called value-added influencers. In the United States, influence marketing is treated by the Federal Trade Commission as a form of paid endorsement, governed under the rules for native advertising. Other countries' media-regulatory bodies, such as Australia's, have created guidelines around influencer marketing following the decision of the FTC. In the United Kingdom a voluntary agreement was announced in January 2019 between the country's Competition and Markets Authority and high-profile social media influencers to ensure that they comply with consumer law.
Most countries have not created a regulatory framework for influencer marketing. Most discussion on the generic topic of social influence centres on compliance and persuasion in a social environment. In the context of influencer marketing, influence is less about argument and coercion to a particular point of view and more about loose interactions between various parties in a community. Influence is equated to advocacy, but may be negative, is thus related to concepts of promoters and detractors; the idea of a "two-step flow of communication" was introduced in "The People's Choice". This idea was further developed in "Personal Influence" and "The Effects of Mass Communication". Influencer marketing tends to be broken into two sub-practices: earned influencer marketing and paid influencer marketing. Earned marketing stems from unpaid or preexisting relationships with influencers or third party content, promoted by the influencer to further their own personal social growth. Paid influencer marketing campaigns can take the form of sponsorship, pre-roll advertising or testimonial messaging and can appear at any point in the content.
Influencer compensation can be based on a flat rate fee per piece of content, earned as affiliate income resulting from sales or click-throughs generated by the influencer's content, or might be a combination of the two where influencers are paid a fee as well as earning affiliate income from their content. Budgets vary and are based on audience reach. Most influencers are paid upfront before a marketing campaign while others are paid after the execution of the marketing campaign; some influencers accept gifted services as compensation in exchange for posting. However, these gifts are subject to IRS rules & regulations and in many cases their value is considered taxable income; as a company's brands evolve in terms of marketing, the cost in relation to the possible benefits it can receive is important. The airing of a television spot has a high cost. If an influencer has 200,000 followers on their social media site, a company gives them a product as a marketing tool, which they are to expose to their audience, the company's financial outlay, by comparison, would be negligible.
The company will have spent less, but exposed their product to a more focused group of followers of the public figure. As more people use the internet, more are making purchases online; this forces some companies to invest more resources in their general advertising - on the internet, on social networks in particular. Marketing through social networks allows for an instantaneous purchase process; this decrease between lag time - from seeing the promoted item and being redirected to the product - is more effective for spontaneous purchases. Many influencers' social media presence is on both Twitter; the rise in popularity of video content means a growing number of influencers can be found on YouTube. Web services can be used to trawl social media sites for users who exert influence in their respective communities; the social influencer marketing firm asks those influencers to try products or services and discuss them on their respective social networks. Clients can observe an enhanced digital dashboard, with metrics that measure the dissemination of brand mentions across numerous web platforms.
At least 70 companies offer online influence measurement. Advocates of this online-only approach claim that online activity reflects the trends in offline transactions. For example, Razorfish released one of the first social influencer marketing reports, titled Fluent; the report discusses many theories surrounding social marketing, including the importance of the push/pull dynamic and online consumer empowerment and importance of buzz marketing. Online activity can be a core part of offline decision-making, as consumers research products and review sites. Critics of this online-only approach argue that only researching online sources misses critical influential individuals and inputs, they note that much influential exchange
In management accounting or managerial accounting, managers use the provisions of accounting information in order to better inform themselves before they decide matters within their organizations, which aids their management and performance of control functions. One simple definition of management accounting is the provision of financial and non-financial decision-making information to managers. According to the Institute of Management Accountants: "Management accounting is a profession that involves partnering in management decision making, devising planning and performance management systems, providing expertise in financial reporting and control to assist management in the formulation and implementation of an organization's strategy". Management accountants look at the events that happen in and around a business while considering the needs of the business. From this and estimates emerge. Cost accounting is the process of translating these estimates and data into knowledge that will be used to guide decision-making.
The Chartered Institute of Management Accountants, the largest management accounting institute with over 100,000 members describes "Management accounting as analysing information to advise business strategy and drive sustainable business success". The Association of International Certified Professional Accountants states that management accounting as practice extends to the following three areas: Strategic management — advancing the role of the management accountant as a strategic partner in the organization Performance management — developing the practice of business decision-making and managing the performance of the organization Risk management — contributing to frameworks and practices for identifying, measuring and reporting risks to the achievement of the objectives of the organizationThe Institute of Certified Management Accountants states, "A management accountant applies his or her professional knowledge and skill in the preparation and presentation of financial and other decision oriented information in such a way as to assist management in the formulation of policies and in the planning and control of the operation undertaking".
Management accountants are seen as the "value-creators" amongst the accountants. They are more concerned with forward-looking and taking decisions that will affect the future of the organization, than in the historical recording and compliance aspects of the profession. Management accounting knowledge and experience can be obtained from varied fields and functions within an organization, such as information management, efficiency auditing, valuation and logistics. In 2014 CIMA created the Global Management Accounting Principles; the result of research from across 20 countries in five continents, the principles aim to guide best practice in the discipline. Management accounting information differs from financial accountancy information in several ways: while shareholders and public regulators use publicly reported financial accountancy, only managers within the organization use the confidential management accounting information while financial accountancy information is historical, management accounting information is forward-looking.
Focus: Financial accounting focuses on the company as a whole. Management accounting provides detailed and disaggregated information about products, individual activities, plants and tasks; the distinction between traditional and innovative accounting practices is illustrated with the visual timeline of managerial costing approaches presented at the Institute of Management Accountants 2011 Annual Conference. Traditional standard costing, used in cost accounting, dates back to the 1920s and is a central method in management accounting practiced today because it is used for financial statement reporting for the valuation of income statement and balance sheet line items such as cost of goods sold and inventory valuation. Traditional standard costing must comply with accepted accounting principles and aligns itself more with answering financial accounting requirements rather than providing solutions for management accountants. Traditional approaches limit themselves by defining cost behavior only in terms of production or sales volume.
In the late 1980s, accounting practitioners and educators were criticized on the grounds that management accounting practices had changed little over the preceding 60 years, despite radical changes in the business environment. In 1993, the Accounting Education Change Commission Statement Number 4 calls for faculty members to expand their knowledge about the actual practice of accounting in the workplace. Professional accounting institutes fearing that management accountants would be seen as superfluous in business organizations, subsequently devoted considerable resources to the development of a more innovative skills set for management accountants. Variance analysis is a systematic approach to the comparison of the actual and budgeted costs of the raw materials and labour used during a production period. While some form of variance analysis is still used by most manufacturing firms, it nowadays tends to be used
A brand is an overall experience of a customer that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer. Brands are used in business and advertising. Name brands are sometimes distinguished from generic or store brands; the practice of branding is thought to have begun with the ancient Egyptians, who were known to have engaged in livestock branding as early as 2,700 BCE. Branding was used to differentiate one person’s cattle from another's by means of a distinctive symbol burned into the animal’s skin with a hot branding iron. If a person stole any of the cattle, anyone else who saw the symbol could deduce the actual owner. However, the term has been extended to mean a strategic personality for a product or company, so that ‘brand’ now suggests the values and promises that a consumer may perceive and buy into. Over time, the practice of branding objects extended to a broader range of packaging and goods offered for sale including oil, wine and fish sauce. Branding in terms of painting a cow with symbols or colors at flea markets was considered to be one of the oldest forms of the practice.
Branding is a set of marketing and communication methods that help to distinguish a company or products from competitors, aiming to create a lasting impression in the minds of customers. The key components that form a brand's toolbox include a brand’s identity, brand communication, brand awareness, brand loyalty, various branding strategies. Many companies believe that there is little to differentiate between several types of products in the 21st century, therefore branding is one of a few remaining forms of product differentiation. Brand equity is the measurable totality of a brand's worth and is validated by assessing the effectiveness of these branding components; as markets become dynamic and fluctuating, brand equity is a marketing technique to increase customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, with side effects like reduced price sensitivity. A brand is, in essence, a promise to its customers of what they can expect from products and may include emotional as well as functional benefits.
When a customer is familiar with a brand, or favours it incomparably to its competitors, this is when a corporation has reached a high level of brand equity. Special accounting standards have been devised to assess brand equity. In accounting, a brand defined as an intangible asset, is the most valuable asset on a corporation’s balance sheet. Brand owners manage their brands to create shareholder value, brand valuation is an important management technique that ascribes a monetary value to a brand, allows marketing investment to be managed to maximize shareholder value. Although only acquired brands appear on a company's balance sheet, the notion of putting a value on a brand forces marketing leaders to be focused on long term stewardship of the brand and managing for value; the word ‘brand’ is used as a metonym referring to the company, identified with a brand. Marque or make are used to denote a brand of motor vehicle, which may be distinguished from a car model. A concept brand is a brand, associated with an abstract concept, like breast cancer awareness or environmentalism, rather than a specific product, service, or business.
A commodity brand is a brand associated with a commodity. The word, derives from its original and current meaning as a firebrand, a burning piece of wood; that word comes from the Old High German and Old English byrnan and brinnan via Middle English as birnan and brond. Torches were used to indelibly mark items such as furniture and pottery, to permanently burn identifying marks into the skin of slaves and livestock; the firebrands were replaced with branding irons. The marks themselves took on the term and came to be associated with craftsmen's products. Through that association, the term acquired its current meaning. Branding and labelling have an ancient history. Branding began with the practice of branding livestock in order to deter theft. Images of the branding of cattle occur in ancient Egyptian tombs dating to around 2,700 BCE. Over time, purchasers realised that the brand provided information about origin as well as about ownership, could serve as a guide to quality. Branding was adapted by farmers and traders for use on other types of goods such as pottery and ceramics.
Forms of branding or proto-branding emerged spontaneously and independently throughout Africa and Europe at different times, depending on local conditions. Seals, which acted as quasi-brands, have been found on early Chinese products of the Qin Dynasty. Identity marks, such as stamps on ceramics, were used in ancient Egypt. Diana Twede has argued that the "consumer packaging functions of protection and communication have been necessary whenever packages were the object of transactions", she has shown that amphorae used in Mediterranean trade between 1,500 and 500 BCE exhibited a wide variety of shapes and markings, which consumers used to glean information about the type of goods and the quality. Systematic use of stamped labels dates from around the fourth century BCE. In a pre-literate society, the shape of the amphora and its pictorial markings conveyed information about the contents, region of o
Product placement known as embedded marketing, is a marketing technique where references to specific brands or products are incorporated into another work, such as a film or television program, with specific promotional intent. While references to brands may be voluntarily incorporated into works to maintain a feeling of realism and/or be a subject of commentary, product placement is the deliberate incorporation of references to a brand or product in exchange for compensation. Product placements may range from unobtrusive appearances within an environment, to prominent integration and acknowledgement of the product within the work. Common categories of products used for placements include automobiles and consumer electronics. Works produced by vertically integrated companies may use placements to promote their other divisions as a form of corporate synergy. During the 21st century, the use of product placement on television grew to combat the wider use of digital video recorders that can skip traditional commercial breaks, as well as to engage with younger demographics.
Digital editing technology is being used to tailor product placement to specific demographics or markets, in some cases, add placements to works that did not have embedded advertising, or update existing placements. Product placement began in the 19th century. By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days, his fame had led transport and shipping companies to lobby to be mentioned in the story. Whether Verne was paid to do so, remains unknown. A painting by Eduoard Manet shows a bar at the Folies Bergere with distinctive bottles placed at either end of the counter; the beer bottle is recognisable as Bass beer. Manet's motivations for including branded products in his painting are unknown. Research reported by Jean-Marc Lehu suggests that films produced by Auguste and Louis Lumière in 1876 were made at the request of a representative of Lever Brothers in France; the films feature Sunlight soap, which may be the first recorded instance of paid product placement in film.
This led to cinema becoming one of the earliest channels used for product placement. With the arrival of photo-rich periodicals in the late 19th century, publishers found ways of lifting their paper's reputation by placing an actual copy of the magazine in photographs of prominent people. For example, the German magazine Die Woche in 1902 printed an article about a countess in her castle where she, in one of the photographs, holds a copy of the magazine in her hands. Product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest actualities and cinematic attractions from the first ten years of cinema history. During the next four decades, Harrison's Reports cited cases of on-screen brand-name products. Harrison condemned the practice as harmful to movie theatres, his editorials reflected his hostility towards product placement in films. Harrison's Reports published its first denunciation of that practice over Red Crown gasoline's appearance in The Garage. Another editorial criticised the collaboration between the Corona Typewriter company and First National Pictures when a Corona typewriter appeared in several films in the mid-1920s including The Lost World.
Recognisable brand names appeared in movies from cinema's earliest history. Before films were narrative forms in the sense that they are recognized today, industrial concerns funded the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning described as "cinematic attractions", short films of one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film audiences attended films as "fairground attractions" interesting for their then-amazing visual effects; this format was better suited to product placement than narrative cinema. Gurevitch argued that early cinematic attractions have more in common with television advertisements in the 1950s than they do with traditional films. Gurevitch suggested that as a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is intertwined, suggesting that cinema was in part the result of advertising and the economic advantage that it provided early film makers. Segrave detailed the industries. A feature film that has expectations of reaching millions of viewers attracts marketers.
In many cases no payment is made for product exposure and no promise of marketing support is made when consumer brands appear in movies. Film productions need props for scenes, so each movie's property master, responsible for gathering props film, contacts product placement middlemen agencies or product companies directly. In addition to items for on-screen use, the product/service supplier might provide a production with large quantities of complementary products or services. Tapping product placement channels can be valuable for movies when a vintage product is required—such as a sign or bottle—that is not available. Although there is no definitive proof that product placement for Red Crown gasoline in The Garage, Fritz Lang's Dr. Mabuse the Gambler contained a prominent title card in the opening credits reading "The gowns of the female stars were designed by Vally Reinecke and made in the fashion studios of Flatow-Schädler und Mossner." Among notable silent films to feature product placement was Wings, the first to win the Academy Award for Best Picture.
It contained a plug for Hershey's chocolate. Fritz Lang's film M shows a banner display for Wrigley's PK Chewing Gum, for 20–30 seconds. Another early example occurs in Horse Feathers, where The
Visual merchandising is the practice in the retail industry of developing floor plans and three-dimensional displays in order to maximize sales. Both goods and services can be displayed to highlight their benefits; the purpose of such visual merchandising is to attract and motivate the customer towards making a purchase. Visual merchandising occurs in retail spaces such as stores; when the giant nineteenth century dry goods establishments like Marshall Field & Co. shifted their business from wholesale to retail, the visual display of goods became necessary to attract the general consumers. The store windows were used to attractively display the store's merchandise. Over time, the design aesthetic used in window displays moved indoors and became part of the overall interior store design reducing the use of display windows in many suburban malls. In the twentieth century, well-known artists such as Salvador Dalí and Andy Warhol created window displays. In the beginning of twenty-first century, visual merchandising is forming as a science.
Nowadays, visual merchandising became one of the major tool of business promotion, used to attract customers and increase sales. WindowsWear is a database of visual merchandising from around the world. Visual merchandising contributes to a brand's personality and the characteristics associated with the brand; the design of the store should reflect this as part of their retail brand strategy. This includes the in-store environment and brand communications used, such as signage and images displayed in-store; these visual elements play a part in building a retail brand and therefore they help a brand differentiate itself from its competitors, create brand loyalty, allows for a brand to place premium pricing on their products. Part of the brand strategy used in visual merchandising is research into the brand's target market to find out what their customers’ values and self-images are; this information can allow the retailer to cater the design of a store and their advertising to match their consumers.
Visual merchandising supports retail sales by creating environments to further maximize growth, educate customers, stretch brand image. In order for retailers to gain an important competitive advantage in the marketplace, visual merchandising is an important factor and an effective way of adding value to their brand. Visual merchandising communicates with customers through elements that stimulate their senses such as lighting, music and television screens; the environment in which a consumer is in can influence the purchasing decisions. Research shows that stores that do not communicate well with their customers, such as the retail store having a poor layout can cause customers to incur psychic costs, may lead to customers being deterred from shopping again as overall shopping pleasure has been reduced; the physical environment is a primary objective in communicating with customers in retail. Research from Thaler shows that consumers are more willing to pay a higher price for a product if the product is purchased in a more favourable environment.
This makes customers become more accepting of the higher price, rather than if it were to be sold in an old rundown store. Customers can form an important bias of the merchandise quality based on the retail store design environment, factors such as employee's interpersonal skills and how they are treated. Visual merchandising augments the retail design of a store, it is one of the final stages in setting out a store in a way customers find attractive and appealing. Many elements can be used by visual merchandisers in creating displays including color, space, product information, sensory inputs, as well as technologies such as digital displays and interactive installations. Visual merchandising consists of two techniques; the goal of these two techniques is to attract the attention of consumers, entice them into the store, to keep them in the store as long as possible, influence purchasing decisions. A recent study has found. In-store design and window display techniques can be used to enhance the store environment, influencing consumer behaviour and purchasing decisions.
In-store design is a technique, which can be used to enhance the atmosphere of the store and the overall store environment. Having a visually appealing store design can simulate the representation of the brand and attract customers. Efficient, customer friendly environment makes shopping easier for consumers, which encourages buying and, most reassures repeat purchasing; the window design technique is a way of communicating with customers, which uses a combination of lighting, props and graphic design to display goods, attract the attention of the customer, sustain a brand image. The overall goal of the window display for the retailer is to persuade the customer into the store and motivate purchasing. In-store visual merchandising can be used to capture the attention of consumers whilst they are in the store, an essential component in the buying decision-making process. To capture the attention of the customer, the retailer must consider the customer's needs during this process. Factors that contribute to the overall in-store design include the store layout, store design, point of purchases displays, item display, assortment display, signage.
When applied to a store, these factors can meet the needs of the consumer and provide a positive in-store purchasing environment. The layout of a store is a sig
Co-creation is a management initiative, or form of economic strategy, that brings different parties together, in order to jointly produce a mutually valued outcome. Co-creation brings a blend of ideas from direct customers or viewers which in turn creates new ideas to the organization. Co-created value arises in the form of personalized, unique experiences for the customer and ongoing revenue and enhanced market performance drivers for the firm. Value is co-created with customers if and when a customer is able to personalize his or her experience using a firm's product-service proposition – in the lifetime of its use – to a level, best suited to get his or her job or tasks done and which allows the firm to derive greater value from its product-service investment in the form of new knowledge, higher revenues/profitability and/or superior brand value/loyalty. Scholars C. K. Prahalad and Venkat Ramaswamy popularized the concept in their 2000 Harvard Business Review article, "Co-Opting Customer Competence".
They developed their arguments further in their book, published by the Harvard Business School Press, The Future of Competition, where they offered examples including Napster and Netflix showing that customers would no longer be satisfied with making yes or no decisions on what a company offers. Within the study of Prahalad and Ramaswamy, they defined co-creation as “The joint creation of value by the company and the customer. Maarten Pieters and Stefanie Jansen further developed existing co-creation theories and introduced the term Complete co-creation in 2013, creating clarity for organisations who struggled with implementing co-creation into their daily operations. Complete co-creation refers to the "transparent process of value creation in ongoing, productive collaboration with, supported by all relevant parties, with end-users playing a central role", it is regarded as a practical answer to the predominantly academic and holistic understanding of co-creation. Complete co-creation involves end-users and other relevant parties in a full development process, from the identification of a challenge to the implementation and tracking of its solution.
It is foremost a procedure which may evolve into an organisational principle, even a co-ownership. The process of Co-creation The process of co-creation involves 2 core steps: Contribution: Submission of contributions by the public to the firm Selection: Selection of the most promising and appealing contributions/submissionsTypes of Co-creation Depending on the degree of control exercised by the firm/public over the contribution and selection activities, co-creation may be broadly classified into 4 categories: Tinkering: Public exercises control over the contribution activity while the firm exercises control over the selection activity Submitting: Firm exercises complete control over both the activities Co-designing: Firm exercises control over the contribution activity while the public exercises control over the selection activity Collaborating: Public exercises complete control over both the activitiesTinkering Tinkering is a customer co-creation model that involves procurement of contributions from the public by the firm, a comprehensive and scrupulous examination of the contributions, selection of the most promising and enterprising contributions by the firm and implementation of the contributions.
For example, Little Big Planet, a puzzle platform video game by Sony Interactive Entertainment allows the gamers to create their own levels in the game. The created levels can be shared with other gamers or submitted to Sony. Owing to this "Create and Share" feature, this game has the tagline'Play, Share'; the most promising contributions are incorporated into the final game and the contributors are rewarded. Submitting In the case of submitting, the firm exercises control over the contribution activity by placing constraints on the basic design, contribution size etc. and the selection activity by selecting the winning contributions. This form of customer co-creation is employed in those cases where the firm is looking to further research in its field. Co-designing Co-designing involves placement of constraints by the firm on the contribution activity and selection of the winning contributions by the contributors themselves. For example, Local Motors employs the co-designing model of customer co-creation to develop its vehicles.
In 2010, Local Motors developed a car named Rally Fighter in a record 18 months, about 5 times faster than what a conventional car manufacturing process takes. By empowering a community of over 2000 designers to submit their designs while still placing some constraints on the basic design, color schemes etc. Local Motors utilized the co-designing model of customer co-creation; the winning design was chosen as the winning design by the designer community through voting. An interesting bit of trivia about Local Motors is that it doesn't have a design team. All the designing is done by the public itself. Threadless, one of the leading T-shirt manufacturing brands in America employs co-designing. Collaborating Also known as open sourcing, collaborating involves releasing the source code of the product and making it accessible to the general public; the released source code is open to modification as per the requirement of the users. Examples like Mozilla Firefox and Linux are all based on collaborating.
The Art of Co-creation The traditional company-centric view says: t
In marketing, a product demonstration is a promotion where a product is demonstrated to potential customers. The goal of such a demonstration is to introduce customers to the product in hopes of getting them to purchase that item. Products offered as samples during these demonstrations may include new products, new versions of existing products or products that have been introduced to a new commercial marketplace. In-store demonstrations are performed at large retail locations, such as supermarkets, department or discount stores, or in shopping malls; the products that are promoted at in-store demonstrations may be food and beverages, food preparation equipment, housekeeping products, personal care items, or other types of goods. The samples that are distributed may either be in readymade packets pre-assembled for the demonstration, or are prepared on site by the demonstrator; some demonstrations involve the distribution of prepared food, requiring the demonstrator to bring equipment such as a microwave oven or hot plate to the location.
Coupons for the product are distributed as part of the demonstration. Some demonstrations consist of coupon distribution only. Demonstrators may be employees of the store where the demonstration is being performed, employees or the manufacturer of the product, or independent contractors who work for a temp agency. Most are not trained to seek out customers to buy the product. In-store demonstrations allow potential customers to taste a product before they buy. By the mid-1950s Ron Popeil states that "I was working in the Woolworth's store in Chicago selling the Chop-O-Matic, standing eight or 10 hours a day. I would do six demonstrations an hour. My vocal cords were so strained that I wouldn't want to talk to anybody when the day was over." The concept of the in-store demonstration started to boom in the 1980s. Door-to-door, by-appointment salespeople demonstrate such products as Tupperware, encyclopedias and carpet stain removers. Prototypes are demonstrated in trade shows, are called "tech demos".
Product demonstrations have been a staple of state fairs for many years. The first product demonstration in a format that would be called an infomercial is attributed to a 1949 demonstration of the Vitamix blender. Many countries around the world do not place legal restrictions on outdoor product marketing and demonstrations. Salespeople set up temporary sites to demonstrate their wares. A wide variety of products are demonstrated roadside throughout the China; such products include frying pans, induction cookers, rubber gloves, vegetable peelers and slicers, stain removers, knives. Though uncommon today, the street demonstration was ubiquitous in such places as the Boardwalk in Atlantic City. Included with a purchase, a video on a DVD disc may be provided demonstrating the product's use. Video product demonstrations can be found on the Internet at the homepages of companies or on web hosting sites such as YouTube. One notable example is the viral video Will It Blend? Demonstrating Blendtec blenders.
Product demonstration videos have become important for the sale of music equipment. With the increase of online shopping, there are fewer opportunities to try a product prior to purchase; this has a particular problem for music equipment which, unlike other technology, the quality of the sound produced may come down to a more personal preference and may not be as related to the specifications of a particular product. YouTube is one of the main hosts of music equipment videos, channels may be run by retailers, musicians or manufacturers themselves. With decreases in music sales, demonstration videos have become an additional source of revenue for full-time musicians, with artists such as Rob Chapman having over 400,000 subscribers. Hawker Freebie marketing Wine tasting