Long-distance running, or endurance running, is a form of continuous running over distances of at least eight kilometres. Physiologically, it is aerobic in nature and requires stamina as well as mental strength. Among mammals, humans are well adapted for running significant distances, so among primates; the endurance running hypothesis suggests that running endurance in the genus Homo arose because travelling over large areas improved scavenging opportunities and allowed persistence hunting. The capacity for endurance running is found in migratory ungulates and a limited number of terrestrial carnivores, such as bears, dogs and hyenas. In modern human society, long-distance running has multiple purposes: people may engage in it for physical exercise, for recreation, as a means of travel, for economic reasons, or for cultural reasons. Long distance running can be used as a means to improve cardiovascular health. Running improves aerobic fitness by increasing the activity of enzymes and hormones that stimulate the muscles and the heart to work more efficiently.
Endurance running is a component of physical military training and has been so historically. Professional running is most found in the field of sports, although in pre-industrial times foot messengers would run to deliver information to distant locations. Long-distance running as a form of tradition or ceremony is known among the Hopi and Tarahumara people, among others. Distance running can serve as a bonding exercise for family, friends and has been associated with nation-building; the social element of distance running has been linked with improved performance. In the sport of athletics, long-distance events are defined as races covering three kilometres and above; the three most common types are track running, road running and cross country running, all of which are defined by their terrain – all-weather tracks and natural terrain, respectively. Typical long-distance track races range from 3000 metres to 10,000 metres, cross country races cover 5 to 12 km, while road races can be longer, reaching 100 kilometres and beyond.
In collegiate cross country races in the United States, men race 8000 or 10000 meters, depending on their division, whereas women race 6000 meters. The Summer Olympics features three long-distance running events: the 5000 metres, 10,000 metres and marathon. Since the late 1980s, Kenyans and Ethiopians have dominated in major international long-distance competitions; the high altitude of these countries has been proven to help these runners achieve more success. Mountain air, combined with endurance training, can lead to an increase in red blood cells, allowing more oxygen to be passed through the veins; the majority of these East African successful runners come from three mountain districts that run along the Great Rift Valley. Anthropological observations of modern hunter-gatherer communities have provided accounts for long distance running as a method for hunting among the San of the Kalahari, American Indians, the Australian Aborigines. In this method, the hunter would run at a slow and steady pace between one hour and a few days, in an area where the animal has no place to hide.
The animal, running in spurts, has to stop to pant in order to cool itself, but as the chase goes on it would not have enough time before it has to start running again, after a while would collapse from exhaustion and heat. The body structure of a skeleton of a 12 years old Nariokatome boy is suggested to prove that early humans from 1.5 million years ago were eating more meat and less plants, hunted by running down animals. With developments in agriculture and culture, long distance running took more and more purposes other than hunting: religious ceremonies, delivering messages for military and political purposes, sport; the Old Testament has a few mentions of messengers running to deliver messages. For example, in 2 Samuel 18, two runners, Ahimaaz son of Zadok and a Cushite run to deliver King David the message of the death of his son Absalom. In Jeremia 51:31-32, two running messengers meet each other halfway to deliver the message about the loss of Babylon: 31 One post shall run to meet another, one messenger to meet another, to shew the king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end, 32 And that the passages are stopped, the reeds they have burned with fire, the men of war are affrighted.
Running messengers are reported from early Sumer, were named lasimu as military men as well as the king’s officials who disseminated documents throughout the kingdom by running. Ancient Greece was famous for its running messengers, who were named hemerodromoi, meaning “day runners”. One of the most famous running messengers is Pheidippides, who according to the legend ran from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory of the Greek over the Persians in the Battle of Marathon in 490 B. C, he collapsed and died as he delivered the message “we won”. While there are debates around the accuracy of this historical legend, whether Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Athens or between other cities, how far this was, if he was the one to deliver the victory message, the marathon running event of 26.2 miles / 42.195 km is based on this legend. Humans are considered among the best distance runners among all running animals: game animals are faster over short distances, but they have less endurance than humans.
Unlike other primates whose bodies are suited to walk on four legs or climb trees, the human body has evolved into upright walking and running around 2-3 million years ago. The human body can endure long distance running through the following attributes: Bone and muscle struct
2005 World Championships in Athletics
The 10th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations, were held in the Olympic Stadium, Finland, the site of the first IAAF World Championships in 1983. One theme of the 2005 championships was paralympic events, some of which were included as exhibition events. Much of the event was played in heavy rainfall; the original winning bid for the competition was for London but the cost to build the required stadium at Picketts Lock and host the event was deemed too expensive by the government. UK Athletics suggested to move the host city to Sheffield, but the IAAF stated that having London as the host city was central to their winning the bid; the championships bidding process was reopened as a result. The United Kingdom's withdrawal as host was the first case for a major sporting event in a developed country since Denver's withdrawal as host of the 1976 Winter Olympics. Helsinki was considered by many to be the outsider in the race to host the games with rival bids being presented by Berlin in Germany.
Apocalyptica and Nightwish performed at the opening ceremony of the event over a heavy rainfall. Geir Rönning, Finland's Eurovision Song Contest 2005 entrant, sang "Victory" the official song of the 2005 IAAF World Championships. With the addition of the women's 3000 metres steeplechase to the schedule, that year's program of events was closer to parity for women and men. With the exception of the 50 km walk the women competed in the same events as the men. Two differences remaining from before, were the short hurdles race, the multi-event competition. Since the first World Championships in Helsinki 1983, seven new events have been added for women: 10000 metres, introduced in 1987 5000 metres, replaced 3000 metres in 1995 triple jump, introduced in 1993 20 km walk introduced in 1999, replaced 10 km walk that first appeared in 1987 pole vault, introduced in 1999 hammer throw, introduced in 1999 3000 metres steeplechase, introduced in 2005 The IAAF conducted their largest anti-doping program at an athletics event for the championships, with 705 athletes subjected to a total 884 of tests.
There were two athletes who failed drugs tests: Indian discus thrower Neelam Jaswant Singh tested positive for the stimulant pemoline, Vladyslav Piskunov, a Ukrainian hammer thrower, tested positive for the steroid drostanolone. Singh received a two-year ineligibility ban, while Piskunov received a life ban from athletics as this was his second offence. In March 2013, the IAAF announced that re-testing of samples taken during these championships revealed that five medal winners had proved positive for banned substances; the athletes involved were Belarusian Nadzeya Ostapchuk, Belarusian Ivan Tsikhan, Russian Olga Kuzenkova, Russian Tatyana Kotova and Belarus's Vadim Devyatovskiy. Belarusian Andrei Mikhnevich had tested positive and was disqualified. 2001 | 2003 | 2005 | 2007 | 2009 Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds. 2001 | 2003 | 2005 | 2007 | 2009 2001 |2003 |2005 |2007 |2009 | Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds. 2001 |2003 |2005 |2007 |2009 | Paralympic exhibition events at the World Championships: To commemorate the 2005 World Championships in Athletics the Finnish government issued a high value commemorative euro coin, the €20 10th IAAF World Championships in Athletics commemorative coin, minted in 2005.
The obverse of the coin features Helsinki Olympic Stadium and above the stadium random waves express the feeling of the games. 2005 in athletics Results from the IAAF web site
The 5000 metres or 5000-meter run is a common long-distance running event in track and field. It is one of the track events in the Olympic Games and the World Championships in Athletics, run over 12.5 laps of a standard track. The same distance in road running is called a 5K run; the 5000 m has been present on the Olympic programme since 1912 since 1996 for women. Prior to 1996, women had competed in an Olympic 3000 metres race since 1984; the 5000 m has been held at each of the World Championships in Athletics in men's competition and since 1995 in women's. The event is the same length as the dolichos race held at the Ancient Olympic Games, introduced in 720 BCE. While run as an outdoor event, the 5000 m is sometimes run on an indoor track; the IAAF keeps official records for both indoor 5000 m track events. 5000 metres is the longer metric derivative of the 3 mile run, an event common in countries when they were using the imperial measurement system. 3 miles was used in the Commonwealth Games until 1966 and was a championship in the United States in non-Olympic years from 1953 to 1973.
It is 12 laps around a quarter mile 1320 ft 0 in track. Correct as of September 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 12:49.60: Kenenisa Bekele ran 12:40.18, 12:48.09, 12:48.25, 12:49.53, 12:49.60i. Haile Gebrselassie ran 12:41.86, 12:44.39. Daniel Komen ran 12:44.90, 12:45.09, 12:48.98. Hagos Gebrhiwet ran 12:47.53 Correct as of July 2018. Below is a list of other times equal or superior to 14:31.91: Almaz Ayana ran 14:14.32, 14:18.89, 14:25.84, 14:29.19. Tirunesh Dibaba ran 14:23.68, 14:30.40, 14:30.88. Genzebe Dibaba ran 14:19.76, 14:25.22, 14:26.89. Vivian Cheruiyot ran 14:26.17. Hellen Obiri ran 14:21.75, 14:22.37, 14:25.78, 14:25.88, 14:29.77. Senbere Teferi ran 14:29.82, 14:31.76. Letesenbet Gidey ran 14:30.29. Paula Radcliffe ran 14:31.42. "i" indicates indoor performance. National champions 5000 metres National champions 5000 metres IAAF list of 5000-metres records in XML ARRS: Yearly Rankings – 5000 metres Outdoor Track All-time Masters men's 5000 m list All-time Masters women's 5000 m list
Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc
The marathon is a long-distance race, completed by running, walking, or a run/walk strategy. There are wheelchair divisions; the marathon has an official distance of 42.195 kilometres run as a road race. The event was instituted in commemoration of the fabled run of the Greek soldier Pheidippides, a messenger from the Battle of Marathon to Athens, who reported the victory; the marathon was one of the original modern Olympic events in 1896, though the distance did not become standardized until 1921. More than 800 marathons are held throughout the world each year, with the vast majority of competitors being recreational athletes, as larger marathons can have tens of thousands of participants; the name Marathon comes from the legend of the Greek messenger. The legend states that he was sent from the battlefield of Marathon to Athens to announce that the Persians had been defeated in the Battle of Marathon, which took place in August or September, 490 BC, it is said that he ran the entire distance without stopping and burst into the assembly, exclaiming νενικήκαμεν, before collapsing and dying.
The account of the run from Marathon to Athens first appears in Plutarch's On the Glory of Athens in the 1st century AD, which quotes from Heraclides Ponticus's lost work, giving the runner's name as either Thersipus of Erchius or Eucles. Satirist Lucian of Samosata first gives an account closest to the modern version of the story, but is writing tongue in cheek, names the runner Philippides. There is debate about the historical accuracy of this legend; the Greek historian Herodotus, the main source for the Greco-Persian Wars, mentions Philippides as the messenger who ran from Athens to Sparta asking for help, ran back, a distance of over 240 kilometres each way. In some Herodotus manuscripts, the name of the runner between Athens and Sparta is given as Philippides. Herodotus makes no mention of a messenger sent from Marathon to Athens, relates that the main part of the Athenian army, having fought and won the grueling battle, fearing a naval raid by the Persian fleet against an undefended Athens, marched back from the battle to Athens, arriving the same day.
In 1879, Robert Browning wrote the poem Pheidippides. Browning's poem, his composite story, became part of late 19th century popular culture and was accepted as a historic legend. Mount Pentelicus stands between Marathon and Athens, which means that if Philippides made his famous run after the battle, he had to run around the mountain, either to the north or to the south; the latter and more obvious route matches exactly the modern Marathon-Athens highway, which follows the lay of the land southwards from Marathon Bay and along the coast takes a gentle but protracted climb westwards towards the eastern approach to Athens, between the foothills of Mounts Hymettus and Penteli, gently downhill to Athens proper. This route, as it existed when the Olympics were revived in 1896, was 40 kilometres long, this was the approximate distance used for marathon races. However, there have been suggestions that Philippides might have followed another route: a westward climb along the eastern and northern slopes of Mount Penteli to the pass of Dionysos, a straight southward downhill path to Athens.
This route is shorter, 35 kilometres, but includes a steep initial climb of more than 5 kilometres. When the modern Olympics began in 1896, the initiators and organizers were looking for a great popularizing event, recalling the glory of ancient Greece; the idea of a marathon race came from Michel Bréal, who wanted the event to feature in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. This idea was supported by Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympics, as well as by the Greeks; the Greeks staged a selection race for the Olympic marathon on 22 March 1896, won by Charilaos Vasilakos in 3 hours and 18 minutes. The winner of the first Olympic marathon, on 10 April 1896, was Spyridon Louis, a Greek water-carrier, in 2 hours 58 minutes and 50 seconds; the marathon of the 2004 Summer Olympics was run on the traditional route from Marathon to Athens, ending at Panathinaiko Stadium, the venue for the 1896 Summer Olympics. That men's marathon was won by Italian Stefano Baldini in 2 hours 10 minutes and 55 seconds, a record time for this route until the non-Olympics Athens Classic Marathon of 2014, when Felix Kandie lowered the course record to 2 hours 10 minutes and 37 seconds.
The women's marathon was introduced at the 1984 Summer Olympics and was won by Joan Benoit of the United States with a time of 2 hours 24 minutes and 52 seconds. It has become a tradition for the men's Olympic marathon to be the last event of the athletics calendar, on the final day of the Olympics. For many years the race finished inside the Olympic stadium; the men's marathon medals are awarded during the closing ceremony. The Olympic men's record is 2:06:32, set at the 2008 Summer Olympics by Samuel Kamau Wanjiru of Kenya; the Olympic women's record is 2:23:07, set at the 2012 Summer Olympics by Tiki Gelana
Monte Carlo refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located. Informally the name refers to a larger district, the Monte Carlo Quarter, which besides Monte Carlo/Spélugues includes the wards of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins, Saint Michel; the permanent population of the ward of Monte Carlo is about 3,500, while that of the quarter is about 15,000. Monaco has four traditional quarters. From west to east they are: Fontvieille, Monaco-Ville, La Condamine, Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo is situated on a prominent escarpment at the base of the Maritime Alps along the French Riviera. Near the quarter's western end is the world-famous Place du Casino, the gambling center which has made Monte Carlo "an international byword for the extravagant display and reckless dispersal of wealth", it is the location of the Hôtel de Paris, Café de Paris and Salle Garnier. The quarter's eastern part includes the community of Larvotto with Monaco's only public beach, as well as its new convention center, the Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort.
At the quarter's eastern border, one crosses into the French town of Beausoleil, just 8 kilometres to its east is the western border of Italy. By the 1850s Monaco's reigning family was bankrupt. At the time, a number of small towns in Europe were growing prosperous from the establishment of casinos, notably in German towns such as Baden-Baden and Homburg. In 1856 Charles III of Monaco granted a concession to Napoleon Langlois and Albert Aubert to establish a sea-bathing facility for the treatment of various diseases, to build a German-style casino in Monaco; the initial casino was not a success. The success of the casino grew largely due to the area's inaccessibility from much of Europe; the installation of the railway in 1868, brought with it an influx of people into Monte Carlo and saw it grow in wealth. Saint-Charles Church on Monte Carlo's Avenue Sainte-Charles was completed in 1883, it was restored in its centenary year. In 1911 when the Constitution divided the principality of Monaco in three municipalities, the municipality of Monte Carlo was created covering the existing neighborhoods of La Rousse/Saint Roman, Larvotto/Bas Moulins and Saint Michel.
The municipalities were merged into one in 1917, after accusations that the government was acting according to the motto "divide and conquer" and they were accorded the status of wards thereafter. Today, Monaco is divided into 10 wards, with an eleventh ward planned to encompass land reclaimed from the sea; the quarter of Monte Carlo was served by tramways from 1900 to 1953. In 2003 a new cruise ship pier was completed in the harbour at Monte Carlo. Monte Carlo has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, influenced by oceanic climate and humid subtropical climate; as a result, it has mild, rainy winters. Monte Carlo is host to most of the Circuit de Monaco, on which the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix takes place, it hosts world championship boxing bouts, the European Poker Tour Grand Final and the World Backgammon Championship as well as the Monaco International Auto Show, fashion shows and other events. Although the Monte Carlo Masters tennis tournament is billed as taking place in the community, its actual location is in the adjacent French commune of Roquebrune-Cap-Martin.
Monte Carlo has been visited by royalty as well as the public and movie stars for decades. The Monte Carlo Rally is one of most respected car rallies; the rally, takes place outside the Monte Carlo quarter and is run on French roads. Monte Carlo is one of Europe's leading tourist resorts, although many of the key tourist destinations are in other parts of Monaco, including such attractions as Monaco Cathedral, the Napoleon Museum, the Oceanographic Museum and aquarium, the Prince's Palace, all of which are in Monaco-Ville; the Opéra de Monte-Carlo or Salle Garnier was built to designs of the architect Charles Garnier, who designed the Paris opera house now known as the Palais Garnier. Although much smaller, the Salle Garnier is similar in style with decorations in red and gold, frescoes and sculptures all around the auditorium, it was inaugurated on 25 January 1879 with a performance by Sarah Bernhardt dressed as a nymph. The first opera performed there was Robert Planquette's Le Chevalier Gaston on 8 February 1879, and, followed by three more in the first season.
With the influence of the first director, Jules Cohen and the fortunate combination of Raou
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning 10,990 square kilometres in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the fourth-largest island country in the Caribbean. Jamaica lies about 145 kilometres south of Cuba, 191 kilometres west of Hispaniola. Inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people died of disease, the Spanish transplanted African slaves to Jamaica as labourers; the island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England conquered it and renamed it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with its plantation economy dependent on African slaves; the British emancipated all slaves in 1838, many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British utilized Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations.
The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962. With 2.9 million people, Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas, the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city, with a population of 937,700. Jamaicans have African ancestry, with significant European, Indian and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, Jamaica has a large diaspora in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States. Jamaica is an upper-middle income country with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year. Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen, her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.
The indigenous people, the Taíno, called the island Xaymaca in Arawakan, meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs". Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown", or "Ja", have derived from this. The Arawak and Taíno indigenous people, originating in South America, first settled on the island between 4000 and 1000 BC; when Christopher Columbus arrived in 1494, there were more than 200 villages ruled by caciques. The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated around the area now known as Old Harbour; the Taino still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any evidence of the Taino/yamaye. Today, few Jamaican natives remain. Most notably among some Maroon communities as well as within some communities in Cornwall County, Jamaica Christopher Columbus claimed Jamaica for Spain after landing there in 1494, his probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay, St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land.
One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, established in 1509 and abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy; the capital was moved to Spanish Town called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534. Spanish Town has the oldest cathedral of the British colonies in the Caribbean; the Spanish were forcibly evicted by the English at Ocho Rios in St. Ann. In the 1655 Invasion of Jamaica, the English, led by Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables, took over the last Spanish fort on the island; the name of Montego Bay, the capital of the parish of St. James, was derived from the Spanish name manteca bahía, alluding to the lard-making industry based on processing the numerous boars in the area. In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 1,500 black. By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations and "imported" more slaves, black people formed a majority of the population; the colony was shaken and destroyed by the 1692 Jamaica earthquake.
The Irish in Jamaica formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of Jamaica by Cromwell's forces in 1655; the majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdoms at the time. Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century. Jews were expelled from Spain in 1492 and forcibly converted to Christianity in Portugal, during a period of persecution by the Inquisition; some Spanish and Portuguese Jewish refugees went to the Netherlands and England, from there to Jamaica. Others were part of the Iberian colonisation of the New World, after overtly converting to Catholicism, as only Catholics were allowed in the Spanish colonies. By 1660, Jamaica had become a refuge for Jews in the New World attracting those, expelled from Spain and Portugal.
An early group of Jews arrived in 1510, soon after the son of Christopher Columbus settled on the island. Working as merchants and traders, the