SIG Sauer is the brand name used by two sister companies involved in the design and manufacture of firearms. The original company, SIG Sauer GmbH, is a German company, formed in 1976 as a partnership between Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft of Switzerland and J. P. Sauer & Sohn of Germany. SIG no longer has any firearms business, their firearms subsidiary, SIG Arms AG, was sold to L&O Holding of Emsdetten and was renamed Swiss Arms. L&O Holding is the parent company of SIG Sauer GmbH. A separate company was founded in the US in 1985 with the name SIGARMS to import and distribute SIG Sauer firearms into the United States; this company was renamed SIG Sauer Inc. in 2007 and since 2000 has been organizationally separate from SIG Sauer GmbH. The origins of the SIG Sauer company lie in the company named Schweizerische Waggon Fabrik or Swiss Wagon Factory, founded in 1853 by Friedrich Peyer im Hof, Heinrich Moser and Johann Conrad Neher. In 1860, a state-of-the-art rifle of their creation won a competition by Switzerland's Federal Ministry of Defense, resulting in the award of a contract to produce 30,000 Prelaz-Burnand rifles.
The Prélaz-Burnand 1859 was invented by gunsmith Jean-Louis Joseph Prélaz and an army officer Edouard Burnand and adopted as rifle M1863. Upon receiving the contract to produce rifles the company name was changed to Schweizerische Industrie Gesellschaft, German for "Swiss Industrial Company", reflecting the new emphasis on their production; the SIG P210 pistol was developed in 1947 based on the French Modèle 1935 pistol. It was adopted by the Swiss military in 1949 as the "Pistole 49"; this single-action semi-automatic P210 brought SIG much acclaim, due to the precision manufacturing processes employed in its manufacture and its resultant accuracy and reliability. The P210 frame design incorporates external rails that fit with the slide, thus eliminating play in the mechanism during firing; the P210 was noted for its extreme accuracy. The Petter-Browning patent, a refinement of the Browning Hi-Power, John Moses Browning's last design, created for the French 1935 pistol, but not adopted. In the 1970s SIG purchased both Hämmerli and J. P. Sauer and Sohn, which resulted in the formation of SIG Sauer.
SIG's remaining firearms business was sold in the year 2000 to O Holding. It is now known as Swiss Arms. In 2004, according to Cohen the company was with just 130 employees. Cohen decided to add AR-15-pattern rifles to the company's product mix, which he credits with saving the company. By 2016, it was selling more than 43,000 firearms a year. There are now two SIG Sauer companies, one in New Hampshire, US, the other in Eckenforde, Germany. Since its creation in the US, all new SIG Sauer designs presented by this company have been designed in the US. A new design of firearm was created in response to the Swiss military and police requirement for a handgun to replace the P210; the new design was simplified. It should properly be called the SIG Sauer System, in fact the labeling on one of the first SIG Sauer handguns. A modified SIG Sauer P220 design was produced for the Browning Arms company in 1977. On the right side of the slide are the words "SIG Sauer System"; this was the first SIG Sauer P220 type sold in the US.
When the sales of the Browning BDA ceased in 1980 the P220 was sold in its own form. Swiss law limits the ability of Swiss companies to export firearms. Swiss companies which wish to do this have to do so by using a foreign partner. In the case of SIG they chose the German firm of J. P. Sauer & Sohn. In partnering with Sauer, SIG combined their expertise in firearms design; the Sauer 38H had been produced in competition with other German makers such as Mauser and Walther at a time with new designs began to feature a double/single action trigger. The Double Action trigger mechanism combined with the advanced safety features including the hammer lowering decocking lever, were contributed by Sauer to the new P220 design. SIG Sauer's line of handguns began in 1975 with the SIG Sauer SIG P220. Prior to World War II, Sauer had been a maker of shotguns and hunting rifles. During the war, they produced a handgun, the Sauer 38H, but afterwards had withdrawn from this market. With SIG as their partner/owner, Sauer returned to the business of manufacturing handguns.
In January 1985, SIG Sauer established a subsidiary, SIGARMS, in Tyson's Corner, Virginia, to import the P220 and P230 models into the US. Two years the firm moved to a larger facility in Herndon and introduced models P225, P226, P228. SIGARMS moved to Exeter, New Hampshire, in 1990 where production facilities had been established and production began on the P229 in 1992. SIGARMS and its European sister companies were bought by Michael Lüke and Thomas Ortmeier in October 2000. In 2007 SIGARMS changed its name to SIG Sauer Inc. According to SIG Sauer, one-third of US police use SIG firearms. SIG Sauer operates a firearms training school in the US with courses taught by experienced instructors many of whom have military and/or police backgrounds. SIG Sauer Academy, in Epping, New Hampshire. Sig Sauer produces a wide range of accessories for the firearms and sporting goods industry; the US military has produced a requirement for a new handgun to replace the current M9 model. In February 2016, bids were submitted by 12 companies to compete for this contract, expected to result in purchases of more than 500,000 pieces.
On 1 July 2016, SIG Sauer was reported to be one of three
United States Department of the Air Force
The Department of the Air Force is one of the three Military Departments within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Department of the Air Force was formed on September 18, 1947, per the National Security Act of 1947 and it includes all elements and units of the United States Air Force; the Department of the Air Force is headed by the Secretary of the Air Force, a civilian, who has the authority to conduct all of its affairs, subject to the authority and control of the Secretary of Defense. The Secretary of the Air Force's principal deputy is the Under Secretary of the Air Force, their senior staff assistants in the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force are four Assistant Secretaries for Acquisition, Financial Management & Comptroller, Environment & Logistics, Manpower & Reserve Affairs and a General Counsel. The highest-ranking military officer in the department is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, the senior uniformed adviser to the Secretary, represents the Air Force on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, heads the Air Staff and is assisted in the latter capacity by the Vice Chief of Staff of the Air Force.
By direction of the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Air Force assigns Air Force units – apart from those units performing duties enumerated in 10 U. S. C. § 8013 -- to the Commanders of the Combatant Commands. Only the Secretary of Defense has the authority to approve transfer of forces between Combatant Commands. See Structure of the United States armed forces According to the FY2019_Budget_Request_Overview_Book | 8-12, the Department of Defense claims the Department of the Air Force is as follows *$ in Millions Numbers May Not Add Due to Rounding On March 1st, 2019, the Department of Defense sent a proposal to Congress that would establish the United States Space Force as an independent military service within the Department of the Air Force. In addition, the proposal would create an Undersecretary of the Air Force for the Space Force to provide civilian oversight, as well as providing the Space Force with a distinct budget. Organizational structure and hierarchy of the United States Air Force Department of the Air Force Police Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations Air Force Cross Department of the Air Force Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service Witt v. Department of the Air Force "Airman Magazine: The Book 2010 – Personnel Facts and Figures".
Airman Magazine, Volume 54 Number 3. Official site Department of the Air Force in the Federal Register
Awards and decorations of the United States Armed Forces
The United States Armed Forces awards and decorations are the medals, service ribbons, specific badges which recognize military service and personal accomplishments while a member of the U. S. Armed Forces; such awards are a means to outwardly display the highlights of a service member's career. While each service has its own order of precedence, the following general rules apply to all services: U. S. military personal decorations U. S. military unit awards U. S. non-military personal decorations Presidential awards National Medals DoD and JCS Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Distinguished Service awards Agency-specific Superior Service awards Agency-specific Meritorious Service awards Agency-specific Commendation awards Agency-specific Achievement awards Civilian unit awards Civilian service awards U. S. non-military unit awards U. S. military campaign and service medals U. S. military service and training awards U. S. Merchant Marine awards and non-military service awards Foreign military personal decorations Foreign military unit awards Non-U.
S. Service awards Foreign military service awards Marksmanship awards Awards of U. S. military societies and other organizations6a 6b State awards of the National Guard Notes on branch-specific exceptions to the above: 1a In the Army, unit awards are worn as a separate grouping, on the right side of the uniform and without frames, are worn in the order of precedence from the wearer’s right to left. 1b In the Navy, unit award ribbons are only worn on the right side of the uniform, when wearing full medals on the left side. Arrange ribbons in order of precedence in rows from top down, inboard to outboard. For U. S. Navy, the USPHS unit awards are considered unit awards. However, if Navy personnel are awarded USPHS personal decorations the USPHS order of precedence would apply. 2 Some awards, despite being ribbon-only, are higher in precedence. The Navy & Coast Guard Combat Action Ribbons and the Coast Guard's Commandant's Letter of Commendation Ribbon are included with personal decorations, while two Air Force ribbon-only awards and the Coast Guard Enlisted Person of the Year Ribbon are considered in the same category as service medals.
3a Marksmanship Awards in the Air Force are considered training awards. 3b The Army and Marine Corps issue Marksmanship Qualification Badges instead of Marksmanship awards. 4 For Navy, Merchant Marine awards are considered U. S. non-military awards. 5 The obsolete Philippine Commonwealth service awards, when still listed in the order of precedence, come before the United Nations medals or before the Merchant Marine awards. 6a For Navy and ribbons from military societies, such as the Army and Navy Union of the United States, worn in the order earned may be worn after marksmanship awards. Medals and badges issued by these societies may be worn only while attending meetings or conventions or while participating in parades or other ceremonies as a member of these organizations. 6b For Army, no allowance of military society medals or ribbons is prescribed. More badges of the Army and Navy Union of the United States of America are authorized for such active duty ANU members without further restriction.
Badges of other civic and quasi-military societies of the United States, international organizations of a military nature may be worn with restrictions. These include badges of organizations composed of members who served in a U. S. force during the Revolutionary War. The badges are worn only while the wearer is attending meetings or functions of such organizations, or on occasions of ceremony. Personnel will not wear these badges to and from such events. Notes: Precedence of particular awards will vary among the different branches of service. All awards and decorations may be awarded to any service member unless otherwise designated by name or notation. Note: ^ The precedence of the Purple Heart was before the Good Conduct Medals until changed to its current precedence in 1985. Inter-service Air Force Army Coast Guard Navy and Marine CorpsTo denote additional achievements or multiple awards of the same decoration, the United States military maintains a number of award devices which are pinned to service ribbons and medals.
Awards and decorations of the National Guard Awards and decorations of the state defense forces U. S. military personnel having received these awards have either been discharged or retired for a substantial length of time and/or are deceased. The following decorations were designed for issuance with an approved medal, but were either never approved for presentation or were discontinued bef
Awards and decorations of the United States Air Force
Awards and decorations of the United States Air Force are military decorations which are issued by the Department of the Air Force to Air Force service members and members of other military branches serving under Air Force commands. Of all five branches of the United States Armed Forces, the United States Air Force maintains the highest number of active awards and decorations, including many without equivalent in any other service. United States Air Force awards were first created in 1947. At that time, Air Force members were eligible to receive most U. S. Army decorations and Air Force veterans of World War II were entitled to continue displaying World War II campaign medals. In 1962, following the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Air Force began a concentrated effort to create its own array of awards and Air Force members could no longer receive decorations of the United States Army as a matter of course. By the end of the Vietnam War, most of the modern day Air Force decorations had been established and Air Force members were entitled to receive and wear all inter-service awards and decorations.
By the start of the 21st century, the Air Force had created several new ribbons as well as an Air Force specific campaign medal known as the Air and Space Campaign Medal. In February 2006, the United States Air Force ceased issuing new awards of the Good Conduct Medal, the medal was reinstated in February 2009; the AFGCM has been back-awarded to those who were in service during the three-year break in new awards. By retroactively awarding those who deserved the medal, it is as if the medal had never been taken away. Air Force members are eligible to receive approved foreign awards and approved international decorations; the issued active Air Force decorations are as follows: Air Force Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service: similar to the military Distinguished Service Medal. A gold-colored medal bearing the Air Force coat of arms with a wreath of laurel leaves. Ribbon is dark-blue silk with three dotted golden-orange lines in the center. Air Force Valor Award: similar to the Airman's Medal.
Gold-colored medal design bearing the Air Force thunderbolt on an equilateral triangle surmounted by the Air Force eagle perched on a scroll inscribed "Valor" within an olive wreath. Ribbon is light blue with four yellow stripes, two dark blue stripes, one red stripe in the center. Air Force Outstanding Civilian Career Service Award: similar to the military Legion of Merit. Bronze medal bearing the Air Force coat of arms with a wreath of laurel leaves. Ribbon is white trimmed in maroon with three maroon stripes in the center. Air Force Meritorious Civilian Service Award: similar to the military Meritorious Service Medal. Sterling silver medal and lapel emblem bearing the Air Force coat of arms with a wreath of laurel leaves. Lapel emblem with ruby indicates receipt of more than one Meritorious Civilian Service Award. Air Force Command Award for Valor: similar to the military Meritorious Service Medal when awarded for heroism. Sterling silver medal of the same design as the Air Force Valor Award.
Ribbon is one red stripe in the center. Air Force Exemplary Civilian Service Award: For outstanding service supporting a command mission for at least one year or a single act that contributed to command mission. Similar to the military Commendation Medal. Air Force Civilian Achievement Award: For outstanding service for a single, specific act or accomplishment in support of the unit’s mission or goals. Similar to the military Achievement Medal. Secretary of the Air Force Distinguished Public Service Award: For distinguished public service to the Air Force which translates into substantial contributions to the accomplishment of the Air Force mission; this is the highest public service award bestowed to private citizens by the Secretary of the Air Force. Chief of Staff of the Air Force Award for Exceptional Public Service: For Sustained unselfish dedication and exceptional support to the Air Force. Air Force Exceptional Service Award: For exceptional service to the United States Air Force or for an act of heroism involving voluntary risk of life.
Air Force Scroll of Appreciation: For meritorious achievement or service that are voluntary and performed as a public service or patriotic in nature. Air Force Commander's Award for Public Service: For service or achievements which contribute to the accomplishment of the mission of an Air Force activity, command, or staff agency. In 2018, as part of the Air Force's initiative to reduced directive publications, the eight-page AFI 36-2805 was released, superseding 30 previous AFIs. Guidance for special awards was moved to a website at https://access.afpc.af.mil/. Cheney Award Mackay Trophy 12 Outstanding Airmen of the Year Lance P. Sijan USAF Leadership Award USAF First Sergeant of the Year Award General and Mrs. Jerome F. O'Malley Award Joan Orr Air Force Spouse of the Year Award Koren Kolligian Jr. Trophy General Thomas D. White USAF Space Trophy General Wilbur L. Creech Maintenance Excellence Award Dr. James G. Roche Sustainment Excellence Award General Lew Allen, Jr. Trophy Lieutenant General Leo Marquez Award Brigadier General Sarah P.
Wells Award Aviator Valor Award General John P. Ju
The Marksmanship Medal is a United States Navy and the U. S. Coast is the highest award one may receive for weapons qualification; the Marksmanship Medal is the equivalent of the Expert Marksmanship Badge in the U. S. Army and U. S. Marine Corps. Additionally, select State National Guard organizations award marksmanship medals to guardsman who achieve some of the highest aggregate scores at state-level marksmanship competitions; the Marksmanship Medal is awarded for qualifying as an expert marksman on either the 9×19mm Beretta M9.40 S&W SIG P229 DAK, or M16 rifle. To qualify at the expert level, a superior score must be obtained on an approved weapons qualification course; the standard Navy weapons qualification course for pistol consists of several courses of fire from strong-side supported, weak-side supported, strong-side supported positions. For the rifle, the Navy qualification course consists of firing from a prone positions; those qualifying as an expert marksman are authorized to wear the Marksmanship Medal, awarded as two separate decorations for rifle or pistol qualifications.
Those having qualified on both pistol and rifle may receive both medals for simultaneous wear. The Marksmanship Medal is worn as a full-sized medal on dress uniforms. On a duty uniform all successful qualifiers may wear the award as the standard Marksmanship Ribbon; those qualifying as an expert are authorized to wear the Expert device on the ribbon and those qualifying as a sharpshooter are authorized a "S" device for that ribbon. The Navy Marksmanship Medals were first issued in 1969; the Alaska Department of Military and Veterans Affairs awards the Alaska Adjutant General's Marksmanship Proficiency Medals, one for rifle and one for pistol, to the top ten guardsman with the highest aggregate scores at the Alaska National Guard Adjutant General’s Match. The winners of these awards are selected to join the state's marksmanship team to represent the Alaska National Guard at the Winston P. Wilson Rifle and Pistol Championships for a chance to win the Chief's Fifty Marksmanship Badge. A red and blue ribbon is used to represent both medals.
Marksmanship Device Marksmanship Badge Awards and decorations of the United States military
Marksmanship badges (United States)
In the United States, a marksmanship badge is a U. S. military badge or a civilian badge, presented to personnel upon successful completion of a weapons qualification course or high achievement in an official marksmanship competition. Today, the U. S. Army and the U. S. Marine Corps are the only military services. However, marksmanship medals and/or marksmanship ribbons are issued by the U. S. Navy, U. S. Coast Guard, U. S. Air Force for weapons qualifications. For non-military personnel, different U. S. law enforcement organizations and the National Rifle Association issue marksmanship qualification badges to those involved in law enforcement. Additionally, the Civilian Marksmanship Program and the NRA issue marksmanship qualification badges to U. S. civilians. Most of these organizations and the U. S. National Guard awarded marksmanship competition badges to the people they support who succeed in official competitions; the U. S. Army issues their marksmanship qualification badges for a variety of weapons while the U.
S. Marine Corps only issues theirs for the service service pistol. For civilians, the CMP issues the Army Marksmanship Qualification Badges for rifle, small bore rifle and small bore pistol as well as its own air rifle badges. Of those U. S. law enforcement organizations that issue marksmanship qualification badges, most issue them for their service pistols while others will issue them for rifle and/or shotgun. The NRA issues marksmanship qualification badges for air rifles, rifles and shotguns. For marksmanship competition badges, the U. S. military award rifle and pistol competition badges. S. National Guard award marksmanship competition badges for machine gun and sniper rifle; the CMP awards marksmanship competition badges for air rifle, pistol, and.22 rimfire pistol while the NRA awards them for air rifle, small bore rifle and semi-automatic pistol. The U. S. military and CMP marksmanship qualification badges are awarded in three grades: expert and marksman while their marksmanship competition badges are awarded in three to four grades: distinguished and bronze for the U.
S. Army, U. S. Coast Guard, U. S. civilians. S. Navy and U. S. Marine Corps. S. Air Force; the NRA marksmanship qualification badges are awarded in five to six grades: distinguished expert, sharpshooter, marksman first-class and pro-marksman. U. S. law enforcement marksmanship qualification badges tend to follow NRA guidelines for marksmanship qualification badges or have their own criteria and badge structure. The NRA and the U. S. National Guard marksmanship competition badges are only awarded at one grade with the exception of the NRA's Law Enforcement Distinguished Program, which awards a Law Enforcement Excellence-in-Competition Badge for those officers who earn their first points towards one of the law enforcement distinguished badges. Starting in the late 19th century, the U. S. Army began awarding marksmanship qualification badges to their Soldiers that met specific weapon qualification standards. In the early 20th century, the U. S. Marine Corps and U. S. Navy began awarding marksmanship qualification badges as well.
The U. S. Marine Corps began by awarding Army Marksmanship Qualification Badges but developed its own badge design, based on the original U. S. Army designs from the early 1900s; the U. S. Navy developed its own marksmanship qualification badge but retired it after only ten years in lieu of awarding marksmanship ribbons and medals. For U. S. civilians, the Office of the Director of Civilian Marksmanship, now known as the Corporation for the Promotion of Rifle Practice and Firearm Safety, the National Rifle Association began promoting civilian marksmanship in 1903. The CPRPFS's Civilian Marksmanship Program awards Army Marksmanship Qualification Badges to civilians who meet U. S. Army weapon qualification standards as well as its own badges to youth for air rifle marksmanship; the NRA began awarding its own marksmanship qualification badges to civilians in 1918 and today has two primary marksmanship proficiency programs, the Winchester/NRA Marksmanship Qualification Program and the Explorer Service Handgun Qualification Program.
Additionally, the NRA supports numerous other firearm proficiency programs throughout the United States, such as those found within various U. S. law enforcement organizations. The U. S. Army award Army Marksmanship Qualification Badges to their Soldiers, U. S. Army uniformed civilian guards, foreign military personnel, while the CMP awards these same badges to U. S. civilians who qualify at three different qualification levels: expert and marksman. Suspended from the badge are Army Weapon Qualification Clasps that indicate the type of weapon the individual has qualified to use; the following list of Army Weapon Qualification Clasps are authorized under U. S. Army Pamphlet 670-1: The level at which one qualifies is dependent on the weapon, firing range, the course of fire. For example, to earn an Army Marksmanship Qualification Badge for Pistol at the Combat Pistol Qualification Course, one must have a combined hit count of 26 out of 30 for expert, 21 out of 30 for sharpshooter, 16 out of 30 for marksman on firing tables one through five.
Regardless of the Soldier's overall score, everyo
The M14 rifle the United States Rifle, Caliber 7.62 mm, M14, is an American select-fire rifle that fires 7.62×51mm NATO ammunition. It became the standard-issued rifle for the U. S. military in 1959 replacing the M1 Garand rifle in the U. S. Army by 1961 and the U. S. Marine Corps by 1965 until being replaced by the M16 rifle beginning in 1964; the M14 was used by U. S. Army and Marine Corps for basic and advanced individual training from the mid-1960s to the early 1970s; the M14 was the last American battle rifle issued in quantity to U. S. military personnel. It was replaced by the M16 assault rifle, a lighter weapon using a smaller caliber intermediate cartridge; the M14 rifle remains in limited service in all branches of the U. S. military as an accurized competition weapon, a ceremonial weapon by honor guards, color guards, drill teams and ceremonial guards, sniper rifle/designated marksman rifle. Civilian semi-automatic models are used for hunting, target shooting, shooting competitions; the M14 is the basis for the M21 and M25 sniper rifles which were replaced by the M24 Sniper Weapon System.
A new variant of the M14, the Mk 14 Enhanced Battle Rifle has been in service since 2002. The M14 was developed from a long line of experimental weapons based upon the M1 Garand rifle. Although the M1 was among the most advanced infantry rifles of the late 1930s, it was not an ideal weapon. Modifications were beginning to be made to the basic M1 rifle's design during the last months of World War II. Changes included adding automatic firing capability and replacing the eight-round en bloc clips with a detachable box magazine holding 20 rounds. Winchester and Springfield Armory's own John Garand offered different conversions. Garand's design, the T20, was the most popular, T20 prototypes served as the basis for a number of Springfield test rifles from 1945 through the early 1950s. In 1945, Earle Harvey of Springfield Armory designed a different rifle, the T25, for the new T65.30 light rifle cartridge at the direction of Col. Rene Studler serving in the Pentagon; the two men were transferred to Springfield Armory in late 1945.
The T25 was designed to use the T65 service cartridge, a Frankford Arsenal design based upon.30-06 cartridge case used in the M1 service rifle, but shortened to the length of the.300 Savage case. Although shorter than the.30-06, with less powder capacity, the T65 cartridge retained the ballistics and energy of the.30-06 due to the use of a developed ball powder made by Olin Industries. After experimenting with several bullet designs, the T65 was finalized for adoption as the 7.62×51mm NATO cartridge. Olin Industries introduced the cartridge on the commercial market as the.308 Winchester. After a series of revisions by Earle Harvey and other members of the.30 light rifle design group following the 1950 Fort Benning tests, the T25 was renamed the T47. The T44 prototype service rifle was not principally designed by any single engineer at Springfield Armory, but was a conventional design developed on a shoestring budget as an alternative to the T47. With minimal funding available, the earliest T44 prototypes used T20E2 receivers fitted with magazine filler blocks and re-barreled for 7.62×51mm NATO, with the long operating rod/piston of the M1 replaced by the T47's gas cut-off system.
Lloyd Corbett, an engineer in Harvey's rifle design group, added various refinements to the T44 design, including a straight operating rod and a bolt roller to reduce friction. The T44 participated in a competitive service rifle competition conducted by the Infantry Board at Fort Benning, Georgia against the Springfield T47 and the T48, a variant of Fabrique Nationale's FN FAL; the T47, which did not have a bolt roller and performed worse in dust and cold weather tests than both the T44 and the T48, was dropped from consideration in 1953. During 1952–53, testing proved the T48 and the T44 comparable in performance, with the T48 holding an advantage in ease of field stripping and dust resistance, as well as a longer product development lead time. A Newsweek article in July 1953 hinted that the T48/FAL might be selected over the T44. During the winter of 1953–54, both rifles competed in the winter rifle trials at U. S. Army facilities in the Arctic. Springfield Armory engineers, anxious to ensure the selection of the T44, had been specially preparing and modifying the test T44 rifles for weeks with the aid of the armory's cold chamber, including redesign of the T44 gas regulator and custom modifications to magazines and other parts to reduce friction and seizing in extreme cold.
The T48 rifles received no such special preparation, in the continued cold weather testing began to experience sluggish gas system functioning, aggravated by the T48's close-fitting surfaces between bolt and carrier, carrier and receiver. FN engineers opened the gas ports in an attempt to improve functioning, but this caused early/violent extraction and broken parts as a result of the increased pressures; as a result, the T44 was ranked superior in cold weather operation to the T48. The Arctic Test Board report made it clear that the T48 needed improvement and that the U. S. would not adopt the T48 until it had completed another round of Arctic tests the following winter. In June 1954, funding became available to manufacture newly fabricated T44 receivers specially designed for the shorter T65 cartridge; this one change to the T44 design saved a pound in rifle weight over that of the M1 Garand. Tests at Fort Benning with the T44 and T48 continued through the summer and fall of 1956. By this time, the T48/FAL rifles had been so impro