Markup language

In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way, syntactically distinguishable from the text, meaning when the document is processed for display, the markup language is not shown, is only used to format the text. The idea and terminology evolved from the "marking up" of paper manuscripts, traditionally written with a red or blue pencil on authors' manuscripts; such "markup" includes both content corrections, typographic instructions, such as to make a heading larger or boldface. In digital media, this "blue pencil instruction text" was replaced by tags which ideally indicate what the parts of the document are, rather than details of how they might be shown on some display; this lets authors avoid formatting every instance of the same kind of thing redundantly. It avoids the specification of fonts and dimensions which may not apply to many users. Early markup systems included typesetting instructions, as troff, TeX and LaTeX do, while Scribe and most modern markup systems name components, process those names to apply formatting or other processing, as in the case of XML.

Some markup languages, such as the used HTML, have pre-defined presentation semantics—meaning that their specification prescribes some aspects of how to present the structured data on particular media. HTML, like DocBook, Open eBook, JATS and countless others, is a specific application of the markup meta-languages SGML and XML; that is, SGML and XML enable users to specify particular schemas, which determine just what elements and other features are permitted, where. One important characteristic of most markup languages is that they allow mixing markup directly into text streams; this happens all the time in documents: A few words in a sentence must be emphasized, or identified as a proper name, defined term, or other special item. This is quite different structurally from traditional databases, where it is by definition impossible to have data, within a record, but not within any field. Markup for natural language texts must maintain ordering: it would not suffice to make each paragraph of a book into a "paragraph" record, where those records do not maintain order.

The noun markup is derived from the traditional publishing practice called "marking up" a manuscript, which involves adding handwritten annotations in the form of conventional symbolic printer's instructions — in the margins and the text of a paper or a printed manuscript. It is a jargon used in coding proof. For centuries, this task was done by skilled typographers known as "markup men" or "d markers" who marked up text to indicate what typeface and size should be applied to each part, passed the manuscript to others for typesetting by hand or machine. Markup was commonly applied by editors, proofreaders and graphic designers, indeed by document authors, all of whom might mark other things, such as corrections, etc. There are three main general categories of electronic markup, articulated in Coombs, et al. and Bray. Presentational markup The kind of markup used by traditional word-processing systems: binary codes embedded within document text that produce the WYSIWYG effect; such markup is hidden from the human users authors and editors.

Properly speaking, such systems use procedural and/or descriptive markup underneath, but convert it to "present" to the user as geometric arrangements of type. Procedural markup Markup is embedded in text which provides instructions for programs to process the text. Well-known examples include troff, TeX, PostScript, it is expected that the processor will run through the text from beginning to end, following the instructions as encountered. Text with such markup is edited with the markup visible and directly manipulated by the author. Popular procedural markup systems include programming constructs, macros or subroutines are defined so that complex sets of instructions can be invoked by a simple name; this is much faster, less error-prone, maintenance-friendly than re-stating the same or similar instructions in many places. Descriptive markup Markup is used to label parts of the document for what they are, rather than how they should be processed. Well-known systems that provide many such labels include LaTeX, HTML, XML.

The objective is to decouple the structure of the document from any particular treatment or rendition of it. Such markup is described as "semantic". An example of a descriptive markup would be HTML's <cite> tag, used to label a citation. Descriptive markup — sometimes called logical markup or conceptual markup — encourages authors to write in a way that describes the material conceptually, rather than visually. There is considerable blurring of the lines between the types of markup. In modern word-processing systems, presentational markup is saved in descriptive-markup-oriented systems such as XML, processed procedurally by implementations; the programming in procedural-markup systems, such as TeX, may be used to create higher-level markup systems that are more descriptive in nature, such as LaTeX. In the recent years, a number of small and unstandardized markup languages have been developed to allow authors to create formatted text via web browsers, such as the ones used in wikis and in web forums.

These are sometimes called lightweight markup languages. Markdown and the markup lan

Jo Kennedy

Jo Kennedy is an Australian actress, film director and screenwriter. She is best known for playing Jackie in the 1982 film Starstruck. Though the film never had a proper US release, it found a cult following on cable television; the film spawned a soundtrack album, which includes the hit single, "Body and Soul", sung by Kennedy. It was written by Tim Finn of Split Enz; the single made number five on the Australian Kent Music Report Singles Chart in May 1982. She won the Silver Bear for Best Actress at the 35th Berlin International Film Festival for her role in the 1985 film Wrong World. Kennedy featured in The Pack of Women, she appeared on the soundtrack album and was nominated for an ARIA Award for Best Female Artist in 1987. She was nominated for an AFI Award for Best Actress in a Leading Role for the film Tender Hooks in 1988. Kennedy's roles include the telemovie Waiting at the Royal, for which she was nominated for an AFI Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Telefeature or Mini Series in 2000.

Starstruck Wrong World Tender Hooks Golden Braid The Flying Doctors Waiting at the Royal Jo Kennedy on IMDb

Battle of Lier

The Battle of Lier was fought on 2 August 1814 between Sweden and the newly independent Norway as part of the Swedish-Norwegian War of 1814. The battle was the first major action of the war, the Norwegian victory served as an important part to boost morale among the Norwegian troops; this was the second time during the Napoleonic Wars that a battle had taken place at Lier, the first was in 1808. Major General Carl Pontus Gahn had been given the order to advance on the Norwegian fortress-city of Kongsvinger, without exposing his flanks, in order to draw Norwegian troops stationed other places in the country to Kongsvinger to defend the strategically placed town; this would leave other places in Norway temporarily weakened and give the Swedish troops an opportunity to initiate offensives elsewhere. The plan had been worked out by Crown Prince Jean Baptiste Bernadotte. On 31 July the Swedish troops, under the command of Major General Carl Pontus Gahn, crossed the Norwegian border near Eidskog; this forced Christian Frederik to order troops from Høland to head to Eidskog in order to defend against the Swedish advance.

Major General Gahn's troops followed the main road towards Kongsvinger and faced early resistance from the Norwegian outposts at Matrand. But since the Norwegian vanguard was far weaker than the Swedish, they were driven back and the Swedish forces camped by Brenna and the road to Pramhus; the Norwegian vanguard retreated back to Kongetorp where they met with Lt. Colonel Andreas Samuel Krebs, who took the initiative that they would pull back to Lier entrenchment, a much better defensive position; the Swedish forces continued their advance towards Kongsvinger on 2 August. The main column followed Kongeveien from Skotterud; the two forces met again at Åbogen. At 15 p.m. the Swedish troops continued their split up again when they reached Flygind. Two of the companies would go from there to Tarven, a company would follow the main road, a fourth company would go to the left of the main road towards the Lier entrenchment's right flank; the companies that would attack Tarven met the superior Norwegian troops there and had to be reinforced with a battalion.

They drove the Norwegians back until the artillery from the positions at Lier intervened and the Swedish attack broke down. At the main post, the Norwegian vanguard was driven back to the Lier entrenchment, but the Swedish troops came under heavy fire when they appeared in the edge of the woods and they were too weak to attack the entrenchment. Major General Gahn reinforced them with two companies who tried to take the entrenchment, but were stopped every time; when the Norwegian reserves were put in to drive the Swedish troops back the fighting died out. At 21 p.m. the Swedish troops had no ammunition left, they had failed to secure any strategic location along the road to Kongsvinger. Gahn therefore decided to retreat back to Matrand; the fighting at Lier had been hard, there were far greater losses than there had been in 1808. This is undoubtedly. In particular, the Swedish forces had suffered heavy losses in relation to the Norwegians. Lt. Colonel Krebs was hailed as a hero and promoted for the victory at Lier as well as the subsequent Battle of Matrand on August 5.

His victories were the only ones in an otherwise despondent campaign and obtained the Norwegian envoys a valuable starting point for negotiations leading to the Swedes acceptance of the Norwegian Constituent Assembly of Eidsvoll. Norwegian-Swedish War of 1814