Kružberk is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It lies 20 km from Opava; the village was first mentioned in a written document in 1377. Kružberk Dam on the Moravice River was constructed in the village in 1948-1955. Official website
Kobeřice is a village in Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It is part of micro-region Hlučínsko, it has around 3,200 inhabitants. Official website
Chvalíkovice is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. As of March 7, 2006, the population was 687; the first written mention of the village was in 1445. Official website
Hněvošice is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. It is part of micro-region Hlučínsko, it has around 1,000 inhabitants. Official website
Baroque architecture is the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late 16th-century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion to express the triumph of the Catholic Church. It was characterized by new explorations of form and shadow, dramatic intensity. Common features of Baroque architecture included gigantism of proportions. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and religious forces, the Baroque was at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation. Baroque architecture and its embellishments were on the one hand more accessible to the emotions and on the other hand, a visible statement of the wealth and power of the Catholic Church; the new style manifested itself in particular in the context of the new religious orders, like the Theatines and the Jesuits who aimed to improve popular piety.
Lutheran Baroque art, such as the example of Dresden Frauenkirche, developed as a confessional marker of identity, in response to the Great Iconoclasm of Calvinists. The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the papal reigns of Urban VIII, Innocent X and Alexander VII, spanning from 1623 to 1667; the three principal architects of this period were the sculptor Gianlorenzo Bernini, Francesco Borromini and the painter Pietro da Cortona and each evolved his own distinctively individual architectural expression. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in regional variations such as Sicilian Baroque architecture or that of Naples and Lecce. To the north, the Theatine architect Camillo-Guarino Guarini, Bernardo Vittone and Sicilian born Filippo Juvarra contributed Baroque buildings to the city of Turin and the Piedmont region. A synthesis of Bernini and Cortona's architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe, which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style.
By the middle of the 17th century, the Baroque style had found its secular expression in the form of grand palaces, first in France—with the Château de Maisons near Paris by François Mansart—and throughout Europe. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was promoted by the Jesuits. Michelangelo's late Roman buildings St. Peter's Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture, his pupil Giacomo della Porta continued this work in Rome in the façade of the Jesuit church Il Gesù, which leads directly to the most important church façade of the early Baroque, Santa Susanna, by Carlo Maderno. Distinctive features of Baroque architecture can include: in churches, broader naves and sometimes given oval forms fragmentary or deliberately incomplete architectural elements dramatic use of light. Colonialism required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the first to move in this direction. Colonialism brought in huge amounts of wealth, not only in the silver, extracted from the mines in Bolivia and elsewhere, but in the resultant trade in commodities, such as sugar and tobacco.
The need to control trade routes and slavery, which lay in the hands of the French during the 17th century, created an endless cycle of wars between the colonial powers: the French religious wars, the Thirty Years' War, Franco–Spanish War, the Franco-Dutch War, so on. The initial mismanagement of colonial wealth by the Spaniards bankrupted them in the 16th century, recovering only in the following century; this explains why the Baroque style, though enthusiastically developed throughout the Spanish Empire, was to a large extent, in Spain, an architecture of surfaces and façades, unlike in France and Austria, where we see the construction of numerous huge palaces and monasteries. In contrast to Spain, the French, under Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the minister of finance, had begun to industrialize their economy, thus, were able to become at least, the benefactors of the flow of wealth. While this was good for the building in
Dolní Životice is a village in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic. As of January 1, 2008, the population was 1,150; the first written mention of the village was in 1320. Official website
The Moravian-Silesian Region, is one of the 14 administrative regions of the Czech Republic. Before May 2001, it was called the Ostrava Region; the region is located in the north-eastern part of its historical region of Moravia and in most of the Czech part of the historical region of Silesia. The region borders the Olomouc Region to the Zlín Region to the south, it borders two other countries – Poland to the north and Slovakia to the east. Once a industrialized region, it was called the "Steel Heart of the Country" in the communist era. In addition, it has several mountainous areas where the landscape is preserved. Nowadays, the economy of the region benefits from its location in the Czech/Polish/Slovak borderlands. Of the 302 municipalities, 39 are towns, 16 have populations over 10,000 inhabitants, five towns have over 60,000; these are the capitals of the region Ostrava, Havířov, Karviná, Frýdek-Místek. Traditionally, the region has been divided into six districts which still exist as regional units, though most administration has been shifted to the municipalities with extended competence and the municipalities with commissioned local authority.
Since 1 January 2003, the region has been divided into 22 municipalities with extended competence, which took over most of the administration of the former district authorities. Some of these are further divided into municipalities with commissioned local authority, they are unofficially named little districts. They are: Bílovec Bohumín Bruntál Český Těšín Frenštát pod Radhoštěm Frýdek-Místek Frýdlant nad Ostravicí Havířov Hlučín Jablunkov Karviná Kopřivnice Kravaře Krnov Nový Jičín Odry Opava Orlová Ostrava Rýmařov Třinec Vítkov The geography of the region varies comprising many land forms from lowlands to high mountains whose summits lie above the tree line. In the west lie the Hrubý Jeseník mountains, with the highest mountain of the region, Praděd, rising 1,491 metres; the mountains are forested, with many spectacular places and famous spas such as Karlova Studánka and Jeseník, so are popular with tourists. Several ski resorts are there, including Červenohorské Sedlo and Ovčárna, with long-lasting snow cover.
The Hrubý Jeseník mountains merge into the rolling hills of the Nízký Jeseníks and Oderské Vrchy, rising to 800 m at Slunečná and 680 m at Fidlův Kopec, respectively. To the east, the landscape descends into the Moravian Gate valley with the Bečva and Odra Rivers; the former flows to the south-west, the latter to the north-east, where the terrain spreads into the flat Ostrava and Opava basins, where most of the population lives. The region's heavy industry, in decline for the last decade, is located there, benefiting from huge deposits of hard coal; the confluence of the Odra and Olše is the lowest point of the region, at 195 m. To the south-east, towards the Slovakian border, the landscape rises into the Moravian-Silesian Beskids, with its highest mountain Lysá Hora at 1,323 m, the place with the highest annual rainfall in the Czech Republic, 1,500 mm a year; the mountains are forested and serve as a holiday resort for the industrial north. Three large landscape protected areas and a number of smaller nature reserves are in the region.
The countryside is man-made, but five natural parks with preserved natural scenery exist. The CHKO Jeseníky lies in the mountain range of the same name in the north east of the region; the terrain is diverse, with steep slopes and deep valleys. About 80%t of the area is forested by secondary plantations of Norway spruce, which were damaged by industrial emissions. Due to local weather conditions, the tree line in the area descends to 1,200–1,300 m. Alpine meadows can be found in low elevations in the Jeseník mountains. A few peat moors are found there, which are otherwise nonexistent in Moravia; the CHKO Poodří lies in the Moravian Gate, in close proximity to the region's capital Ostrava, on the banks of the meandering Odra. It is an area of floodplain forests, flooded meadows, many shallow ponds, on which water birds thrive; the CHKO Beskydy is the largest Czech CHKO. It lies along the Slovakian boundary. In the north, the mountains rise steeply from the Ostrava basin, to the south their elevation and severity decreases.
Most of the area is forested by Norway spruce plantations, which are not indigenous to the area. Many of these were damaged by emissions from the Ostrava industrial region. There are, however a lot of either newly planted or preserved forests of European beech, which in the past covered most of the mountains; the CHKO is typical by its mosaic of forests and highland meadows and pastures with hamlets scattered throughout all the mountains. In recent years bear and wolf sighting have become more frequent. Altogether, 125 small, protected nature areas cover an area of 20 sq mi; the most notable of them is the lime Šipka Cave near Štramberk, where remnants of a Neanderthal man were discovered in the late 19th century. There are three towns with protected historical centers. Příbor, the birthp