Marlow is a town and civil parish within Wycombe district in south Buckinghamshire, England. It is located on the River Thames,4 miles south-southwest of High Wycombe,5 miles west-northwest of Maidenhead and 33 miles west of central London, the name is recorded in 1015 as Mere lafan, meaning Land left after the draining of a pond in Old English. From Norman times the manor, parish, and later borough were formally known as Great Marlow, the ancient parish was large, including rural areas north and west of the town. In 1896 the civil parish of Great Marlow, created in the 19th century from the ancient parish, was divided into Great Marlow Urban District, in 1897 the urban district was renamed Marlow Urban District, and the town has been known simply as Marlow. Marlow is recorded in the Domesday Book as Merlaue, magna Britannia includes the following entry for Marlow, The manor of Marlow, which had belonged to the Earls of Mercia, was given by William the Conqueror, to his Queen Matilda. It is now the property of Sir William Clayton bart, a descendant of the last purchaser. Marlow owed its importance to its location on the River Thames and it had its own market by 1227, although the market lapsed before 1600. From 1301 to 1307 the town had its own Member of Parliament, Marlow is adjoined by Marlow Bottom, a mile to the north. Little Marlow is nearby to the east along the A4155 Little Marlow Road, the weather vane on the building features a man firing a cannon and may date from that period. The building is now owned by the Bosley family, the Hand & Flowers, the first gastropub to hold two Michelin stars, is located on West Street. Like many local pubs, it serves the award-winning beers brewed locally in Marlow Bottom by the Rebellion Beer Company, Marlow is twinned with Marly-le-Roi, France, since 1980. Budavár, a district of Budapest, Hungary, the A4155 road runs through Marlow town centre, with the A404 lying one mile to the east, the M40 motorway further to the north, and the M4 motorway to the south. Marlow is served by a station which is the terminus of a single-track branch line from Maidenhead. The train service is known as the Marlow Donkey, which was the given to the steam locomotives that once operated on the line. There is also a pub with the name, located close to the railway station. Bus services are provided by Arriva and Carousel Buses to neighbouring towns including High Wycombe, Henley-on-Thames, the club is based by Marlow Bridge and exercises above and below the lock. Olympic lightweight mens double sculls gold-medallist at Beijing 2008 Zac Purchase is a member of Marlow Rowing Club. Marlow F. C. is the oldest football club in the town, another local football club, Marlow United F. C. has been promoted to the Hellenic Football League Premier Division for the 2008/09 season
The Isthmian League is a regional mens football league covering London, East and South East England featuring mostly semi-professional clubs. It is sponsored by Ryman, and therefore known as the Ryman League. It was founded in 1905 by amateur clubs in the London area and it now consists of 72 teams in three divisions, the Premier Division above its two feeder divisions, Division One North and Division One South. Together with the Southern League and the Northern Premier League, it forms the seventh and eighth levels of the English football league system and it has various regional feeder leagues and the league as a whole is a feeder league mainly to the National League South. Before the Isthmian League was formed, there were no leagues in which amateur clubs could compete, therefore, a meeting took place between representatives of Casuals, Civil Service, Clapton, Ealing Association, Ilford and London Caledonians to discuss the creation of a strong amateur league. All the clubs supported the idea and the Isthmian League was born on 8 March 1905, membership to the league was through invitation only. The league was strongly dedicated to amateurism, the champions did not even receive a trophy or medals, teams less able to compete financially thus gravitated to it rather than the Southern League, while those with ambition and money would move in the opposite direction. By 1922 the league had fourteen clubs and over the five decades, only a few new members were admitted. Most new Isthmian League members joined from the Athenian League, which was dedicated to amateurism. The league began to admit professionalism in the 1970s, a second division of sixteen clubs was formed in 1973 and a third division followed in 1977. The reward of promotion into the Conference means that, since 1985, the Athenian League disbanded in 1984 when the Isthmian League Second Division split into North and South Divisions. These were restructured again to Second and Third Divisions in 1991, in 2002, the league was restructured again, with the First and Second Divisions merging to become Division One North and Division One South, and the Third Division being renamed as Division Two. In 2004, The Football Association pushed through a restructuring of the non-league National League System. The Isthmian League was reduced back down to three divisions, and its boundaries were changed to remove the overlap with the Southern League, in 2006, further reorganisation saw a reversion to two regional Division Ones and the disbandment of Division Two. This current plan calls for clubs based on the edges of the Isthmian Leagues territory to transfer to, One team, Clapton, had been ever-present in the Isthmian League since its foundation, but they moved to the Essex Senior League for the 2006–07 season. Dulwich Hamlet, who joined the league in 1907, are currently its longest serving member, for the 1973–74 season, the Second Division was added. For the 1977–78 season, the Premier Division was added, for the 1984–85 season, the Second Division was reorganised into North and South regions. For the 1991–92 season, the regional Second Divisions were merged, at the end of the 1994–95 season, Enfield were denied promotion to the Conference
Southern Football League
Together with the Isthmian League and the Northern Premier League it forms levels seven and eight of the English football league system. The structure of the Southern League has changed several times since its formation in 1894, the Premier Division is at step 3 of the National League System, and is a feeder division, mainly to the National League South but also to the National League North. Feeding the Premier Division are two divisions, Division One South & West and Division One Central, which are at step 4 of the NLS. These divisions are in turn fed by various regional leagues, professional football developed more slowly in Southern England than in Northern England. Additionally, a league, the Southern Alliance was founded in 1892, with seven clubs from the region. Nonetheless, another attempt was made to form the Southern League, a competition for both professional and amateur clubs was founded in 1894 under the initiative of Millwall Athletic. Initially only one division was envisaged, but such was the enthusiasm, the sixteen founder members were, 2nd Scots Guards withdrew before the first season started and were replaced by Southampton St Marys. Woolwich Arsenal attempted to add their reserve side to the second division, the Southern League soon became the dominant competition below The Football League in Southern and Central England. By the turn of the century a few of the Southern League sides began to rival the Football League in the FA Cup, Two Southern League clubs, Southampton and Tottenham Hotspur reached the final of the FA Cup around the turn of the century. Tottenham Hotspur are the club from below the 2nd level of English football to have won the FA Cup. The champions of the two leagues during this period met in the annual Charity Shield, in 1907, it accepted Bradford Park Avenue, a northern club, as a member, reflecting its senior position at the time. In 1920, virtually the top division of the Southern League was absorbed by the Football League to become that leagues new Third Division. A year later the Third Division was expanded and regionalised, the Third Division clubs from the previous season became the Third Division South, with the addition of the Third Division North. Of the original members, six – Gillingham, Luton Town, Millwall, Reading. For the next six decades, the Football League and Southern League would exchange a number of clubs as a result of the older leagues re-election process. From 1920 onward, the Southern Leagues status as a league was firmly established. In turn, the APL would eventually succeed in becoming a feeder to the Football League, the league lost more of its top clubs in 2004 when the Conference added two regional divisions below the existing National League, the Conference South and Conference North. The first sponsor of the Southern League was Beazer Homes who sponsored the league from 1987–96, the sponsors after Beazer Homes to the present day are, Dr Martens, British Gas, Zamaretto, Evo-Stik, Calor Gas, and Evo-Stik
Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sports Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, footballers generally wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. Professional clubs also usually display players surnames or nicknames on their shirts, Football kit has evolved significantly since the early days of the sport when players typically wore thick cotton shirts, knickerbockers and heavy rigid leather boots. The Laws of the Game set out the equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4. Five separate items are specified, shirt, shorts, socks, footwear, goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify that these are required, shirts must have sleeves, and goalkeepers must wear shirts which are easily distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts may be worn, but must be the colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered entirely by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, and provide a reasonable degree of protection. The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player must not use equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player. In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour. The England national team plays in red shirts even when it is not required. Many professional clubs also have a kit, ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the basic colour scheme for several decades. Teams representing countries in international competition generally wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation, shirts are normally made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed, competitions such as the Premier League may also require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. The captain of team is usually required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify him as the captain to the referee. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be either of leather or a synthetic material. Modern boots are cut slightly below the ankles, as opposed to the high-ankled boots used in former times, studs may be either moulded directly to the sole or be detachable, normally by means of a screw thread
Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours. This change prevents confusion for officials, players, and spectators, in most sports it is the visiting team that must change – second-choice kits are commonly known as away kits or change kits in British English, and road uniforms in American English. Some sports leagues mandate that teams must always wear an alternative kit. In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit, in most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice, occasionally even in a home game, at some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy. Some teams also have produced third-choice kits, or even old-fashioned throwback uniforms, in American sports, road teams usually wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. Further, almost all road uniforms are white in American football, in the National Basketball Association, home uniforms are white or yellow, and visiting teams wear a darker colour. In the United States, color vs. color games are a rarity, most teams choose to wear their color jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the 1950s, a white vs. color game was easier to follow in black-and-white. According to Phil Hecken, until the mid 1950′s, not only was color versus color common in the NFL, even long after the advent of color television, the use of white jerseys has remained in almost every game. The NFLs current rules require that a home jerseys must be either white or official team color throughout the season. If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks Wolf Grey alternate. According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for home game of the 1955 season. The only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants, in 1964 the Baltimore Colts, Browns, Vikings and Rams wore white regularly for their home games according to Tim Brulias research. The St. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, until 1964 Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their colored jerseys at home. The use of white jerseys was instigated by general manager Tex Schramm, the Cowboys still wear white at home today
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies making it the worlds most popular sport, the game is played on a rectangular field with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by getting the ball into the opposing goal, players are not allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms while it is in play, unless they are goalkeepers. Other players mainly use their feet to strike or pass the ball, the team that scores the most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, the Laws of the Game were originally codified in England by The Football Association in 1863. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, the first written reference to the inflated ball used in the game was in the mid-14th century, Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe. The Online Etymology Dictionary states that the word soccer was split off in 1863, according to Partha Mazumdar, the term soccer originated in England, first appearing in the 1880s as an Oxford -er abbreviation of the word association. Within the English-speaking world, association football is now usually called football in the United Kingdom and mainly soccer in Canada and the United States. People in Australia, Ireland, South Africa and New Zealand use either or both terms, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now primarily use football for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is scientific evidence, cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net. It was remarkably similar to football, though similarities to rugby occurred. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established, phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup, athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda, episkyros and harpastum were played involving hands and violence and they all appear to have resembled rugby football, wrestling and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified mob football, the antecedent of all football codes. Non-competitive games included kemari in Japan, chuk-guk in Korea and woggabaliri in Australia, Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other games played around the world FIFA have recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe. The modern rules of football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played in the public schools of England
The FA Cup, known officially as The Football Association Challenge Cup, is an annual knockout association football competition in mens domestic English football. First played during the 1871–72 season, it is the oldest association football competition in the world and it is organised by and named after The Football Association. For sponsorship reasons, from 2015 through to 2018 it is known as The Emirates FA Cup. A concurrent womens tournament is held, the FA Womens Cup. A record 763 clubs competed in 2011–12, the tournament consists of 12 randomly drawn rounds followed by the semi-finals and the final. The last entrants are the Premier League and Championship clubs, into the draw for the Third Round Proper, in the modern era, only one non-league team has ever reached the quarter finals, and teams below Level 2 have never reached the final. As a result, as well as who wins, significant focus is given to those minnows who progress furthest, especially if they achieve an unlikely giant-killing victory. Winners receive the FA Cup trophy, of which there have two designs and five actual cups, the latest is a 2014 replica of the second design. Winners also qualify for European football and a place in the FA Community Shield match, in 1863, the newly founded Football Association published the Laws of the Game of Association Football, unifying the various different rules in use before then. On 20 July 1871, in the offices of The Sportsman newspaper, the inaugural FA Cup tournament kicked off in November 1871. After thirteen games in all, Wanderers were crowned the winners in the final, Wanderers retained the trophy the following year. The modern cup was beginning to be established by the 1888–89 season, following the 1914–15 edition, the competition was suspended due to the First World War, and did not resume until 1919–20. The 1922–23 competition saw the first final to be played in the newly opened Wembley Stadium, due to the outbreak of World War II, the competition was not played between the 1938–39 and 1945–46 editions. Having previously featured replays, the modern day practice of ensuring the semi-final and final matches finish on the day, was introduced from 2000 onwards. Redevelopment of Wembley saw the final played outside of England for the first time, the final returned to Wembley in 2007, followed by the semi-finals from 2008. The competition is open to any club down to Level 10 of the English football league system which meets the eligibility criteria, all clubs in the top four levels are automatically eligible. Clubs in the six levels are also eligible provided they have played in either the FA Cup. Newly formed clubs, such as F. C. United of Manchester in 2005–06 and also 2006–07, all clubs entering the competition must also have a suitable stadium
Maidenhead United F.C.
Maidenhead United Football Club is a semi-professional English football club in Maidenhead, Berkshire. They currently play in the National League South, the tier of English football. The club was founded in 1870 and moved to their current ground at York Road the following year, the Football Association have acknowledged that it is the oldest senior football ground continuously used by the same club. On 16 February 1871 the club played their first game on the York Road site against Marlow, the club were one of the original 15 entrants for the first-ever FA Cup competition in 1871–72. The following season reached the last four before losing to Oxford University. Maidenhead reached the quarter-finals in the two seasons, but in 1876 withdrew, returning the following season. They also entered the first-ever Berks & Bucks Cup competition in 1878, in 1904 Maidenhead joined the Great Western Suburban League. Maidenhead Norfolkians, meanwhile, were founded in 1884 and were members of the South Bucks & East Berks League before also joining the West Berks League. In 1904 they joined Maidenhead FC in the Great Western Suburban League, Norfolkians played at Kidwells Park which can still be seen to this day, but as a public park – it once staged a Berks & Bucks Cup Final. After the Great War the two clubs amalgamated as Maidenhead Town and adopted the black and white stripes. They had immediate success winning the Great Western League, in 1920 the name United was adopted and two years later they entered the Spartan League. They won the three times in their nineteen-year stay. In 1936 Maidenhead reached the semi-final of the FA Amateur Cup losing 4–1 to Ilford at West Ham in front of 18,000 spectators and it was that season that the ground record attendance of 7,989 was set when Southall came to York Road in the quarter-final. In the 1929–30 season the club’s goal-scoring record for a season was set when Jack Palethorpe scored 65 goals in 39 games and he went on to play for Sheffield Wednesday and scored in the Owls FA Cup win in 1935. Following the end of the Second World War the club entered the Corinthian League and they also made three appearances in the First Round Proper of the FA Cup. In 1963 United joined the Athenian League, but were unable to repeat their Corinthian success and they had a flirtation with promotion to the Premier Division in 1979 and 1980 under Geoff Anthony, and then again in 1985 under Brian Caterer and Colin Lippiatt. It took four seasons to get out of Division Two, which was achieved under the guidance of Martyn Spong in 1991. An Isthmian League record of 13 straight wins at the start of the season was the springboard to success, following the departure of Spong to Enfield, Gary Goodwin, John Clements and then John Watt took on the manager’s job with mediocre results, the club regularly finishing mid-table
Cuthbert John Ottaway, was an English footballer. He was the first captain of the England football team and led his side in the first official football match. Representing his university at five different sports – a record that remains unmatched – Ottaway was also a cricketer until his retirement shortly before his early death at the age of only 27. Cuthbert Ottaway was born in Dover, the child of James Ottaway. He was educated at Eton and at Brasenose College, Oxford, the best amateur racquet player of his time, a capital football player and a fair sprint runner. It has fallen to the lot of few cricketers to attain greater popularity. Ottaway read Classics at Brasenose, and, after going down, the precise cause of death remains a matter of speculation. Diabetes ran in the Ottaway family, and this may have increased his susceptibility to respiratory diseases and it is also possible that he had earlier contracted tuberculosis. Ottaway had one daughter, Lilian, who was born after his death and he is buried in Paddington Old Cemetery. Ottaways greatest successes came as a footballer, Ottaway played an important part in two of his three finals. In 1874 he captained Oxford and helped to pin the Engineers back in their own half for long periods with extended excursions into opposition territory. He also participated in a three-man dribble that took the ball almost the length of the pitch and resulted in the scoring of his teams second. In 1875, Ottaway represented Old Etonians in a match notable chiefly because it was played in a howling gale. The conditions considerably favoured the Eton team, which had the wind at its backs for all but 10 minutes of the 90, and all 30 minutes of extra time. Ottaway failed to recover in time for the replay, held three days later, and Etonians also lost the services of three other players who had prior commitments. Unable to obtain adequate replacements, the Old Boys arrived at the ground an hour late, although the precise nature of Ottaways ankle injury remains unknown, there is no evidence that he never played senior football again after the 1875 Cup Final. His biographer, Michael Southwick, suggests that the damage sustained to his ankle, signalled the end of his footballing career. As an international, Ottaway was selected to lead the England team travelling to Partick to meet Scotland on 30 November 1872 in what is now recognised as the first international match to be played, the game ended in a 0–0 draw
England national football team
The England national football team represents England in international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England are one of the two oldest national teams in football, alongside Scotland, whom played in the worlds first international football match in 1872. Englands home ground is Wembley Stadium, London, and the current manager is Gareth Southgate, England contest the FIFA World Cup and UEFA European Championship, which alternate biennially. In contesting for the World Cup seventeen times over the past sixty four years, England won the 1966 World Cup, when they hosted the finals, the England national football team is the joint-oldest in the world, it was formed at the same time as Scotland. A representative match between England and Scotland was played on 5 March 1870, having been organised by the Football Association, a return fixture was organised by representatives of Scottish football teams on 30 November 1872. Over the next forty years, England played exclusively with the other three Home Nations—Scotland, Wales and Ireland—in the British Home Championship, to begin with, England had no permanent home stadium. They joined FIFA in 1906 and played their first ever games against countries other than the Home Nations on a tour of Central Europe in 1908, Wembley Stadium was opened in 1923 and became their home ground. The relationship between England and FIFA became strained, and this resulted in their departure from FIFA in 1928 and their first ever defeat on home soil to a foreign team was a 0–2 loss to the Republic of Ireland, on 21 September 1949 at Goodison Park. A 6–3 loss in 1953 to Hungary, was their defeat by a foreign team at Wembley. In the return match in Budapest, Hungary won 7–1 and this still stands as Englands worst ever defeat. After the game, a bewildered Syd Owen said, it was like playing men from outer space, in the 1954 FIFA World Cup, England reached the quarter-finals for the first time, and lost 4–2 to reigning champions Uruguay. Although Walter Winterbottom was appointed as Englands first ever manager in 1946. In UEFA Euro 1968, the reached the semi-finals for the first time. England qualified for the 1970 FIFA World Cup in Mexico as reigning champions, and reached the quarter-finals, England had been 2–0 up, but were eventually beaten 3–2 after extra time. They failed in qualification for the 1974, leading to Ramseys dismissal, under Ron Greenwood, they managed to qualify for the 1982 FIFA World Cup in Spain, despite not losing a game, they were eliminated in the second group stage. Despite losing to Italy in the third place play-off, the members of the England team were given bronze medals identical to the Italians’, the England team of 1990 were welcomed home as heroes and thousands of people lined the streets, for a spectacular open-top bus parade. However, the team did not win any matches in UEFA Euro 1992, drawing with tournament winners Denmark, the 1990s saw four England managers, each in the role for a relatively brief period. Graham Taylor was Robsons successor, but resigned after England failed to qualify for the 1994 FIFA World Cup, at UEFA Euro 1996, held in England, Terry Venables led England, equalling their best performance at a European Championship, reaching the semi-finals as they did in 1968
1872 Scotland vs England football match
Scotland v England was the first ever official international association football match to be played. It was contested by the teams of Scotland and England. The match took place on 30 November 1872 at West of Scotland Cricket Clubs ground at Hamilton Crescent in Partick, the match finished in a 0–0 draw and was watched by 4,000 spectators. Scotland did not record a win in all five matches, the second match was played on 19 November 1870, England 1–0 Scotland,25 February 1871, England 1–1 Scotland,18 November 1871, England 2–1 Scotland,24 February 1872 England 1–0 Scotland. All players selected for the Scottish side in these early internationals were mainly from the London area, the only player affiliated to a Scottish club was Robert Smith of Queens Park FC, Glasgow, who played in the November 1870 match and both of the 1871 games. Robert Smith and James Smith were both listed publicly for the February 1872 game, but neither played in the actual match, after the 1870 matches there was resentment in Scotland that their team did not contain more home grown players. Alcock himself was categorical about where he felt responsibility for this lay, writing in the Scotsman newspaper. The fault lies on the heads of the players of the north, to call the team London Scotchmen contributes nothing. The match was, as announced, to all intents and purposes between England and Scotland, Alcock then proceeded to offer another challenge with a Scottish team drawn from Scotland and proposed the north of England as a venue. Charles W Alcock, Hon Sec of Football Association and Captain of English Eleven, one reason for the absence of a response to Alcocks challenge may have been different football codes being followed in Scotland at the time. A written reply to Alcocks letter above states, Mr Alcocks challenge to meet a Scotch eleven on the borders sounds very well and is doubtless well meant. But it may not be well known that Mr Alcock is a very leading supporter of what is called the association game. Devotees of the rules will find no foemen worthy of their steel in Scotland. Despite this the FA were hoping to play in Scotland as early as February 1872, in 1872, Queens Park, as Scotlands leading club, took up Alcocks challenge, despite the fact there was as yet no Scottish Football Association to sanction it as thus. Appropriately enough, the match was arranged for St Andrews Day, all eleven Scottish players were selected from Queens Park, the leading Scottish club at this time. Scotland had hoped to obtain the services of Arthur Kinnaird of The Wanderers and Henry Renny-Tailyour of Royal Engineers, the English side was selected from nine different clubs and was selected by Charles Alcock, who himself was unable to play due to injury. The match, initially scheduled for 2pm, was delayed for 20 minutes, the 4,000 spectators paid an entry fee of a shilling, the same amount charged at the 1872 FA Cup Final. The Scots wore dark blue shirts, the jerseys having the thistle embroidered
Scotland national football team
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association. It competes in the two professional tournaments, the FIFA World Cup and the UEFA European Championship. Scotland, as a constituent country of the United Kingdom, is not a member of the International Olympic Committee, the majority of Scotlands home matches are played at the national stadium, Hampden Park. Scotland is the joint oldest national team in the world, alongside England. Scotland has a rivalry with England, whom they played annually from 1872 until 1989. The teams have met six times since then, most recently in November 2016. Scotland have qualified for the FIFA World Cup on eight occasions and the UEFA European Championship twice, the team have achieved some noteworthy results, such as beating the 1966 FIFA World Cup winners England 3–2 at Wembley Stadium in 1967. Archie Gemmill scored what has been described as one of the greatest World Cup goals ever in a 3–2 win during the 1978 World Cup against the Netherlands, in their qualifying group for UEFA Euro 2008, Scotland defeated 2006 World Cup runners-up France 1–0 in both fixtures. Scotland supporters are known as the Tartan Army. The Scottish Football Association operates a roll of honour for every player who has more than 50 appearances for Scotland. Kenny Dalglish holds the record for Scotland appearances, having played 102 times between 1971 and 1986, Dalglish scored 30 goals for Scotland and shares the record for most goals scored with Denis Law. Scotland and England are the oldest national teams in the world. Teams representing the two sides first competed at the Oval in five matches between 1870 and 1872, the two countries contested the first official international football match, at Hamilton Crescent in Partick, Scotland, on 30 November 1872. The match ended in a goalless draw, all eleven players who represented Scotland that day played for Glasgow amateur club Queens Park. Over the next forty years, Scotland played matches exclusively against the other three Home Nations—England, Wales and Ireland, the British Home Championship began in 1883, making these games competitive. The encounters against England were particularly fierce and a rivalry quickly developed, Scotland lost just two of their first 43 international matches. It was not until a 2–0 home defeat by Ireland in 1903 that Scotland lost a match to an other than England. This run of success meant that Scotland would have topped the Elo ratings
Old Etonians F.C.
The Old Etonian Association Football Club is an English football club whose players are alumni of Eton College, in Eton, Berkshire. Founded by Lord Kinnaird, they were the last amateur or true blue club to win the FA Cup on 25 March 1882 when they beat Blackburn Rovers 1–0 at The Oval and they lost 2–1 after extra time to another Blackburn club, Blackburn Olympic, the following year. In all, they reached the six times in nine years between 1875 and 1883, winning twice. They also supplied a number of players for the England team, in modern times, Old Etonians are members of the Amateur Football Alliance and field three teams in the Arthurian League. The 1st XI have won the leagues Premier Division title on two occasions, whitfeld scored in a 2–1 victory. Official website Old Etonians at the Football Club History Database
World War II
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
West Bromwich Albion F.C.
The club was formed in 1878 and has played at its home ground, The Hawthorns, since 1900. Albion were one of the members of the Football League in 1888 and have spent the majority of their existence in the top tier of English football. They have been champions of England once, in 1919–20 and have been runners-up twice but they have had success in the FA Cup. The first came in 1888, the year the league was founded, and they also won the Football League Cup at the first attempt in 1966. The clubs longest consecutive period in the top division spanned twenty-four years between 1949 and 1973, and from 1986 to 2002 they spent their longest ever spell out of the top division and they currently play in the Premier League. The team has played in blue and white stripes for most of the clubs history. The club was founded as West Bromwich Strollers in 1878 by workers from George Salters Spring Works in West Bromwich, the club joined the Birmingham & District Football Association in 1881 and became eligible for their first competition, the Birmingham Cup. They reached the quarter-finals, beating several longer-established clubs on the way, in 1883, Albion won their first trophy, the Staffordshire Cup. Albion joined the Football Association in the year, this enabled them to enter the FA Cup for the first time in the 1883–84 season. In 1885 the club turned professional, and in 1886 they reached the FA Cup final for the first time and they reached the final again in 1887, but lost 2–0 to Aston Villa. In 1888 the team won the trophy for the first time, as FA Cup winners, they qualified to play in a Football World Championship game against Scottish Cup winners Renton, which ended in a 4–1 defeat. Thus when the Football League started later that year, Albion became one of the founder members. Albions second FA Cup success came in 1892, beating Aston Villa 3–0 and they met Villa again in the 1895 final, but lost 1–0. The team suffered relegation to Division Two in 1900–01, their first season at The Hawthorns and they were promoted as champions the following season but relegated again in 1903–04. The club won the Division Two championship once more in 1910–11, and the season reached another FA Cup Final. Albion won the Football League title in 1919–20 for the time in their history following the end of World War I. The team finished as Division One runners-up in 1924–25, narrowly losing out to Huddersfield Town, in 1930–31, they won promotion as well as the FA Cup, beating Birmingham 2–1 in the final. The Double of winning the FA Cup and promotion has not been achieved before or since, Albion reached the final again in 1935, losing to Sheffield Wednesday, but were relegated three years later
Salisbury City F.C.
Salisbury City Football Club was an English football club based in Salisbury, Wiltshire. They were formed in 1947 and played at The Raymond McEnhill Stadium, the club spent two seasons in the Conference South before winning promotion to the Conference Premier via the play-offs in the 2012–13 season. In 2014, the club were removed from the Football Conference after failing to pay debts, the club has reformed as Salisbury F. C. for the 2015–16 season. The club was founded as Salisbury F. C. in 1947, Salisbury immediately entered the Western League and won the Second Division title at the very first attempt. An attendance of 8,902, a figure never beaten, saw the championship decider, in 1993 the clubs name was officially changed to Salisbury City, and in 1994–95 they won the Southern League Southern Division championship. After redevelopment work at the council-owned Victoria Park, the club was able to step up to the Premier Division, a promotion which had been denied them two years earlier due to ground gradings. Salisbury lasted seven seasons in the Premier Division, but troubles off the field led to the departure of manager Geoff Butler. On 13 May 2007, they defeated Braintree Town 1–0 in the Conference South promotion play-off final, in front of a record attendance at The Raymond McEnhill Stadium of 3,100, Salisbury held Forest to a 1–1 draw live on BBC One. The replay at the City Ground saw Forest progress into the 3rd round with a 2–0 victory, salisburys first season in the Conference Premier saw them finish a credible twelfth after a run of several wins in the second half of the season. This success continued into the 2008–09 season when they hit top spot in early September, however, this run soon came to an end when they suffered many injuries which saw their form slip. Then an appeal to raise £100,000 in two weeks was asked of the fans and the city, but only £33,000 was raised. This was insufficient to keep the club going with the squad they had, in April 2009 the club was put up for sale for £1 in a bid to attract new investors to help the club survive. However, the future of the club remained unclear after it was announced that the club had been unable to find a willing to assume the financial liabilities. On 3 September 2009 Salisbury entered administration clearing debts of £200,000, in the summer of 2009, Salisbury City Football Club faced bankruptcy and in early September the club was formally placed in administration. Whilst still functioning as a team, The Whites were fined and were punished further by the football authorities with the deduction of points. From September 2009, Salisbury City FC was being run by Carl Faulds and Michael Fortune operating as agents and contracting for Portland Business, on 19 May 2010 the club was demoted two divisions to the Southern League Premier Division due to a breach of Conference rules. A consortium of William Harrison-Allan, Chris Brammall and Jeff Hooper took the club on, what followed was a complete restructure with manager Tommy Widdrington going to Southend United as assistant manager in the summer of 2010. Long-serving Nick Holmes followed him out the door, which left Darrell Clarke and they managed to assemble a squad of youngsters over pre-season to go with the players that remained at the club
Rugby Town F.C.
Rugby Town Football Club is a football club based in Rugby, Warwickshire, which plays in the Northern Premier League Division One South. It is nicknamed The Valley, and plays its matches at Butlin Road. It was originally named New Bilton Juniors and renamed four times, first, in 1956, to Valley Sports. The next time was in 1971 to Valley Sports Rugby, or simply VS Rugby, then in 2000 to Rugby United, formed by Keith Coughlan and under the name of New Bilton Juniors, the Valley played its first friendly match in 1955. In 1956, the club was renamed for the first time, to Valley Sports and entered the Rugby, the club progressed to the Coventry and North Warwickshire Football League in 1963, and to the United Counties League in 1969 changing the name to VS Rugby. VS Rugby moved into their own ground, Butlin Road, in 1973 the first competitive game there being a 0-0 draw against Burton park Wanderers in The United Counties league. In 1975 the club was invited to join the West Midlands League, in 1981, the Valleys most successful manager, Jimmy Knox, took over. He had previously managed the then Rugby Town and AP Leamington. Knox turned around the clubs fortunes dramatically and in1983 they won The FA Vase and they also had memorable cup ties against Northampton Town, Bristol City, and Leyton Orient. A group of supporters that included founder Keith Coughlan, however, rescued the club, the same season the club also again reached the first round of The FA Cup losing at home to Brentford. VS Rugby changed its name to Rugby United in 2000, Valley came close to promotion twice under manager Dave Stringer in the 2012–13 and 2013–14 seasons. In 2012–13 they missed out on the title on the day before losing to Biggleswade Town in the play-off final at Butlin Road. The following season saw Valley once again in contention for the title on the day only to fail to secure top spot. Promotion hopes once again ended in the play-offs after a defeat to Slough Town over two legs in the semi-final, the 2014/15 season was less successful for Valley with the club failing to make the play-offs after an inconsistent season. At the end of the campaign, Rugby Town parted company with manager Dave Stringer, for the first time in the clubs history, Rugby Town were moved into the Northern Premier League system for the 2015–16 season. Stringers replacement, former Rushden & Diamonds midfielder Gary Mills, tendered his resignation early into the season after a start and was replaced by ex-Tamworth boss Dale Belford. Now, approximately 2,800 spectators are able to be accommodated under cover and 740 of these can also be seated, the main stand, which holds 500 fans and also includes the dressing rooms. New facilities under the also include 4 changing rooms, referees room, male, female and disabled toilets
White Hart Lane
White Hart Lane is the home of Tottenham Hotspur Football Club in the Premier League and has a capacity of 36,284. The stadium is located in the Tottenham area in north London, along with housing Tottenham, the stadium, which is known amongst Spurs fans as the Lane, has also been selected for England national football matches and England under-21 football matches. The record attendance remains an FA Cup tie on 5 March 1938 against Sunderland with the attendance being recorded at 75,038, the new stadium has been designed by Populous, which also designed derby rival Arsenals home, the Emirates Stadium. Initial designs were created by KSS Design Group back in 2008, Spurs moved to White Hart Lane in 1899. The club leased and later bought a disused nursery owned by the brewery chain Charringtons to the east of Tottenhams High Road, a local groundsman, John Over, turned the land into a substantial football pitch. The first game at the Lane resulted in a 4–1 home win against Notts County with around 5,000 supporters attending, although normally referred to at the time as the High Road ground in time it became popularly known as White Hart Lane. Redevelopments continued in the 1910s, with the eastern stand replaced with an enlarged concrete stadium. The ground continued to be renovated and in 1925, thanks to the FA Cup win in 1921, the pitch was overlooked by a bronze fighting cock that still keeps an eye on proceedings from the roof of the touchline stands. The venue hosted some of the preliminaries for the 1948 Summer Olympics. 1953 saw the introduction of floodlights with their first use being a friendly against Racing Club de Paris in September of that year and these were renovated again in the 1970s and steadily replaced with new technology since. By this stage, Tottenham were firmly established as one of Englands best clubs which attracted some of the highest attendances in the country on a regular basis. Between the late 1920s and 1972, White Hart Lane was one of very few British football grounds that no advertising hoardings at all. The West Stand was replaced in the early 1980s, however the project took over 15 months to complete with cost overruns causing severe financial implications. This West Stand is parallel with Tottenham High Road and is connected to it by Bill Nicholson Way, the early 1990s saw the completion of the South Stand and the introduction of the first Jumbotron video screen, of which there are now two, one above each penalty area. The renovation of the Members Stand which is reached via Paxton Road was completed in 1998, at the turn of the millennium, after falling behind in stadium capacity, talks began over the future of White Hart Lane and Tottenham Hotspurs home. Over the years, many designs and ideas were rumoured in the media. A move to Wembley Stadium was ruled out by the club, however Spurs bid for the stadium was rejected on 11 February 2011. During the construction of the new Wembley Stadium, White Hart Lane hosted full England international matches, since the opening of the rebuilt Wembley, the Lane has been occasionally used to host England Under-21s international matches years, most notably a 1–1 draw against France Under-21s
Oxford United F.C.
Oxford United Football Club is a professional football club based in the city of Oxford, Oxfordshire, England. The team play in League One, the tier of English football. The chairman is Darryl Eales, the coach is Michael Appleton. Founded in 1893 as Headington United, Oxford United adopted its current name in 1960 and it joined the Football League in 1962 after winning the Southern Football League, reaching the Second Division in 1968. After relegation in 1976, between 1984 and 1986 the club earned successive promotions into the First Division, and won the League Cup in 1986, however, Oxford was unable thereby to enter the 1987 UEFA Cup because of the UEFA ban on English clubs in European competitions. Relegation from the top flight in 1988 began an 18-year decline which saw the club relegated to the Conference in 2006 and this was the first time in the history of English football when a team that had won a major trophy was relegated from the Football League. After four seasons, Oxford was promoted to League Two in 2010 via the playoffs, in total, nineteen players have made international appearances while playing for the club. Uniteds home ground is the Kassam Stadium in Oxford and has a capacity of 12,500, United moved to the stadium in 2001 after leaving the Manor Ground, their home for 76 years. Swindon Town is the main rival. Oxford United were formed as Headington in 1893, adding the suffix United in 1911 after merging with Headington Quarry, the club was founded by Rev. John Scott-Tucker, the vicar at Saint Andrews Church in Headington, and a local doctor named Robert Hitchings. A football team was a way for the cricketers of Headington Cricket Club to maintain their fitness during the winter break, the first football match played was against Cowley Barracks. Headington had no home until 1913, when they were able to purchase Woottens Field on London Road. A permanent home was found in 1925, when they purchased the Manor Ground site on London Road, the facility was used as a cricket pitch in the summer, and a football pitch in the winter. In 1921 the club was admitted into the Oxon Senior League, the first season included a 9–0 victory, with eight of those goals coming from P. Drewitt. This remains a record for the highest number of goals scored by an Oxford player in a first-team match, at this time a small rivalry existed with Cowley F. C. who were based a few miles south of Headington. During a league game on May Day, the referee gave two penalties to Cowley, supporters broke past security and players, resulting in the referee being freely baited. The first FA Cup tie played was in 1931, against Hounslow F. C. in the Preliminary Round, United spent two seasons in the Spartan League in 1947 and 1948, finishing fifth and fourth respectively. It was around this time that the team left the Manor
Swindon Town F.C.
Swindon Town Football Club is a professional football club in Swindon, Wiltshire, England. Founded as Swindon AFC in 1879, they became Spartans in 1880, the team compete in League One, the third tier of the English football league system. The clubs home ground, where it has played since 1896, is the 15,728 capacity County Ground, the club went professional in 1894 and entered the Football League in 1920. Swindon Town won promotion to the Premier League in the 1992–93 season, Swindon Town Football Club was founded by Reverend William Pitt of Liddington in 1879. The team turned professional in 1894 and joined the Southern League which was founded in the same year, during this period Septimus Atterbury played for the club. Swindon reached the FA Cup semi-finals for the first time in the 1909–10 season, Barnsley and Swindon were invited to compete for the Dubonnet Cup in 1910 at the Parc des Princes Stadium in Paris. The result was a 2–1 victory for Swindon with Harold Fleming scoring both of the clubs goals, the following season, 1910–11, Swindon Town won the Southern League championship, earning them a Charity Shield match with the Football League champions Manchester United. This, the highest-scoring Charity Shield game to date, was played on 25 September 1911 at Stamford Bridge with Manchester United winning 8–4, some of the proceeds of this game were later donated to the survivors of the Titanic. In 1912 Swindon Town reached the finals of the FA Cup for a second time in 3 years. Swindons exploits at this time owed a lot to the skilful forward H. J. Fleming who was capped by England 11 times between 1909 and 1914 despite playing outside the Football League. Fleming remained with Swindon throughout a career spanning 1907 and 1924. Swindon entered the Football League in 1920 as a member of Division Three. This result stands as a record for the club in League matches, the club was relegated back into Division Three in 1965 but it was about to create a sensation. In 1969, Swindon beat Arsenal 3–1 to win the League Cup for the time in the clubs history. As winners of the League Cup, Swindon were assured of a place in their first European competition, however, the Football Association had previously agreed to inclusion criteria with the organizers which mandated that only League Cup winners from Division One would be able to take part. As the team were not eligible, the short lived Anglo-Italian competitions were created to give teams from lower divisions experience in Europe, the first of these, the 1969 Anglo-Italian League Cup, was contested over two legs against Coppa Italia winners A. S. Swindon won 5–2, with the scorer of two goals in the League Cup final – Don Rogers – scoring once and new acquisition Arthur Horsfield acquiring his first hat-trick for the club. The team then went on to win the 1970 Anglo-Italian Cup competition in a tournament beset by hooliganism, napoli was abandoned after 79 minutes following pitch invasions and a missile barrage, with teargas being employed to allow the teams to return to the dressing room
Hellenic Football League
There is also one team each from Hampshire and Northamptonshire The league was established in 1953. In the 2000–01 season the Hellenic League absorbed the Chiltonian League and now has a Premier Division, Division One East, Division One West and three divisions for reserve teams. In the 2006–07 season the Hellenic League absorbed the Banbury District, starting with the 2004–05 re-organisation the Hellenic League became a step 5 and 6 league in the National League System. Premier Division clubs play at Step 5 level, which offers progression to the Southern Football League Division One for Premier Division winners who have the required ground status. Acceptance to HL Division One is also offered to teams playing in the various Step 7 County Leagues of the related Hellenic League area,50 teams play in the Hellenic Premier and Division Ones. 18 teams play at Veterans level The league started with only a Premier Division, for the 1971–72 season, Division One was split into Division One A and Division One B. The following season, Division One A and B were merged, after the 1999–2000 season, Division One was regionalised into East and West. The Hellenic League football cups are the Floodlit Cup, the Supplementary Cup and the Challenge Cup
Barton Rovers F.C.
Barton Rovers Football Club is a semi-professional football club based in Barton-le-Clay, Bedfordshire, England. The club are members of the Southern League Division One Central. They are affiliated to the Bedfordshire Football Association, Barton Rovers Football Club was formed in 1898, and played in village football until World War II. They won Division Two at the first attempt, earning promotion to Division One, the following season saw them finish as runners-up in Division One, resulting in promotion to the Premier Division. In 1962–63 Barton finished bottom of the division and were relegated back to Division One, however, they returned to the Premier Division two seasons later after winning the Division One title in 1964–65. This saw the start of a spell of success for the club, their first five seasons back in the Premier Division saw them finish third on four occasions. They then went on to win three titles between 1970–71 and 1972–73, and after a third-place finish in 1973–74, they won five consecutive titles. The club also saw success in the FA Vase, in 1975–76 they reached the quarter-finals, and the season saw them reach the semi-finals. They went one better in 1977–78, reaching the final, where they lost 2–1 to Blue Star, in 1979 the club moved up to Division Two of the Isthmian League. The 1980–81 season saw them reach the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, the following season they reached the semi-finals of the FA Vase again, losing 2–1 to Rainworth Miners Welfare. League restructuring saw the club moved into Division Two North in 1984, after finishing as runners-up in 1994–95, Barton were promoted to Division One, where they remained until finishing bottom of the division in 2000–01. After returning to Division Two, league restructuring saw them placed in Division One North in 2002, more restructuring saw them join Division One Midlands in 2006 and Division One Central in 2010. In 2014–15 the club finished fifth, qualifying for the promotion play-offs, however, after beating Royston Town 5–4 on penalties in the semi-finals following a 0–0 draw, they lost 2–0 to Bedworth United in the final. Barton Rovers play their matches at Sharpenhoe Road in Barton-le-Clay. The ground has a capacity of 4,000, of which 160 is seated and 1,120 is covered, all 160 seats are in the main stand, opposite which is a covered terraced that runs the length of the pitch. C. Players Barton Rovers F. C. managers Official website Barton Rovers Youth Website
FA Amateur Cup
The FA Amateur Cup was an English football competition for amateur clubs. It commenced in 1893 and ended in 1974 when The Football Association abolished official amateur status, following the legalisation of professionalism within football, professional teams quickly came to dominate the sports main national knock-out tournament, the FA Cup. The Football Association declined the offer, but a year later decided to organise just such a competition. The entrants included 12 clubs representing the old boys of leading schools, and Old Carthusians. The old boy teams competed in the Amateur Cup until 1902, when disputes with the FA led to the formation of the Arthur Dunn Cup, the 1973-74 competition was the last, as the FA abolished the distinction between professional and amateur clubs. The strongest amateur teams instead entered the FA Trophy, which had set up five years earlier to cater for those teams outside The Football League which were professional rather than amateur. A new competition, the FA Vase, was set up to cater for the amateur clubs. The first tournament attracted 81 entrants, with three qualifying rounds used to reduce the number down to 32 for the first round proper. This remained the format until 1907, when the number of entrants to the first round was doubled to 64. The competition continued under this format until it was discontinued in 1974, matches in the Amateur Cup were played at the home ground of one of the two teams, as decided when the matches are drawn. Occasionally games were moved to other grounds, in the event of a draw, the replay was played at the ground of the team who originally played away from home. The second replay, and any further replays, were played at neutral grounds. The final was held at grounds in the early years of the competition. A few years after the Second World War the final moved to Wembley Stadium, in the 1950s attendances for the final reached 100,000, comparable to the FA Cup final itself. Amateur Cup winners who later turned professional and gained entry to The Football League include Middlesbrough, West Hartlepool, Wimbledon, Wycombe Wanderers, thirty-six different clubs won the cup. In A Class of Their Own, A History of English Amateur Football
The competition was instigated in 1969 to cater for those non-league clubs that paid their players and were therefore not eligible to enter the FA Amateur Cup. This covers the National League, the Southern League, Isthmian League, the final of the competition was held at the original Wembley Stadium from the tournaments instigation until the stadium closed in 2000. The final has been played at the new Wembley Stadium since its opening in 2007, the record for the most FA Trophy wins is shared by Woking and two defunct clubs, Scarborough and Telford United, with three victories each. The Trophy is currently held by FC Halifax Town who beat Grimsby Town F. C. in the 2016 final, the competition was created by the Football Association in 1969 to afford semi-professional teams an opportunity to compete for the chance to play at Wembley Stadium. The first winners of the competition were Macclesfield Town of the Northern Premier League, Northern Premier League clubs dominated the first decade of the competition, with Telford United the only Southern League team to break the northern clubs hold on the competition. In the early years of its existence the competition struggled to achieve the level of prestige as the long-established Amateur Cup. In 1974 the FA abolished the distinction between official professional and amateur status and discontinued the Amateur Cup, and the Trophy soon had 300 entrants and this figure was gradually reduced until by 1991 only around 120 clubs took part. Telford Uniteds win in 1989 made them the team to win the Trophy three times. Between 1990 and 2000 three more teams claimed multiple wins, as of 2001 the competition was sponsored by Umbro, in the 2007-08 season it was sponsored by Carlsberg. The competition is a tournament with pairings drawn at random. If a match is drawn, there is a replay, usually at the ground of the team played away from home for the first game. Drawn replays are now settled with extra time and penalty shootouts, originally the competition included as many qualifying rounds as were required to reduce the number of teams to 32. In 1999 the format was amended to match that of the FA Cup, with six rounds prior to the semi-final stage, albeit without qualifying rounds. Teams from the Football Conference received byes through the early rounds, as of 2008–09 the competition featured four qualifying rounds and four rounds proper before the semi-finals. The FA pays prize money to all teams win at least one match in the Trophy competition. In the 2014-15 season the prize for the 64 preliminary round winners was £2,500, the final was traditionally held at the original Wembley Stadium, but was moved to Villa Park during Wembleys redevelopment, and a final was also played at West Ham Uniteds Boleyn Ground. In 2007 the final moved to the new Wembley Stadium, Scarborough, Telford United, and Woking share the record for the most victories in the final. In 1985 Wealdstone became the first team to win the Non-League Double of FA Trophy, since then Colchester United in 1992 and Wycombe Wanderers in 1993 have equalled Wealdstones achievement
The Football Association Challenge Vase, usually referred to as the FA Vase is an annual football competition for teams playing below Step 4 of the English National League System. For the 2013–14 season 535 entrants were accepted, with two qualifying rounds preceding the six rounds, semi-finals and final to be played at Wembley Stadium. The 2016 winners were Morpeth Town, who beat Hereford 4–1 at Wembley Stadium, until 1974, football players were either professionals or amateurs. Professionals were paid to play by their clubs, and the cup competitions such clubs were allowed to enter were the FA Cup and after 1969, for clubs outside The Football League. Amateurs, on the hand, did not get paid by their clubs, and such clubs had their own cup competition. In recent years, entry to the FA Vase has been restricted to clubs in the ninth, reorganization of the National League System for 2004 onwards moved the dividing line down to the new Step 5. Clubs from the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man also entered the Vase in the past, guernsey F. C. who were formed in 2011 and played in the Step 5 Combined Counties League, gained entry for the 2012–13 season and reached the semi-finals. Eligible teams who played in the FA Trophy the previous season and were relegated from a Step 4 league are exempt from qualifying and start play in the First round Proper of the Vase as well. Clubs that played in the 4th round or later of the previous seasons FA Vase are exempt from qualifying, only six teams have managed to win the FA Vase more than once. Whitley Bay are the team to win the FA Vase three times in successive seasons. Two FA Vase winners, Forest Green Rovers and Tamworth, have gone on to play in the National League at the top level of the non-league pyramid, billericay Town won three times in the mid to late 70s. BT Sport showed the 2016 FA Vase Final between Hereford and Morpeth Town live on 22 May as part of a double-header along with the 2016 FA Trophy Final, the FA Vase at the FA website
Slough Town F.C.
Slough Town Football Club is an English semi-professional football club. The club was founded in 1890 after the amalgamation of three local clubs, Swifts, Slough Albion and Young Mens Friendly Society, who between them forged a new club, Slough F. C. The club is a senior football club representing Slough, England. Nicknamed The Rebels, the team plays in the Southern Football League Premier Division. In 1921 it attempted to join the Isthmian League but lost out to Wycombe Wanderers in the voting, instead Slough chose to join the Spartan League. In 1936 the owners of the ground, The Dolphin Stadium, sold up to a greyhound racing consortium. After being forced to groundshare with Maidenhead United for several years, the new club took the name Slough United F. C. After The Second World War Slough Utd was reluctant to rejoin the Spartan League and led a movement to form a new league. It was from this that the club derived its nickname of The Rebels, the Rebels were champions of this league on three occasions, with the third win earning promotion to the Isthmian League in 1973. During the 1980s they were champions on two occasions, the second of which brought promotion to the Football Conference. Slough lasted four seasons at this level, were relegated back to the Isthmian League, bounced back at the first attempt, in the 2004–05 season, Slough knocked Walsall of Football League One out of the FA Cup. Slough transferred over to the Southern Football League Division One South & West for the 2007–08 season, although initially relegated, they were one of the teams given a provisional reprieve after Halifax Town went into administration. In the season of 2004–05 Slough Town beat Walsall to reach the 2nd round of the FA Cup however they then lost to Yeading, over the next two seasons, and now playing in the Southern Football League Division One Midlands, Sloughs performance continued to improve. In the 2009–10 season, Slough Town finish 5th in the table, having beaten second-placed Hitchin Town 2–1 in the play-off semi-final, Slough lost 4–0 to Chesham United in the final, meaning they had to remain in the same division for the 2010–11 season. Once again they finished 5th in the 2010–11 season, but lost to Hitchin Town in the play-off semi-final 4–1. The club looked to take a new direction in 2013–14 and appointed Neil Baker and Jon Underwood, with Godalming forced to relocate to the South & West Division following their failure to win the play-offs, the majority of their squad decided to follow Baker and Underwood to Slough. In their very first season, the new management team steered the club to promotion via the play-offs. Slough claimed a 3-0 victory at Rugby Town in the semi-final before winning the final against Kettering Town in front of 2,331 at Kettering’s temporary home of Latimer Park on 5 May 2014
Sutton United F.C.
Sutton United Football Club is a football club in Sutton, South London, England, who play in the National League, the fifth tier of English football. They play home games at Gander Green Lane, close to West Sutton Station, the club is an FA Charter Standard Community Club affiliated to the Surrey County Football Association. Sutton started out playing in junior, local leagues, but progressed into the Athenian League in 1921, the Isthmian League in 1964, the team fell back into the Isthmian League in 1991. They appeared in the Conference for one season in 1999–2000. Sutton won the National League South in 2015–16, and thus are competing in the National League in 2016–17, the team has had several cup successes, including playing at Wembley in the FA Amateur Cup final twice and in the FA Trophy final in 1981. Sutton won the Anglo-Italian Cup in 1979, but the club is most famous for its FA Cup giant killing exploits, most notably in the 1988–89 season, the Coventry team was composed mostly of star international players and had won the competition in 1987. In the 2016–17 season, Sutton reached the 5th Round of the FA Cup for the first time in their history, beating three Football League teams before losing 2–0 at home to Arsenal. The club was formed on 5 March 1898 when Sutton Guild Rovers F. C. the club gained a reputation locally in junior leagues and in 1910 decided to become a senior side. They joined the Southern Suburban League and won it on their first attempt, during this period the team moved between several grounds, including what was then known as the Sutton Adult School Ground. After the First World War, the team moved in for good and have not left the stadium since, Sutton gained election into the Athenian League in 1921. The team did not challenge at the top of the table and in 1926 finished last, only one seasons later, in 1928, the team won its first Athenian League Championship. The thirties were a time for Sutton, who twice reached the semi-final of the FA Amateur Cup. During the Second World War, Sutton kept playing football but on a smaller scale. The Athenian League had been suspended and so organised competitions were rare and sporadic and this put them in good stead for winning the league again when the war came to an end. With the help of 42 goals from Charlie Vaughan, Sutton ran away with the 1945–46 season and this was also the first time the club won the Surrey Senior Cup and got through to the FA Cup first round. The 1950s brought little success for Sutton, though the team is said to have progressed off the field, assets were transferred to a limited company, something which was unusual for the time. In addition, the stand was constructed, which today holds over 700 spectators. It was not until George Smith became manager that success returned, the Athenian League title was won for the time in 1958
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Hornchurch are a football club based in Hornchurch, Greater London, England. The club are members of the Isthmian League Premier Division. The club was formed in 2005 as a successor to Hornchurch Football Club, the club was established shortly after Hornchurch were liquidated on 11 May 2005, and were placed in the Essex Senior League by the Football Association on 19 May. In their first season the club won the league, as well as the League Cup, promoted to Division One North of the Isthmian League, the club won that division in 2006–07 to earn promotion to the Premier Division. In 2007–08 AFC Hornchurch finished fourth in the Premier Division, qualifying for the promotion play-offs, the 2008–09 saw the club finish sixth, missing out on the play-offs. They also reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, although they entered administration in May 2009, the club managed to survive. After a ninth-placed finish in 2009–10 and coming tenth in 2010–11, following a 3–1 win over Bury Town in the semi-finals, they defeated Lowestoft Town 2–1 in the final, earning promotion to the Conference South. Their first season in the Conference South saw them finish 20th, the 2013–14 resulted in a fifth-placed finish and qualification for the promotion play-offs. In a repeat of the 2011 final, they faced Lowestoft Town following a 1–0 win over Kingstonian in the semi-finals, on this occasion, they lost 3–0 to the Suffolk club. The following season saw them finish 23rd out of 24 clubs in the Premier Division and relegation to Division One North and they finished fifth in 2015–16, again qualifying for the promotion play-offs. After beating Thurrock 2–0 in the semi-final, they were beaten 3–1 by Harlow Town, Isthmian League Division One North champions 2006–07 Essex Senior League Champions 2005–06 League Cup winners 2005–06 Gordon Brasted Memorial Trophy winners 2005–06 A. F. C
Bishop's Stortford F.C.
Bishops Stortford Football Club is a football club based in Bishops Stortford, Hertfordshire, England. They are currently members of the National League South and play at Woodside Park, the club was established at the Chequers Hotel on 28 January 1874. Initially playing in crimson and green, their first match was played two weeks later, losing 2–1 to East of England Non Conformist Grammar School, in 1885 they were founders of the Hertfordshire County Football Association, and subsequently started playing in local leagues in the 1890s. After World War I the club won both the Stansted & District League and the East Hertfordshire League in 1919–20, in 1921 they joined the North-Eastern Division of the Hertfordshire County League. In 1923 the league was reduced to a division, and it disbanded entirely in 1925, making a brief comeback in 1926–27. In 1929 they joined the new Division Two East of the Spartan League, following World War II, the league resumed in 1945, with the club in the Eastern Division. Despite finishing in last place in 1945–46, they were placed in the Premier Division the following season, however, after finishing bottom of the Premier Division in 1948–49, they were relegated to Division One. In 1951 the club were members of the Delphian League. After the league disbanded in 1963 they joined Division Two of the Athenian League, winning Division One in 1965–66, in the 1970–71 season they reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, losing 6–1 at Reading. In 1971 the club switched to the Isthmian League, and in 1973 they reached the round of the FA Cup. They also reached the semi-finals of the FA Amateur Cup, losing 1–0 to Slough Town, however, the following season they won the last ever edition of the cup, beating Ilford 4–1 at Wembley. In 1974–75 they reached the FA Cup first round again, the following season they reached the second round again, losing 2–0 at Aldershot. In 1977–78 the club finished bottom of the Isthmian League Premier Division, in 1982–83 the club beat Football League opposition in the FA Cup for the first time, winning 2–1 at Reading in the first round. After beating Slough Town 4–1 in the round, they held Second Division Middlesbrough to a 2–2 draw at Ayresome Park. They reached the first round again in 1984–85, 1985–86 and 1986–87, in 1991–92 Stortford finished bottom of the Premier Division, and were relegated back to Division One. They returned as champions in 1993–94, but were relegated again in 1998–99, after a second-place finish in 2001–02 the club returned to the Premier Division, and after finishing eleventh in 2003–04, were placed in the newly formed Conference South. The 2003–04 season also saw them reach the FA Cup first round again, in 2006–07 another first round appearance resulted in a 5–3 defeat to Kings Lynn. Rushden & Diamonds expulsion from the Football Conference led to the club being transferred to the Conference North in 2011, in 2012–13 they reached the FA Cup first round for the twelfth time, losing 2–1 at home to Hasting United
Bognor Regis Town F.C.
Bognor Regis Town Football Club are an English football club based in Bognor Regis, West Sussex. The club is an FA Chartered Standard Community club affiliated to the Sussex County Football Association and they currently compete in the Isthmian League Premier Division as of the 2016-17 season. Bognor F. C. were founded in 1883 and the club became founding members of the West Sussex Football League in 1896, joining the Senior Division. They won the championship of this league for five years in the early 1920s. Just one year later, however, they joined the Sussex County League where they were to remain until 1972, the club became Bognor Regis F. C. in 1929 after King George V added the suffix Regis to the seaside resort. The club won the Sussex County Division One championship in the 1948–49 season, at the end of that season, they added Town to their name so as not to be confused with the local rugby club. At the end of the 1969–70 season they were relegated, the club won the Division One championship title the following season and were promoted to Division One South of the Southern League. In 1972–73 they reached the first round of the FA Cup for the first time, in 1976 Jack Pearce became manager at the age of just 26, and went on to hold the position until 2007. In 1981 the club were transferred to Division One of the Isthmian League, in 1984–85 they reached the first round of the FA Cup again, beating Swansea City 3–1 in a replay after a 1–1 draw at the Vetch Field. In the second round they lost 5–2 at Reading and they reached the second round again the following season, beating Enfield in the first round, before losing 6–1 at Gillingham. They went on to reach the first round again in 1986–87, in 1988–89 they beat Football League opposition again, defeating Exeter City 2–1, before losing to Cambridge United. In 1991–92 Bognor finished in the zone, but were reprieved after Dagenham. However, the season they finished bottom of the Premier Division. In 1995–96 they reached the round of the FA Cup for a fourth time. In 2002–03 they finished second in Division One South, and were promoted back to the Premier Division, after finishing tenth the following year, the club were placed in the newly established Conference South. They were relegated back to the Isthmian League Premier Division at the end of the 2008–09 season, season 2010–11 saw the club compete in the Isthmian League Division One South and they missed out on promotion back to the Premier Division by the tightest of margins. As a result, they found themselves having to participate in the end-of-season play-offs, in 2011–12 they again finished second in Division One South. They won the end-of-season play-offs, defeating Godalming Town in a thrilling semi-final, before beating Dulwich Hamlet 1–0 in the final, the 2013-14 season started slowly with just one point from the opening four matches
Brightlingsea Regent F.C.
Brightlingsea Regent Football Club is an English football club based in Brightlingsea, Essex. Formed by a merger of Brightlingsea United and Regent Park Rangers in 2005, they are members of the Isthmian League Division One North. Brightlingsea United were founded in 1928 by a merger of Brightlingsea Athletic, the new club played in Division One the Essex & Suffolk Border League, and in 1929 moved to the North Road ground. They were runners-up in Division One in 1929–30, and in 1931 they were promoted to the Premier Division, in 1946–47 they won Division One, and were promoted back to the Premier Division. However, they were relegated back to Division One after a single season, in 1971–72 the club won the League Cup, beating Halstead Town 2–1 in the final. In 1972 they joined the Essex Senior League and they won the title in 1988–89 and 1989–90, before joining the Division One of the Eastern Counties League in 1990. They finished as runners-up in their first season, and were promoted to the Premier Division, however, they returned to Division One after finishing bottom of the Premier Division in 1992–93. The club resigned from the league shortly before the start of the 2002–03 season after the manager and most of the players left, complaining about a lack of proper changing facilities. The first team replaced their reserves in Division Two of the Essex & Suffolk Border League and were relegated to Division Three at the end of the season, when Division Three was disbanded in 2005, the club was moved back to Division Two. That year the merged with youth club Regent Park Rangers to form Brightlingsea Regent. The newly merged club won Division Two at the first attempt, in 2010–11 the club won the Premier Division and the A. V. Lee Service Memorial Cup, and were promoted to Division One of the Eastern Counties League, the 2012–13 season saw the club finish third in Division One, earning promotion to the Premier Division. They also won the First Division Knock-Out Cup, beating Great Yarmouth Town 1–0 in the final, the following season Brightlingsea finished second in the Premier Division, earning promotion to Division One North of the Isthmian League. V. C. Players Brightlingsea Regent F. C. managers Official website
Burgess Hill Town F.C.
Burgess Hill Town Football Club is an English football club currently playing in the Premier Division of the Isthmian League, the seventh tier of English football. The club plays its games at The Green Elephant Stadium in Burgess Hill. Burgess Hill Football Club was founded in 1882 and was a member of the Sussex County Football Association. The club attained the unique achievement of winning the Sussex Senior Cup three years running thus retaining it permanently in the process, the cup is on display in the trophy cabinet in the club boardroom. The current trophy was presented to the S. C. F. A. by Burgess Hill Town Football Club, in the clubs formative years they were also founder members of the Mid-Sussex Football League, and won the League Championship in its inaugural season. Following several successful seasons the club joined the Sussex County League for the 1958–59 season, in 1969 the club amalgamated with Worlds End F. C. and with the help of Burgess Hill Town Council were able to move to Leylands Park, the clubs current home. In 1971, the gained promotion to Division One, only to be relegated two seasons later. 1974 saw the Hillians reach another landmark achievement by becoming the club ever to have won both the League Challenge Cup and the Division Two Cup in the same season. In 1976 a hat trick of achievements were completed by winning the Division One Championship by six points, during the ensuing twenty years in the top flight of the County League success was modest. In 1980 the League Challenge Cup was secured and in 1992 the RUR Cup was added, however, all this changed in season 1996–97 under the guidance of club manager, Alan Pook. The club became Division One champions by twelve points, won the Floodlight Cup, the 2nd XI finished runners up in the Reserve Premier and won the Mid-Sussex Charity Cup, while the Youth XI won their overall championship. In 1997–98, the club 1st XI attained even more success by winning the League Championship. Additionally they reached the Sussex Senior Cup Final and were top of the merit table. The Youth XI also finished as Double Champions in the sector, the 1998–99 season saw the Hillians achieve a unique treble in winning the Championship for a post war record third time and again securing a league and cup double, back to back. The 2nd XI won their cup and were runners up in the league, not to be out done, the Youth XI won their league and only missed out on a double by goal difference. The club then appointed new manager Gary Croydon for season 1999–2000 and he led the Hillians to take runners up spot in the league and to a record fourth qualifying round FA Cup tie against Hereford United. Again a last 16 place was achieved in the FA Vase as well as winning the RUR Cup, with plans being laid for Southern League football, club directors, Gary Croydon and Eddie Benson appointed Danny Bloor as manager for season 2002–2003. The club was rewarded yet another championship crown, the fifth in seven seasons